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JVontiapie ce to Vol- IV. 


'J'lilli.\/i,ijl Fr/>.l. IJ<jt<,/,y rtuielf X- '/litflfS, tV/nintf . 







CONSIDERABLY ';|)iLARvS'piij^'l\/ 






• •• • 


O F 




[1560— ?.<74:] 

1*3 »" .■> 'o« • "" .a a 

) , > 

This Prince was only eleven years of age when 
he was crowned. His rri(>thef, Catherine of 
Medicis, expreffing her apprehenfions, that the 
fatigue of the ceremony might be too much for 
him ; he replied, " Madam, I will very wil- 
" lingly undergo as much fatigue, as often as 
'■^ you have another Crown to bellow upon 

" me.'' 

When the Conflable de Montmorenci died, 
the young Prince did not immediately name 
2Jiother perfon to that place of power and con- 

voL, IV. fi fequence: 


fequence : " 1 will,** faid he, " carr}^ my own 
" fword in future." 

Charles fpoke very much like a perfon fit to 
govern, when he faid of himfelf one day to his 
Mother, who wifhed to keep him under her 
diredbion, " that he would no longer be kept 

in a box like the old jewels of the Crown." 


In his reign the infamous maffacre of St. 
Bartholomew was perpetrated. The old and 
excellent Chancelier de THopital, who was at 
his country -houfe when it happened, exclaimed, 
" How execrable a meafure I I do not know 

wha.acjvifed. t]ie, Ki,n§c to confent to it; but 
' I feit thnt he^wilh luSfer for it, as well as all 

his kihgdoU;'*; ;:;i 



On feiie-ifaikl.*d<y;4f St. Bartholomew, Charles 
fired with an arquebufe from the windows of the 
Louvre upon his Huguenot fubjed:s, (who were 
croffing the Seine in hopes to avoid the general 
carnage and malTacre) crying out at the fame 
time to the foidiers that were near him, " Fire i 
« fire r* 

One of the grent amufements of this Prince 

was, to cut off the heads of the different animals 

wliich he met with 5 after having paid the 

5 owners 


owners of them for their lofs. He was one 
night about to exercife the fame cruelty upon 
the mule of M. de Lanfac, who fbopped his 
Majefly in his noble amufement by exclaiming, 
*' Quid tihi cum Mulo meo dijjidium inter ceffit^ 
*^ Rex ChriJiianiJJtme /** 

Charles was extremely fond of the exercifes 
of the field, and wrote a treatife upon them, 
which was pubHfhed by Villeroi in 1625 with 
this title : " ChaJJe Roy ale far Charles /X'* 
He was indeed a Prince of great adivity of 
body, and hated to flay in the houfe. Houfes 
he ufed to call the tombs of the hving. 

Charles built a forge near his palace at Fon» 
tainbleau ; " where,*' fays Brantome, " I have 
" feen him hammer out guns, horfe-flioes, and 
" other things in iron, as well as the ftrongefl 
*^ and moft expert fmith/' 

He was fond of coining money* Having 
one day fhewed fome coin of his making to the 
Cardinal of Lorrain, " Sire," faid the latter, 
" how happy it is for you that you always carry 
*' your own pardon about you !" In bad wea- 
ther Charles ufed to fend for the Poets that 
were about his Court into his clofet, and amufe 
himfelf with them. He made good verfes him- 

E 2 felfi 


felf ; many of them are to be found amongft 
the Works of Ronfard. 

The following lines were addrelTcd by him 
to that writer j in which, in a very ele- 
gant manner, the empire of the poet over the 
minds of men, is preferred to that of the 
monarch over their bodies : 

Vart defatre des vers (dut on s^en Indlgner) 
Dolt etre a plus haute prlx que celui de regner. 
T^ous diux egalement nous portons des couronnesy 
Alais Roy je les refoisypoete tu lesdonnes. 
Ton efprit cnjlmmne d^une coslejie ardeur 
Relate par [oi-maney ^ moi parma grandeur. 
Si du cote des Dieux je cherche Vavantagey 
Ronfard eji leur mlgnony dsf je fuis leur image ^ 
Ta lyrey qui ravit par dc ft doux accordsy 
jT' afervlt les efprit s dontje n'ai que les corps. 
Elk i'en rend le maitre, &ffait fintroduire 
Ou le plus fier tyran ne pent avoir r empire, 

Charles was generous, particularly to men of 
letters. He penlioned and gave rich benefices 
to Amyot, the celebrated tranflator of Plutarch, 
ivho had been his tutor. One of his maxims 
was, that a King fhould be continually giving; 
and tliat as all the money in the kingdom came 
to Kings, in like manner as fmall rivers fail into 
the Ocean, they fliould again diflribute it ia 
different channels. 




When Charles was at Bourdeaux, he pardoned 
a Nobleman whom the Parliamert of that city 
had condemned to death for having killed a 
man. The King fent for the wddow of the de- 
ceafed perfon, and faid to her, " Madam, I 
" truft that you will likewife pardon the mur- 
" derer of your hufband, and accept of his 

eflate to indemnify you for his lofs." — " Sire,** 
replied the high-fpirited Lady, " I cannot ac- 
*' cept of lb mean and fo fcandalous an indem- 
" nification. But fmce you are more powerful 
'' than the laws and juftice, I intreat you to 
" grant before -hand to my fon the fame pardon 
** that you have granted to the murderer of his 
*' father, and I fhall, in confequence of that 
" pardon granted to him, bring him up with 
*' the hope that he will revenge, in your place, 
" the death of his father, without having any 
" reafon to fear for his own life/* 

After the accurfed day of St. Bartholomew^, 
Charles became wretched and melancholy : he 
continually imagined that he heard groans and 
flirieks j he loft all relifh for his ufual amufe- 
ments ; and, after a difeafe of a few days, died 
in the moft horrid manner, his blood exuding 
through the pores of his ikin. Not long bqfore 
Ills death, his mother (Catherine de Medicis) 

B 3 approach- 


approached his bed, to tell him fome news 
which flie thought would have roufed him from 
his flate of languor and defpondency. " Alas ! 
" Madam/' replied he, coolly, " all fublunary 
" things are now become quite indifferent 
^' to me.'* 


When this execrable Princefs landed at 
Marfeilles, the galley which carried her bore the 
device of the Sun, with thefe words in Greek, 
" I bring light and fine weather." The events 
of her Government aniv^^ered very ill to her 
device: civil wars, plots, confpiracies, rapine, 
maffacres, and murders, filled up the period 
of it. 

Catherine is reprefented as a Princefs of a 
mofh majeftic prefence, and with great powers of 
pleafmg in converfation, when fhe chofe to exert 
them. Brantome reprefents her as being fond 
of buffoons, and always ready to laugh at 
their jokes; " for," adds he, " de fon naiitrel 
** elk etoitjoviale^ et aimant a dire le mot. Her 

" after- 


" afternoons (according to the fame Writer) were 
" always palTed in embroidering and in working 
on filk, in which flie greatly excelled." 


Many fat ires were publiflied againft her : 
her ufual method of treating their authors was 
to fay, " If thefe blockheads now did but know 
" half as much of me as I could tell them !" 
When defired to punifli them, fhe replied, " I 
" hope I have a foul above revenge." 

At the fiege of Havre, flie mounted on 
horfeback at the head of her army, expofed 
herfelf to the fire of the cannon like the moft 
veteran foldier, " and fhewed not the leaf!: 
" fymptoms of fear," fays ^Brantome, " when 
" the bullets flew about her. Her maids of 
*' honour," adds he, " were not fo well pleafed 
*' with this amufement." When delired by 
the Duke of Guife and the Conflable de Mont- 
morenci not to expofe her perfon fo much, 
" Have I not," replied Catherine, " more to 
*' lofe than you, and do you think I have not 
" as much courage ?" 

A medal was llruck of her with the fame in- 
fcription as that on fome of the coins of the 
Roman EmprefTes : " Catharina de Media's 

'' Mater Cafirormu'' 

B 4 When 


When one day fhe overheard fome of the 
foldiers abufing her extremely, the Cardinal of 
Lorraine faid he would order them immediately 
to be hung. " By no means," exclaimed the 
Princefs : *' I wifli pofherity to know, that a 
*' woman, a queen, and an Italian, has once in 
^' her life got the better of her anger.'* 

Catherine was extremely liberal, and a very 
generous Protedlrefs of the Arts. How morti- 
fying it is to human nature, that perfidy, 
cruelty, and impiety, fhould ftaia fuch a cha- 
rader ! 

The Deputies of the Reformed R.eligion in 
France treated with this Queen and her Coun- 
cil, foon after the horrid malTacre of the per-^ 
fons of their perfuafion on the day of St. Bar- 
tholomew. The parties had agreed upon the ar- 
ticles of the treaty, and it only remained to give 
fecurity on the fide of the Court for the per- 
formance of them. Many methods were pro- 
pofed, and as often rejeded by the Deputies ; 
at lafl the Queen angrily faid, " Why fure ! the 
" word of a King is a fufficient fecurity, is it 
*' not .^'* One of the Deputies anfwered, "No, 
^^ by Saint Bartholomevy 1 Madam." 

A Comet 


A Comet appearing in France during the 
time of the League, feemed to afFed the fpirits 
and the chearfulnefs of Catharine, This oc- 
calioned the following Lines : 

Spargeret horrendas cum trlftis in esthere critics 

Venturique claret figna Cometa malt^ 
Ucce fuee Reg'ina timens male confcia vltco 

Credidit invifum pofcere fata caput, 
^id Regina times ^ Namque hcec mala ft qua minantur^ 

Longa timenda tua ijl ; non tua vita brevis, 

Whilft thro' the wide expanfe of liquid air 
Yon Comet trails its horrid fell of hair, 
The impious Catherine with remorfe and dread 
Sees the dire Fates demand her hated head. 
If to portend fome ill the ftar appear. 
Be calm, great Princefs, and difdain to fear ; 
Heaven in its utmoft vengeance cannot give 
A curfe fo baleful as to let thee live. 

" I have often," fays DuplefTis Mornay, in 
his Notes upon the Hifliory of Thuanus, " heard 
*' Henry the Fourth fay, that at the time the 
" Cardinal of Lorraine died, he was with the 
" Queen his Mother-in-law, Catherine of Me- 
*^ dicis, in her Cabinet, with wiiom he w^as 
*^ reading the office of Vefpers, verfe by verfe ; 
^* and that flie, lifting up her head, fuddenly 
" cried out that (lie law the Cardinal of Lor- 
*' raine, who made a fign with his finger to her, 
^' in the gefturs of a perfon threatening her, 

[' very 


*' very pale and very fiightful ; whilft himfelf 

*^ (Henry) never dared io lift yp his head, 

" in fpite of all the Queen faid to him. Ma- 

" dame de Sauve (afterwards Marquife de 

" Moirmoutier) who was fitting in the next 

" apartment, came into the room on hearing 

" the Queen cry out, and the phantom imme- 

" diately difappeared. The Queen on the in- 

" ftant fent to enquire after the Cardinal, and 

" was told that he died about the time that 

" he appeared to her. M. de Foix told me, 

" that the Cardinal o{ Lorraine was poifoned 

*' by the Cardinal d'Armagnac, with whom 

" he had fome quarrel ; which agrees,*' adds ■ 
Dupleflis, " with what is here mentioned." 



Of the tw^o Princes of this illuftrious Houfe 
(the Duke, and his brother the Cardinal of Lor- 
raine), Marflial de Retz ufed to fay, " Thefe 
Princes of Lorraine are offomajeflic apre- 
fence, that all the other Princes appear like 
mere peafants by the fide of them." 

After the celebrated battle of St. Quentin^ a 
Spanifh Officer of rank wrote to the Duke of 



Gulfe, to requeil him to deliver up to him one 
of his flaves that had fled to the French camp 
with one of his fineft war-horfes. The Duke 
immediately fent back the horfe, after having 
paid the flavc the value of it, and wrote word 
to the Spanifh Officer, that he would never be 
the occafion of putting chains again upon a 
flave, that had. become a free man by fetting 
his foot into the kingdom of France. *' It 
" would indeed," added he, " be a violation 
" of the privileges of that great kingdom, 
*' which confift in reftoring freedom to any 
" one who comes into it to feek there that 
' " precious gift." 

The Baron de Lunebourg, Commander of 
one of the mercenary German regiments that 
ferved under the Duke, was much difpleafed 
at the Duke's examining into the Hate of his 
foldiers; and fo far loft the refpecV due to his 
illuftrious General, as to draw out one of his 
piftols and preient it at the Duke ; who imme- 
diately, with the greateft fang froU, drew his 
fword, and knocked the piftol out of the Ger- 
man's hand. Guife's aid-du-camp, M. de 
Montpeza., was going to kill the Officer, but 
was interrupted by the Duke, who faid, " Stop, 
^' 3ir ! Do you fuppofe I cannot kill a man 

*' as 


*^ as well as ^^ourfelf, when I think fit ?" 
Tlien turning toward the German, he faid, 
" Sir, I forgive you the infult you have put 
*' upon ms ; but as for that which you 
" have done to the fcn^ice of my Sove- 
" reign, of whofe perfon I am the reprefenta- 
** tive, his MajeHy will fettle that as he 
*' pleafes." Then turning to fome of his fol- 
diers, he faid, " Here, fome of you condud 
" this infolent fellow to prifon !" The Duke 
proceeded with his vifit to the reft oi the Ger- 
man troops, and never afterwards fuiTered any 

The Duke was informed, that a Proteftant 
Gentleman had come into his camp with an 
intention to alTaffinate him.. He (cnt for him 
(who immediately avowed his intention), and 
the Duke aflced him, whether his defign arofe 
from any offence he had ever given him. '^ Your 
'' Excellence never gave me any, I aifure you," 
replied the Gentleman j "my motive for de- 
*' firing your life is, becaufe you are the greatefl 
" enemy our Religion ever knew.*' — "Well then, 
" my friend,'* faid the Duke to him, " if your 
" Religion incites you to afiafTmate me, my 
" Religion tells me to forgive you j" and he 
fent him immediately out of his camp. An- 


Other per&n was once brought to the Duke, 
who had boafled that he would kill him. The 
Duke, looking at him very attentively, and ob- 
serving his extremely embarraffed and fneaking 
countenance, laid to his Officers, (hrugging up 
his (houlders, " That blockhead will never liave 
" the heart to kill me ; let him go s it is not 
" worth while to arrefl: him,'* 

The Duke of Guife was victorious over his 
rival the Prince of Conde, the head ofthePro- 
teftant party, at the famous battle of Dreux in 
1562. The Prince of Conde was taken prifoner, 
and brought to the Duke, whom (after having 
entertained at his table) he made take half of his 
bed with him at night ; and (as his Biographer 
fays) the Duke ilept as perfectly found by the 
fide of his rival, as if he had been in bed with 
one of his own fons. 

Puttenham fays, " that a French Captain was 
*' fitting at the lower end of the Duke of 

Guife's table, amongil many, the day after 

there had been a great battaile foughten. 

The Duke, finding that this Captain was not 
" feene tp doe any thing that day in the field, 
" taxed him thus in all their hearin<^s : Where 
" were you, Sir^ the day of the battaile ? for I 

" fa we 


** fawe ye not. The Captaine anfwered 

*' promptly, Where yc durft not have beene. 

*^ And the Duke began to kindle with the 
worde ; which the Gentleman perceiving, 
faid fpeedily, I was that day amongft the 
carriages, where your Excellence would not 

** for a thoufand crowns have been feene.'* 

The Duke of Guife having fold moft of his 
eftates to make himfelf popular, it was faid that 
he was the greateft ufurer in France, as he had 
nearly laid out all that he was worth upon ob- 



was the fon of the preceding Duke, and from 
his earlieft ye^rs diftinguiihed himfelf by his 
courage and his generofity, 

" Ambition," fays the Abbe de Choify^ 
** corrupted all his virtues. Having one day 
" won a confiderable fum of money of M. d'O, 
*' the Superintendant of the Finances of France, 
" M. d'O fent one of his Clerks with the fum 



*^ in two bags, one containing the gold, and 
^* the otlier the iilver. The Duke by miflake 
" prefented the clerk with the bag in which 
" was the gold, and on his coming the next day 
" to tell him what a miilake he had made, the 
Duke faid to him, Well then, my friend, as 
Fortune has been fo very kind to you, you 
muft look out for fome other perfon than the 
Duke of Guife to envy your good luck ^ fo go 
your way and keep the money." 

The Parliament of Paris gave this diflin- 
guiOied Prmce the noble title of" the Preferver 
" of his Country,'* a title which his eminent 
qualities of mind and of body well deferved, 
had they not been tarnifhed with infolence and 

At the battle of Renti, M. de St. Fal, one 
of his Lieutenants, advancing too haftily toward 
the enemy, he gave him a ftroke with his fword 
upon his helmet, and flopped him. After the 
battle, the Duke being told that St. Fal was 
much hurt at the affront he fuppofed himfelf 
to have received, fent for him to the King's 
tent, in which were the Sovereign and the 
principal General Officers, and told him, " M. 
*^ de St, Fal, you are offended, I find^ at the 

" blow 




" blow which I gave you for advancing t6d 
" haftily ; but it is furely much better that I 
^' Ihould have given it to you to make you 
flop, than to make you advance. The blow 
is furely more honourable than difgraceful 
to you. I aik the opinion of thefe Gentle- 
^' men." They one and all declaring, that a 
blow given to reprefs an excefs of ardour and of 
courage conferred more honour than difgracc. 
St. Fal was fatisfied* 

The Duke took Calais from the Englifli, 
who had been in poffeflion of it upwards of two 
hundred years, in eight days time, and in the 
midfh of winten 

The Chancellor of France, Le Tellier, ufed to 
relate this anecdote of M. de Guife : — The 
Duke was married to a Princefs of Cleves, a 
woman of great beauty -, and from living in a 
very gallant court, that of Catherine de Medicis, 
{he wasfuppofednot to be infenfible to the paflion 
which a handfome young man of the name of 
St. Maigrin entertained for her. Catherine de 
Medicis having on fome particular day invited 
the principal ladies at the court to a ball and 
fupper, at which each of them was to be ferved 
by the young noblemen of the court, who were 



to be drelled in the liveries of their miftrefTes, 
the Duke very anxioufly intreated the Duchefs 
not to be prefent, telling her that he did not in 
the leafh miftruft her virtue, but that as the 
Public had talked pretty freely about her and 
St. Maigrin, it was much better that (he fhould 
not go, as it might afford frefli matter for fcandal. 
The Duchefs pleaded in excufe, that as the 
Queen had invited her to go, flie could not 
pofiibly refufe her. The Duchefs went to the 
■entertainment, which laded till fix o'clock in 
the morning. At that very late hour fhe re- 
turned home and went to bed. She had, how- 
ever, fcarcely lain herfelf down in it, when fhe 
ikw the door open very ilowlv, and the Duke 
of Guife enter the room, followed by an aged 
fervant, 5vho carried a bafon of broth in his 
hand. The Duke immediately locked the 
door, and coming up to the bed in a very deli- 
berate m.anner, thus accofted her in a firm 
and determined tone of voice : " Madam, al- 
** though you would not do kfl night what I 
'' defired you, you fnail do it now. Your 
*' dancing of laft night has moil probably 
*^" heated you a little ; you muft drink imm.edi- 
" ately this bafon of broth." The Duchefs^ 
fufpediing it to be poifon, burft into a flood of 
tears, and beofg-ed hard that the Duke would 
permit her to fend for her ConfefTor before fhe 
VOL. IV. c drai.k 


drank it. The Duke told her aealn that fhe- 
muil drink it ; and the Duchefs, finding all re- 
finance to no purpofe, fwallowed the broth. As 
ioon as fhe had done this, he went cut of the 
room, having locked the door after him. In 
three or foitir hours aftervvrards the Duke again 
paid her a vilit,, and, with an affected fmile 
upon his countenance^ faid, " Madam, I am 
•' afraid that you have fpent your time very 
^^ unpieafantly fince I left you ; I fear too that 
** I have been the caufe of this : judge then, 
" Madam, of all the time that you have made me 
" pafs as unpieafantly as this. Take comfort^ 
" however j you have, I affure you, nothing 
" to fear, I am willing to believe, in my turn,. 
" that I have nothing to be apprehenfive of<. 
" But however, in future, if you pleafe, we will 
^* avoid plavine thefe tricks with one an- 
'' other.'* 

Tlie Duke was affafiinated in 1588 by Pol- 
trot de Mare, a Hucruenot, and an enthuiiafl;, 
who thought that by this horrid action he did 
fervice to religion, in violating one of her moil 
facred laws. 

On the day before that on which he was af- 
fafilnated by order of his Sovereign, Henry the 
Third, fome one put a note under his plate at 



rilniier, to inform him of the King's intention. 
He read the note with great coolnefs j wrote 
under, with his pencil, " // ncferoit^ He dare 
*^ not doit;" finifhedliis dinner very quietly; 
and the next morning attended his Sovereign as 
ufual, when he found too late the truth of the 
intelligence conveyed to him. The generous 
King of Navarre, afterwards Henry the Fourth 
of France, faid upon the occalion, " If Guife 
''' had fallen into my hands, I would have 
■^* treated him in another manner. Alas !'* faid 
he, " why did he not unite himfelf to me, and 
*' then we would have gone together and con.- 
*^ quered that fine country of Italy ?" 

The Duke of Guife, however, well deferved. 
the fate he met with. He was in arms againft 
his Sovereign ; and at the deteftable day of St, 
Bartholomew caufed the brave and virtuous 
Coligni to be murdered, and afterwards tram- 
pled upon his dead body, when it was thrown 
out of the window by his favage orders. Guife 
was brave, magnificent, and generous j three 
qualities which but too often fafcinate the ' 
minds of the mafs of mankind fo much, that 
they do not fufficlently conlider whether they 
are directed by juftice and difcretion. 


c fi- Th€ 


The lad Duke of Guife gave the Abbe Ar- 
naud the following inflance of his uncle's ex- 
treme readinefs in taking a refolution, and his 
flrmnefs in executing; it : 

*^* The Duke of Guife was one evening at 
" a ball given by Catherine de Medicis at 
" Paris, and was dancing with a beautiful lady 
" of rank, with whom he was upon very good 
" terms, vvhen, taking him afide, fhe whifpered 
" in his ear^ " Upon my word, it is a fine thing 
*' to fee you amufe yourfelf here, while your 
" enemies are getting polieflion of the town 
" of Meaux from you !" He got out of her 
" in as few words as poflible the fecret of the 
" enterprize that was carrying on againfl: him, 
" and without appearing to take any notice- 
" of what was told him, ordered one of his 
" gentlemen to go diredlly to the Hotel de 
" Guife, and to wait for him there with an 
*' Arabian horfe that could make great expe^ 
""■ dltion. The Duke flaid out the ball as if 
'V nothing had happened, returned home, un- 
*' creiTed himfelf, v/ent to bed, and difm.iffed 
^' all his attendants. Soon afterwards he got 
*v up, dreffed himfelf, and by a back flair-cafe 
*^ reached the private door of his hotel, where 
*^ his groom was waiting for him with his horfe, 

" as 


** as he had ordered. He immediately mount- 
" ed him, and without a fingle attendant 
" reached Meaux, thirty miles diflant from 
" Paris, juft as the gates were opening. He 
" puflied on diredly to the guard-houfe, and 
" in a firm tone of voice aiked where fuch and 
" fuch Officers were, whom he named, and 
■*' ordered them to be brought before him. A 
" fadden murmur immediately rifes among 
" the foldiers. The inhabitants hearing that 
" M. de Guife was arrived, follow him imme- 
" diately to the market-place, where he flops to 
*^ haranp;ue jthem. He then makes all thofe 
-*' pcrfons lay down their arms who had taken 
*' them up againfl him. He delivers from the 
^' prifons thofe of his own party, which the 
" contrary one had thrown into them. In 
" fliort, he fpoke and he menaced with fo much 
" Jierte and dignity, that he made the people 
^* do jufl as he pleafed ; and after having put 
^' every thing upon its antient footing in his 
" own favour, he returns to Paris with the 
" fame fpeed with which he left it, and appeared 
" the fame day at the Louvre, the Court of his 
" Sovereign in that city, ^s if he had never 
*' quitted it." 

On Princes fo powerful, and fo excelling in 

c 3 courage 


courage and in refource, Charles the IXth 
might well make this Quatrain : 

Le Roi Fra'n^Qis nefalUit point 
^ia?id ii predit que ceux de Guife 
Mcttro'ient fes enfans en pourpolnty 
Et tous fesfujets en chemife. 

King Francis in a prophet's ftrain 
Thus paints the race of proud Lorrain ; 

" Thefe Princes of the Koufe of Guife 

'' Such wond'rous power exert, 
*' The doublet of my fons they'll feize, 
My fubjc6ls very Ihirt." 


The bodies of the Duke and his brother 
the Cardinal were refufed to tlieir mother, by 
the Monarch who had caufed them to be 
murdered: they were confumed by quick-Hme 
imimediately after the aiTafiinatlon, and were 
buried in the church of the Dominican Con- 
vent at Eu in Normandy -, where they are de- 
pofited under two monuments without any in- 

The Duke of Guife's perfon was fo majeflic, 
that when his fovereign, Henry the Third, 
caufed him to be malTacred in his prefence, he 
could not help exclaiming, as he faw him lying 
on the ground, " Mon DieUy comme il eft grand^ 
" itant mortP'* 



The Duke of Guife, on fetting out upon 
fome very dangerous expedition, was defired by 
his brother, the Duke of Mayenne, to deli- 
berate maturely before he engaged in it, 
*' Brother," repUed he, " be aiTured, that what 
*^ I was not able to refolve on in a quarter of 
** an hour, I iliouid never refolve on, if I were 
*' to fpend my whole life in thinking upon 
*' it." 



who was Prime Minifter of France in the reigns 
of Francis the Firft and Henr}^ the Second, as 
well as in thofe of Francis the Second and 
Charles the Ninth, preferved that degree of 
coniideration which muft ever be paid to a man 
of his abilities, and the firfl Chriftian Baron * of 


♦ The Genealogifls pretend that this illufirious family is 
defcended from Liibius, the moil noble and the moft power- 
ful of the Gauls who inhabited that part of France called 
L'Ifle de France, and that he was converted to Chriftianity 
by St. Denis about the year 245. 

Under the reign of Philippe le Bel, about the year 1268, 
the head of the family of Montmorenci is thus .entitled, 
^' Montmorenci premier Baron Chrejiien de FrancCt premier 
«' Seigneur de Montmorenci que Roi en France J** This made 

c 4 the 


Europe. This great man was very unwilling to 
lake up arms againft the Prince of Conde and 
the Colignys, to whom he was endeared bv the 
ties of friendfliip as well as thofe of confangui- 
nity. He was, however, induced to give way 
to this meafure, fo inimical to his dirpofition, 
by the following animated and forcible fpecch of 
his wife (Magddein^ de Sayoie)^ of whorn he 
was very fond : 

^^ It is then in vain. Sir, that you have taken 
*' as a motto to your efcutcheon, the word of 
*' command that your anceftors always gave at 
** the onfet of every battle in which they were 
" engaged (Dieu aide au premier Chrefiien}^ 
^'^ if you do not fight with all your energy in 
" defence of that religion w^hich is now at- 
•' tempted to be deftroyed. Who then is to 
*' give an example of refpe6l and of venera- 
*' tion for the Holy See, if not he who takes 
*' his \'(tx-^ name, his arms, his nobility, from the 
*' firfh Baron of France who profeiTed the holy 
« Rehgion of Chrifl r 

the celebrated Pere de la Rue fay in h's funeral oration upon 
the Marechal de Luxemburgh, in fpeaking of his anceftors, 
** La couronne n'eji -plus ancienne fur la tete des nos Rois, que la 
*' "Nohleffk dans lefang de ces heros. — The crown is not more 
** anrierit on the head of our Monarchs, than the Nobility 
" in the blood of thefe heroes." 



At the age of feventy, Montmorenci took 
the command of the aimy which Charles the 
Ninth fent againft the Huguenots in the plain 
of St. Denis. In fpite of the fufpicioas of his 
fideUty which Charles and Catharine de Medi- 
cis, without any reafon, had entertained of him, 
the Huguenots were defeated. The Conftable, 
after having performed prodigies of valour, after 
having received feveral wounds in his hands and 
his face, broke his fword in the body of one of 
the enemy's dragoons; and as if indignation and 
defpair had added to his courage, he ftiil fought 
with the exertions and vigour of a young man- 
In this fituation Robert Stuart came up to him^ 
and putting his loaded piilol to his throat, call- 
ed out to him to furrender. " What, tell, me 
^^ to furrender !*' replied the Conftable, " furely 
^' you do not know me." — '* It is then be- 
" caufe I know you," faid Stuart, " that I 
" give you this." On the infiiant he fired 
his pifhol, the charge of which the venerable 
Warrior received in his fide; thea recovering 
himfelf, though mortally wounded, he gave 
Stuart fo violent a blow with the pommel of 
his fword in his face, that he broke three of his 
teeth: each of them at the fame inftant fell 
from his horfe, the Conftable in a fwoon, and 
dying. Montmorenci, foon recovering from 
Ills fainting fit, afked thofe who furrounded 



him, how the engagement was going on; and 
on being told that the King's army was mailer 
of the field, and that the engagement had been 
(as one might fay) fatal only to himfelf, he re- 
turned his thanks to the God of Battles, and 
begged them to quit him, and not, on his ac- 
count, leave the viftory imperfedt. Then ad- 
drelung himfelf to M. de Sanza^i, a relation of 
his, and a man of rank, he laid, " I am a dead 
'* man ; but 1 biefs Heaven for permitting me 
" to die for my Religion, my King, and my 
" Country. Tell his Majefly how happy I am 
" in finding that death, which I have fo often 
" fought in vain in the fervice of his father 
" and of his ancefhors." By this time his chil' 
<3ren and his friends came up to him, and flatter- 
ed him with the hopes of recovery ; but finding 
himfelf ftruck with death, he intreated them to 
let him die on the field of battle. For a long 
time he refifted their intreaties to be carried to 
Paris ; at laft, not being able any longer to with- 
fband them, he faid, " I confent then to be 
" taken to Paris, though under no hopes of 
" beins; cured of my wounds, for I am a dead 
" man ; but to fee once more the King and the 
** Queen; and to carry to them in my own 
" perfon, and by means of my wounds, the 
" ftrongefb afiurances of the fidelity that I have 
** ever preferved in their fervice." 




In his lafl moments, while he was fuifering 
the mod excruciating torture from his wounds, 
a Cordelier exhorted him to patience, and re- 
fignation to the will of Heaven, '' Ah ! my 

good Father," replied the venerable hero, 
*' can you iuppofe that a man who has been 
" able to pafs a life of near eighty years with 
" honour, cannot tell how to terminate pro- 
" perly the lail quarter of an hour of it ?'*~ 


" In ftie time of Charles the Ninth, French 
" Kine," favs Mailer Puttenham, " I being: 
" at the Spaw Waters, there lay a Marfhal of 
*' France, called Monfieur de Sepier, to ufe 
" thofe waters for his health 3 but when the 
Phyfitians had all given him up, and that 
there was no hope of life in him, came from 
the King to him a letters patents of fix thou- 
fand crowns yearly penfion, with many com- 
" fortable wordes. The man was not fo much 
" pafl: remembrance but he could fay to the 
" melTenger, l^rop tardl trop tardl — Too late ! 
" too late ! it fliouid have come before. For 
" indeede it had been promifed long, and came 
" not till now that he could Apt fare the better 
^' for it." 


[ 28 J 


was, during the celebrated League of France, 
Governor for the Huguenot Party in the city 
of Ma^on in that kingdom. By way of amuflng 
fome French ladies that he had with him at 
fupper, he threw headlong from the walls of his 
caftle, into the river Saone, the Catholic pri- 
foners that were brought in, tied two together. 

D'Aubigne calls him, " mventeur de tons 
^* cmantez, qui bouffonnoit en les executant — an 
" inventor of all kinds of cruelties, who ufed to 
*^ play the buffoon while he was executing 
" them/' 

He would fometimes make his prifoners 
throw themfelves headlong from the battle- 
ments of a high tower upon the pikes of his 
foldiers. One of thefe unfortunate perfons 
having approached the battlements twice, with- 
out venturing to take the dreadful leap, the 
Baron reproached him with his w^ant of courage 
in a very infulting manner. " Why now, Sir,** 
replied the Prifoner, *' bold as you are, I would 
" give yD\x three times before you took the 
*' leap." This pieafantry faved the life of the 
poor fellow. 


BARON d'aDRETS. , ^g 

This minlfter of cruelty being one day aiked 
D'Aubigne, why he made his foldiers exer- 
cife fuch horrid ads of barbarity, in a manner 
by no means confonant to his very great cou- 
rage, replied, " that when foldiers make war 
*' in a refpedful manner, they carry both their 
" heads and their hearts too low ; — that it was 
*^ impofTible to teach them to put properly at 
*' the fame time their hands to their fwords and 
" to their hats ; — and that, in taking from them 
" all hopes of mercy, they were under the ne- 
" celTity of looking for no afylum but under 
" the fhadow of their ftandards, and of not 
" expedlng to live unlefs they were viclo- 

" rious.'* 


The manner of life of this illufhrious per- 
fonage is thus defcribed by his antient Bio- 
grapher : 

Jo 1 

" As foon as the Admiral had quitted his 
" bed, which, in general, was very early in the 
^^ morning, and had wrapped his night-gown 
*' round him, he knelt down, as well as his at- 
'^ tendants, and made a prayer, after the cuflom 
^ of the French Huguenot churches; after 

" which. 


" which, while he was waiting for the time of 

" the fermon (which was preached every other 

" day, accompanied with the finging of pfahns), 

" he gave audience to the Deputies of the 

" Churches that were fcnt to him, and was em- 

*' ployed in public affairs. Occafionaliy, he 

*' did bufinefs after the fermon till dinner- 

" iimc. 


*^ When dinner w^as ready, his houfliold fer- 
" vants, except thofe who were immediately 
" employed in preparing the neceflaries of the 
*' table, all waited in the great hall, where, the 
** table being laid, the Admiral, v/ith his wife 
*' by the fide of him, ftood at the top of it : if 
'^ there had been no fermon that morning a 
" pfalm was fung, and then the ufual benedic- 
•* tion; which ceremony a great number as 
" w-ell of Germian Colonels and Captains as of 
" French Officers, who were afked to dine v/ith 
*< him, can bear teftimony he obferved, with- 
" out ever intermitting a fingie day, not only 
*' in his own houfe, and v/hen he was c]uiet, 
•' but even Vvhile he was with the army. The. 
" cloth taken away, he rofe, as well as his wife 
" and all his attendants, and either returned 
" thanks himfelf, or caufed his chaplain to do 
*« it. And obferving that fome of his houfhold 
*' could not regularly attend the prayers in the 

" even- 


" evening, on account of their occupations and 
^^ amufements, he ordered that every one of 
" them fhould preient themieives in the great 
" hall after fupper, and then, after iinging a 
" pfalm, a prayer was faid. 

" The number of the nobility of France, 
" who in imitation of the Admiral began to 
*' make this religious eflabliibment in their 
" houflicid, was wonderful. He indeed ia 
** perfon very often exhorted them to be re- 
" ligious ; not thinking it enough that a mafter 
" {liould hve himfelf pioufly and holily, if by 
*' his own example he did not take care that 
*' his fervants did the fame. It is certain, that 
" the virtue and piety of the Admiral made 
" him fo extremely refpefted even by thcfe 
*f of the Catholic party, that without the fear 
" and dread of torments and of malTacre, the 
*^ greatefl part of France would have been con- 
*^ verted to the fame religious opinion and dif- 
" cipline. 

*' When the time for the celebration of the 
" Lord's Supper approached, he called together 
" all his hou{liold,and reprefented to them that 
*' they mufl: not only give an account to God 
^' of their pafl: life, but of their palnons ; and he 

reconciled thofe perfons who had been quar- 

** relling. 


3^ aCmiral DE COLIGKV, 

*^ relling. And if any one of his fervants dicl 
*' not appear to him to be fufficiently prepared 
" to underftand, '"and to have a proper venera- 
'" tion for the Holy Myfhery, he himfelf took 
" the pains to inftrud him ; and if he faw any 
*' of them who perfifted in their evil courfes, 
*' he ufed to declare openly and before them, 
*^ that he had rather remain alone in his houfe, 
" and wait upon himfelf, than keep a fet of 
*^ wicked fervants. The Admiral, befides, had 
'* fo high a regard for the difcipline of the Col- 
^-^ leges, and the inftrudtion of children, that he 
^ looked upon them, as particular favours from 
" Heaven, and ufed to call them feminaries of 
*' the Church, and fchools of piety. He ufed 
'' to fay, that it w^as ignorance of letters that 
^' had thrown thick darknefs not only around 
^^ the State, but around the Church (in which 
the Papal pov;er has taken its rife and pro- 
grefs, and which has fo complete an autho- 
*' rity over the m.inds of the blind and of the 
*' bigoted, that it did to them., according to 
" the antient Poets, v^hat the God of Wealth 
" and of Hell, wdiom they called Dis, did to 
" night and to darknefs ) This induced him 
*' to build, at a great expence, the College of 
*' Chatillon, in a fine air and iituation, where 
' *' he fupported many eminent ProfelTors of the 

" Hebrew^ 


'* Hebrew, the Greek, and Latin languaees, as 
" well as many young fludents/* 

The moit ftriking proof of M. de Coligny's 
high integrity and dilintereftednefs is, that 
though, from the great offices and dignities 
which he filled, he was able to benefit himfelfj 
and to gain great wealth (as mofl perfons in 
his fituation would have done), he never added 
to his paternal eftate a fmgle acre of land ; and 
though he was a rigid economiil, yet, on account 
of the number of perfons of all ranks who came 
to him upon public bufmefs, and whom he 
treated in the moft hofpitable mannei", fo as to 
expend upon them what his own frugal difpo- 
fition would have laid by, he died greatly in 
debt, and left a coniiderable mortgage upon his 

One circumflance fhould not be pafTed over in 
our account of this very excellent man, namely, 
that incredible union of mind, of affedion, and of 
benevolence, which was ever preferved between 
the Admiral and his two brothers, fo that they 
really appeared to have but one. foul amongf^ 

The Admiral was murdered at the age of 

fifty-five years and a half. He was of a middling 

VOL. IV. D ftaturcj 


flature, of a ruddy complexion, well proportion- 
ed in his limbs, and of a calm and ferene coun- 
tenance. His tone of voice was mild and agree- 
'able, but he fpoke with fome difiiculty. His 
whole air and his walk were extremely deco- 
rous, and exhibited a pleafing gravity. He 
drank very little wine, ate very little, and never 
llept more than feven hours ; and fmce the lafl 
peace, he never fuffered a day to pafs over with- 
out putting down in writing, in his paper journal, 
before he went to bed, what things worthy of 
remembrance had happened during the time of 
the laft troubles. His journal being found 
after his death, and brought to his fovereign 
Charles the Ninth, his mofh inveterate enemies 
could not withhold their admiration of the 
moderation and of the tranquillity of his mind. 
After the peace, when he retired to La Rochelle, 
he ufed to read. every day, morning and night, 
a fermon of Calvin upon the Book of Job ; tel- 
ling his friends, that the hiflory of that patient 
fufferer was his confolation and general remedy 
in all his calamities. 


La Viede MeJJire Caspar de Coligny, ^c. 
" Amjlerdam^ M d c x x x 1 1 1 , 4to." 

The Admiral, like all wife and good men, 
was extremely unwilling to feek that redrefs by 



arms, which the goodnefs of his caufe demand- 
ed. " With great difRculty," fays D'Aubigne 
in his Hiftory, " could he be prevailed upon to 
" mount his horfe, and join his brothers, who 
" were waiting for him. This experienced 
" Captain," adds D^Aubigne, " had combated 
** the reafons that had been given for having 
" recourfe to the dreadful expedient of taking 
" arms againil the Sovereign, and there remain- 
ed no hopes of overcoming his fcruples, when 
*' a circumftance happened, which I will give 
" to pofterity, not as an epifode well fuited to 
** Poets only, but as a truth which I have learn- 
" ed from thofe who were concerned in it. In 
" the evening after the lafl converfation that 
" the Admiral had upon the fubjedl, he went 
" as ufual to bed with his wife, a Princefs of 
*' the Houfe of Savoy, a zealous Proteftant, 
" but was foon awakened by her fobs and la- 
** mentations, when fhe thus addreffed him : 


It isj Sir, with extreme regret that I diflurb 
your reft by my unealmefs ; but the mem- 
" bers of Chrift being torn as we now fee them, 
*' and we belonging to that his facred body, 
" which of us can remain infenlible to this ca- 
** lamity ? You, Sir, do not feel them lefs 
** than I do; but you can, by your fuperior 
" ilrength of mind, conceal them better. Can 

D 2 " vou 


'^ you be angry with the dear and faithful 
" partner of your joys and of your cares ? A 61 
'' with as much opennefs as refpedl. She fheds 
'•' her tears and eafes her mind upon your 
" bread. We here are remaining at our eafe, 
" while the bodies of our brethren, llefli of our 
'* flefh, and bone of our bone, are fome of them 
'' detained in xiungeons, many of them flrewn 
" about the fields, at the mercy of the dogs and 
" of the ravens. My bread has become a tomb 
" to me fince they have no fepulture. Thefc 
" (lieets reproach me, becaufe they have no 
" fhroud. Can we deep fo found then, as not 
" to hear the dying groans of our brethren ? 
^' Should I here bring to your remembrance 
^' the prudential reafons with which you flop- 
ped the mouths of your brothers ? Would 
you v/ith equal fuccefs take out their hearts, 
and let them remain equally without courage 
as without a power of anfwerlng your ob- 
" jcLhions ? I am afraid tliat this wifdom of 
" yours is the wifdom of the children of this 
" world, and that to be fo wife toward man is 
" to be foolilh before God, who has given you 
" the fcience of a great warrior. Can you 
" then, in confcience, retufe to make ufe of 
" thofe great military qualities with which he 
** has endowed you, in favour of his own chil* 
"^ dren ? You have occafionally confefled to 

" me. 


" me, that this gift of Heaven has fometimes 
" aroufed your mind. It is the interpreter of 
" the will of God. Are you afraid, then, that 
*' God iliould impute a crime to you, if you 
** obey it ^ The iword of a Knight which 
" you wear, was it given to you to opprefs fbill 
" m.ore the oppreiled, or to reduce the power 
of the tyrants ? You have often owned the 
juftice of going to war with them. Can then 
your flout heart quit your defire of doing 
" what is right, from fear of failing in the at- 
" tempt ? it is God himfelf alone that hebe- 
*' tates and difpirits thofe perfons who relift his 
" commands under pretence of fparing blood. 
" He knows well that foul which is willing to 
" deflroy itfelf, and that which is anxious to 
" fave itfelf. I, Sir, have at my heart the great 
" quaiitity of blood that our friends have loft. 
This blood, and your own, will cry out in this 
very bed to Heaven toward God againfl: you, 
and you will be deemed the murderer of all 
thofe whofe murders you do not prevent. 


" Coligny replied : Since I find to my for- 
" row, my dear wife, that I have availed no- 
** thing by all my arguments of this night 
" upon the vanity of popular infurredions ^ 
" upon the uncertain beginnings of a party not 
" yet formed j the difficulty of an attempt not 

D 3 " only 


" only againil: Monarchs,. but againfl the polfef- 
" ibrs of a kingdom whole roots He deep in the 
*' ground of ages ; fo many perfons interefted in 
" its prefervation ; no profped: of an attack 
" from without ; but a general peace jufl con- 
" eluded, and in its very firft bloom, and, what 
" is worfe, made with our neighbours, who are 
*' joined together to ruin us ; add then, the de- 
" feclion of the King, of Navarre and the Con- 
" ftable from our party, fo much power on the 
" fide of our enemies, and fo much weaknefs on 
" ours ; and if ail thefe circumfhances taken to- 
" gether will make no impreflion upon your 
" mind, put your hand upon your heart, found 
" the inmofl recefTes of vour confcience, and 
" then tell m.e, if you think you can fupport 
" numberlefs defeats; the calumnies of your 
" own party, as well as thofe of your enemies; 
*' the reproaches that m^ankind are but too often 
'•' apt to make, v/ho judge of every event by 
" the fuccefs of it ; the treachery of your own 
" friends ; flight, banifhmxent ; the fury of the 
" Englifh, the violence of the Germans ; dif- 
" grace, fliarne, nakednefs, hunger, difficult 
" enough to bear when happening to yourfelf, 
" but when happening to your children rendered 
infupportable. Feel, then, v/ithin yourfelf, 
how you can bear to die by the hands of the 
executioner, after having firft beheld your 

" huf- 



" hufband dragged along the flreets, and ex- 
" pofed to the infults of the multitude, and, to 
" dole all, to fee your children made the def- 
" picable Haves of your enemies, who have 
" rifen into confequence by your defeats and 
''^ calamities. I give you three v/eeks to con- 
*' fider all this, my dear wife, and when you 
" have fleadiiy made up your mind to it, I 
" will go and perilli with you and with your 
" friends. 

" Madame de Coligny inilantly replied: 
*' Thefe three weeks are already paiFed with me. 
Your courage will never be conquered by 
that of your enemies. Exert it then, im- 
mediately, and do not oblige me to lay upon 
*' your head the lives of all thofe that ihall die 
*' in thefe three weeks. I fummon you, then, 
" in the name of the Moil High, to deprive us 
" no longer of your efforts. If you delay any 
" longer, I {hall be a witnefs againfl you in the 
*' dreadful day of judgment." 

Coligny immediately" joined his brothers ; and 
the wars between the Catholics and the Protef- 
tants of France commenced, which ended in 
the treacherous pacification of 1 57 1 . Colign)^, 
with the reft of the heads of his party, came to 
Paris, where they were treated with fuch ex- 

D 4 tremc 






treme kindnefs by Charles the Mnth and the 
Catholic party, that one of the AdmiraFs Officers 
begged leave to be permitted to retire from 
Paris. Coligny, whofe own honefly and open- 
nefs of cbara(5ter ever rendered him unfufpedling, 
afked the Officer if he had loft his wits, to de- 
fire to go away at fuch a time. " Alas, Sir,'- 
replied he, " I had rather fave my life with 
" fimpletons like myfelf, than lofe it with wife 
" men hke you ! Our new friends here are 
too civil by half to us. I fear fome mifchief, 
and wiili I could prevail upon you to have 
the fame apprehenfion." Coligny, however, 
remained, and, a few days before the detefta- 
ble maflacre of St. Bartholomew, was w^ounded 
in the hand and in the arm by a fhot from a 
mufquet, as he was on his way to vifit the King 
at the Louvre. The wound was not danger- 
ous, and Charles and his Mother, Catherine de 
Medicis, behaved on the occafion with fo much 
appearance of kindnefs and affedion (the King 
occafionally calling the Admiral by the endear- 
ing name of Father), that no fufpicion con- 
tinued in his mind. Early, however, in the 
morning of the day of St. Bartholomew, ihe 
Admiral and his attendants were awakened by 
a great noife at the door of the apartments in 
which they were lodged. He immediately, 
iufpeding mifchief, rofe out of bed, put on his 



night-gown, and ordered his chaplain to pray, 
himfelf following the prayers with loud iighs, 
and recommending his life to God, which he had 
merely lent him for his honour. Some on^ who 
had feen Befme and his foldiers at the door, 
came running into the room to tell the Admiral 
what was the matter ; adding, " It is God that 
" calls us to him; the houfe is forced, and 
" there is ho poiTibility of reiiflance.** — " I 
" have been expeding death a long time fmce," 
replied the Admiral. " The reft of you will 
^' endeavour to g^t away, if 3^ou can: every ef- 
" fort that you can make to fave my life is in 
" vain. 1 com.mend it into 'the hands of Him 
" Vv'ho gave it to me ; do you make what hafte 
^^ you can, and get away." The Admiral then, 
with a countenance of the moft placid ferenity, 
and in an attitude of the greateft dignity, feated 
himfelf in an arm-chair, expeding the entrance 
of the aliaiTms. Befme came in firft, and not 
knowing the Admiral, whom he faw feated, 
aiked him if he was the Admiral. In a firm 
tone of voice Coiigny anfwered, " I am he : 
" but, young man, refpedt my gray hairs, and 
*^ my advanced age." Befme, making no reply, 
(truck him upon the head with his fword, and 
his foldiers difpatched him with many wounds 
in different parts of his body. They then threw 
the body out of the window into the court- 



yard. The Duke of Guife, coming foon after- 
wards, wiped off the blood from the face, to 
fee whetlier it was that of the Admiral, and 
then gave the body a violent kick with his foot. 
The mob of Paris next rulhed in, took the body 
of the Admiral, tied it to the heels of an 
ais, and afterwards hung it up for three days on 
the common gallows of Paris ^ from whence it 
was taken down by fom.e of his friends, mangled 
and covered with every mark of indignity, and 
conveyed to his daughter the Princefs of Orange, 
who with filial piety collected every relick of fo 
valuable a depofit, and placed them in a fmall 
farcophagus of black marble, on which Hie 
cauied to be engraven the following infcrip- 
lion, written by the learned Jofeph Scaliger : 

D. o. M. 




A. n. 





P. C. 

The Duke of Alen^on, brother of Charles IX. 
was much attached to the AdniiraL After the 
murder of Cohgny, his will Vs^as carried to the 
King, who, on reading it, and finding it contain 



an article of advice to him, in which he recom- 
mended to him not to fuffer his brother to be 
either too powerful or too rich, turned to the 
Duke of Alencon, and fald, " So this, then. Is 
" your good friend ! See how kind he is to 
" you," — " I do not know. Sire,*' replied the 
Duke nobly, " how much he was my friend, 
*' but his advice fliews how much he was 
*^ yours/* So obferved the Ambaflador of 
England, to whom the King faid, that Coligny 
had advifed him never to trufh England. " He 
" might, Sire, have been a bad Enghfiiman, 
•' perhaps, but I am fure that he was a good 
" Frenchman/' 

In fome engagement Coligny was dangeroufly 
wounded. His friends coming about him, and 
lamenting the ftate in which they found him, 
he faid, " Alas ! my friends, fliould not the 
" profefiion which we follow make us as care- 
^' lefs of death as of life?" 

The Admiral advifed his daughter to marry 
Teligny, one of the mofh accomplifhed men of 
the Court of France at that time, for the good 
and excellent qualities that he had obferved in 
him. " I give him to you," fays he, *' to fe- 
" cure for you contentment and happinefs in 
" marriage, which you will find of more im- 
i " portance 


" portance in that fituatlon than either riches 
or power, I aiilire you." 


Four days before the murder of Coligny, he 
thus wrote to his wife : 

" My dear and beloved Wife, 

" The nuptials of the King's filler and the 
" King of Navarre have been celebrated to-day, 
" and the three or four days afterwards will be 
" fpent in balls, entertainments, mafquerades, 
^' and tournaments. After this, the King has 
" promifed to give me a day, on which he is to 
hear what I have to tell him refpeding the 
violation of the late edicr of pacification ; 
upon which I am now very bufy. For al- 
though I have a very great defire to fee you, 
yet I think we fhould both be extremely forry 
if there w^as any defedl of adivity and dili- 
gence on my part. This delay, I hope, will 
not keep me here above ten days longer. 
If I attended only to my own fatisfaclion, it 
would be much more agreeable to me to be 
with you than to flay at Court, for reafons 
which I will tell you when I fee you. But it 
is one's duty to pay more regard to public 
confiderations than to thofe of pleafure or of 
" inte-reft. I have many other things to tell 

" you. 





" you, as foon as I lee you ; which, I afliire 
" 3^ou, I wifh continually, both night and day, 
" to be able to do. At prelent all that I can 
" tell you is, that at four o'clock in the after- 
" noon of this day the mafs for the nuptials was 
" faid, during which time the King of Navarre, 
" with fome Gentlemen of our religion, who 
" had followed that Prince, walked about in 
*^ the court-yard near the church. There are 
" many other circumfliances, befides, which I 
" referve to tell you at our next meeting : in 
•' the mean time, my dear and beloved wife, I 
pray God to have you in his keeping.'* 
Paris, i8th Augufb 1572." 

'' Thefe three days paft, I have been tor* 
" mented with a flatulent and nephritic colicj 
" which, God be thanked, lafled only eight or 
" ten hours, and from which I am at prefent 
^' by the fame goodnefs delivered ; and I afTure 
" you, that in this croud of banquets and of 
" ihows 1 fhall be troublefome to no perfon. 
*' Farewell, then, once more ! 

" Your affecftionate hufband, 

" Chastillok/^ 

' [ 47 ] 


This high-minded Magiilrate was ordered 
by his Sovereign (Charles the Ninth) to put the 
feals to the pardon of a Nobleman who had 
committed a murder. He refufed. The King 
took the feals out of his hands, and having put 
them himfelf to the infcrument of remiflion, 
returned them immediately to Morvilliers, 
who refufed to take them as:ain: addino-, 
** The feals have tvv^ice put me in a fituation of 
" great honour ; once, when I received them -, 
" and again, when Ireligned them.'* 

After the execrable day of St. Bartholomew, 
Charles the Ninth was inclined to throw all the 
odium of that deteftable tranfadion upon the 
Houfe of Guife ; but was prevented by the fug- 
geftions of Morvilliers, who told him, that by 
a6ling thus he would conciliate the aftedlions of 
the Cathohcs to the Duke of Guife and the 
Cardinal of Lorraine, infhead of preferving them 
entirely to himfelf. Charles took the advice, 
and immediately ordered ^proces to be inflitut- 
ed againfl the dead body of the venerable Ad- 
miral de Coligny^ as againft that of a heretic and 
a rebel. 

[ 48 3 



The Malfacre of St. Bartholomew was not 
confined to the Capital of France j orders were 
fent to the mofl diil:ant Provmces to deftroy all 
the Proteftants in them. When the Governor 
of the Province brought Hennuyer the order, 
he oppofed it with all his, power, and caufed a 
formal a6t of his oppofition to be entered on 
the Regiflers of the Province^ Charles IXj 
%vhen remorfe had taken place in his mind, was 
fo far from difapproving of what this excellent 
Prelate had done, that he gave him the greateft 
praifes for his clemency ; and the Proteftants 
flocked together in numbers to abjure their re- 
ligion at the feet of this good and kind Shep- 
herd, whofe gentlenefs aifedled them more than 
the commands of the Sovereign and the vio- 
lence of the foldiers. 


was Governor of Bayonne in the reign of Charles 
the Ninth, and received the fame infamous or-» 
ders from his Sovereign refpedling the Hugue* 

» nots. 


liots, which were fent to the Bifliop of Lifieux^ 
and behaved in the fame noble and generous 
manner. He wrote to the King in thefe 
terms : 

« Sire, 

" I HAVE communicated your Majefty's letter 
" to the Garrifon and to the Inhabitants of this 
" Town. I have been able to find among 
" them onlv brave Soldiers and good Citizens ; 
" not a finale Executioner." 


Erantome, who feems to have' been a 
good-humoured fellow, like a true Frenchman, 
mentions en plaifantant this horrid account of 
the barbarities of Montpenfier, who was Gene- 
ral of an army fent againfb the Huguenots or 
Proteftants : 

" Whenever a male Huguenot prifoner was 
•* brought to him, he faid with a fmilingcoun- 
" tenance, You are a Huguenot, my friend ? 
" I recommend you to M. Babelot. This 
" Monfteur Babelot/' adds Erantome, " was 

VOL. IV, E *^ a Cor- 


*' a Cordelier, a learned man, who took good 
" care of his mafter's confcience, and was al- 
" ways near him. To this perfonage then the 
" poor prifoner was brought, and after a few 
queftions put to him, was condemned to 
death, and executed immediately. When 
the prifoner chanced to be a woman, a 
maiden, young and handfome, the Duke faid 
m^erely to her, I recommend you to my 
" ftandard-bearer ; take her to him. This 
" ftandard-bearer was a certain M. de Mon- 
" toiron, of the antient houfe of Archbifhop 
*' Turpin, who bore the fame name ; a very 
" fine Gentleman, ftout and tall.'* The in- 
decencies that the female prifoners afterwards 
fuffered from this M. Montoiron, were very 
horrible, and Brantome clifcuiTes them with a 
very difgufting levity. Some iLameful and dif- 
sraceful infhances of the fame cool and delibe- 
rate cruelty, craelty unpnDvoked by any ebulli- 
tion of paffion or fuddenn efs of refentment, but 
the efFed. of wanton malignity and fiend-like 
barbarity, are to be met with in the firfl: book 
of Sully's Memoirs, ftill (if pofTible) more forci- 
bly proving Voltaire's affcrtion refpecling his 
countrymen, " Je vols de. r Singes qui agacent /es 
" tigres:' 

[ 51 ] 


Of the great eafe with which any pretended 
prophecy may be apphed to an event, the fol- 
lowing inftances of the appUcations that have 
been made from the prophecies of Nofhradamus 
evince. In one of his Quatrains (for in that 
form his oracles are given) he fays, " Les O-li^ 
*' viers croUront en Angleterrey That, fay his 
interpreters, alludes to the feizure of the fu* 
preme power in England by Oliver Cromwell. 

When the French took the city of Aras * 
from the Spaniards, under Louis XIII. after a 
very long and moft defperate fiege, it was re- 
membered that Nofhradamus had faid, 

Les anciens crapauds prenclront Sara, 
The ancient toads fhall Sara take. 

This line was then applied to that event in this 
very round-about manner : Sara is Aras back- 
ward. By the ancient toads were meant the 
French, as that Nation formerly had for its armo- 
rial bearings three of thefe odious reptiles, in- 
flead of the three flowers de luce which it now 
bears. • 

* Arras was anciently fpelt Arasi 

s. 2 Noftra- 


Noflradamus was more lucky than ufual in 
one of his Quatrains, which was applied to the 
death of Henry the Second of France, killed at 
a tournament by Montgomery ; the lance pierc- 
ing his eye through his golden vizor *. 

he Lion jeiine le vieux furmontera 
En champ beUique par ftnguUer duel-, 
Dans cage d'or les yeux lut crevera. 
Deux plaies une^ puis mourir : mcrt cruelle. 

The elder lion (hall the young engage, 

And him in ftout and fmgle combat flay: 

Shall put his eyes out in a golden cage. 

One wound in two. How fad to die in fuch a way ? 

This fuppofed prediction gained him great 
credit, and many perfons of confequence vifited 
him in his retreat at Salons en Provence, to 
confult him reipedling their fortunes : amongft 

* " When I was in France,'* fays Lord Bacon, " I 
" heard from one Dr. Pena, that the Queen-Mother (Ca- 
" therine de Medicis, who was given to curious arts) caufed 
** the King her hiifband's nativity to be calculatsd under 
** a falfe name, and the Aftrologer gave a judgment, that 
*' he fliould be killed in a duel. At which the Queen 
*' laughed, thinking her hufband to be above challenges 
** and duelling ; but he was llain upon a courfe at tilt, the 
** fplinters of the ftaff of Montgomery going in at his 
** bea ver .' * Of Prophecies , EJfay 3 5 . 



Other perfons who were guilty of that folly and 
of that wickednefs, were Emanuel Duke of 
Savoy and his Duchefs, and his own Sovereign 
Charles the Ninth. Charles made him a very 
confiderable prefent in money^ fettled a pen- 
lion upon him, and made him his phylician in 
ordinary, Noftradamus having been originally 
bred to the profeflion of medicine. 

The family of Noftradamus had been a 
Jewifh family. He pretended to be of the tribe 
of IfTachar ; becaufe it is faid in the Chronicles, 
" that there fhall come learned men from the 
" fons of IfTachar, who know all times *." 

Noftradamus died at Salons in 1566. Jodellc 
the Poet made this diftich upon the Prophet : 

Nojira damns cumfalja damns ^ namfallere noJirumeJi\ 
Etcumfalfa damns ^ nil nifinoflra damns. 

* " My judgment is, that they (modern prophecies) 
** ought all to be defpifed, and ought to ferve but as 
'* winter-talk by the fire-fide. Though, when I fay de- 
** fpifed, I mean it as for belief; for otherwife, the 
*^ fpreading or publi filing of them is in no fort to be 
** defpifed, for they have done much mifchief. And I 
•** fee many fevere laws made to fupprefs them." Bacon, 

E 3 The 


The following Quatrain of Noftradamus was 
applied to James the Second, on the arrival of 
the Prince of Orange at the Revolution. 

Celui qtii la prtncipaute 
Tiendra par grande cruaute-^ 
A la fin verra grande phalange 
Porter coup defeu tres dangereux» 
Par accord pourra faire mieux 
Autrement-i hn'.ri fuc d' Orange. 

He who the Britifh empire's reins 
By force and cruelty maintains. 
Shall in his turn each horror feel. 
The blaiHng fire, th' avenging fteeL 
Then lee him with his foe agree, 
And fave the land from mifery. 
Or Lo his lips the Orange juice 
Shall poifon's fatal ills produce* 

Noftradamus drew horofcopes and calculated 
jiativities. GalTendi (who had in early life be- 
lieved in Aflrology), when he palTed through 
Salons in Provence, the place where Noftrada- 
mus lived, had the curiofity (as he tells us in 
his Letters) to examine the nativity which this 
pretended Prophet had calculated of tiie fa- 
ther of the principal Magiiirate of the place, 
when he found that all the principal events of 
his life had taken place in the exa6t contrary 
manner to that in which they had been pre- 
dided. He was to have an increafe of fortune 
I from 


from a flranger to his family, and he never had 
any fortune but that which his father had left 
him ; he was to be a great traveller, and he had 
never quitted his native province ^ he was to 
iight a duel, and he never had a ferious quarrel 
with any perfon in his life. 


Who could have imagined that this rugged 
and inflexible magiftrate would have amufed 
his leifure with writing Latin verfes to fati- 
rize the ladies of his time who did not fuckle 
their own children ? His poem on this lingular 
fubjecV is addreiTed to the celebrated Jean 
Morel. Some of the ILnes may be thus tranf- 
lated : 

Can Nature, like a ftep-mother, deny 
The Ia6leal balm, the tender babe's fupply ? 
Indulgent parent ! from her copious ftores 
The food of helplefs infant life (he pours j 
To thofe vain females niggardly alone, 
Whofe pride and luxury her powers difown. 
Obferve the favage tyrants of the field. 
They to th' unnatural mother leflbns yield. 
Does the fierce lionefs, of horrid glare, 
Negle£l her favage charge, her rifmg care; 
And her young offspring, with obdurate heart. 
To her fell neighbour's purchas'd care impart? 

E 4 The 


The poem is a long one, and contains many 
as fine and as ftrong fentiments as thofe jufb 
quoted. The late excellent Dr. Gregory of 
Edinburgh has, in his very ingenious and enter- 
taining " Comparative View o£ the State and 
^' Faculties of Man with thofe of the Animal 
" World," fliewn it to be no lefs the intereft 
than the duty of the mother (unlefs her flate of 
health prevent it) to fuckle her own child. She 
procures greater health and fpirits, as well as 
greater beauty, by the operation ; and, adds he, 
" another great inconveniency attending the 
" neglect is, the depriving women of that inter- 
*' val of refpite and of eafe which nature in- 
" tended for them between child-bearings. 
" A woman who does not nurfe, has naturally 
" a child every year : this greatly exhaufts the 
" conilitution, and brings on the infirmities of 
eld age before their time. A woman who 
nurfes her child, has an interval of a year and 
a half or two years betwixt her children, in 
^* which the conftitution has time to recover 
its vigour.'* 


The Chancellor de rHopitaFs Latin Poems 
are in one vol. folio, 1585, and in one vol. 
octavo, 1732. Of this great magifh'ate's fimple 
manner of living Brantome gives this account : 



DE THOF. 57 

" II me depecha bientot & nous fit diner 
" tres bien du bouilli feulement (car c'etoit Ton 
ufage). Devant le diner ce n'etoit que beaux 
difcours & belles leniences & quelquefois 
aufli de gentils mots pour rire.'* 

L'Hopital ufed to fay of thofe perfons who 
piqued themfeives upon never refuling any 
thing, " that they had one quahty at leall in 
" common with a young prodigal, and with a 
" woman of ioofe condud/' 


The illuflrious Thuanus faid, that on his 
mentioning one day to his Father, Chriflopher 
de Thou, Firil Prefident of the Parliament of 
Paris, fomething relating to the infamous and 
cruel malTacre of St. Bartholomew, he flopped 
him fhortly, exclaiming from Statius, 

*' Excidat ilia dies avo^ nee pojiera credant 
'' Sescula 5 nos certe taceamus-j et ohruta multd 
*' NoSfe tegi proprice patiamur crimina gentesJ* 

" O may that day, the fcandal of the age, 

** Be ever blotted from the hilloric page t 

*' May the kind Fates in Night's obfcureft veil 

" Cover each record of the horrid tale ; 

" And hide, in mercy, from all future times 

^* Qur nation's cruelty, our nation's crimen !" 

[ 58 ] 


When Montagne's Travels were found in 
MS. a few years ago, in a chefl at his chateau 
in the province of Pcrigord, much was expected 
from them. They have been lately publifhed, 
and contain nothing but the hillory of his dif- 
orders, and of the effects of the feveral mineral 
waters he tried upon them. One pafTage in 
them however, when he comes to fpeak of 
Rome, is very fublime. His obfervations, in 
general, he dictated to his Secretary, who makes 
his mailer fpeak in the third perfon. They 
were together at Rome in the year 1580 : " On 
ne voit rien de Rome que le Ciel, fans le- 
quel elle avoit ete affife, & la plant de fon 
gite j que cette fcience qu'on en avoit etoit 
une fcience abftraite & de contemplation, 
de laquelle il n'avoit rien qui tombat fous les 
fens. Ceux qui difoient qu'on y voyoit les 
ruines de Rome en difoient trop, car les 
mines d'une fi epouvantable machine rappor- 
teroient plus d'honneur & de. reverence a fa 
memoire; ce n'etoit rien que fon fepulture, 
Le monde ennemi de fa longue domination 
avoit premierement brife & fracaife toutes 
les pieces de ce corps admirable ; & parce- 
qu'encore tout mort, renverfe 6c defigure, il 

« lui 









*' lui falfolt horreur, il en avoit enfeveli la ruine 

" meme." 


Montagne has been falfely accufed of v/ant of 
religion. On finding himfelf in the agonies of 
death, he fent to fome of his neighbours to pray 
with him, and to attend the ceremony of mafs 
in his chamber. At the inftant of the eleva- 
tion of the hofl, he with a tranfport of devotion 
raifed himfelf out of his bed upon his knees, 
and died in the act of adoring that facred myf- 
tery of the Catholic church, 

Montagne appears to have pofTeffed a mind 
highly fufceptibie of the power of friend ihip. 
His letter giving an account of the death of his 
learned friend Etienne de la Boetie, is a very 
pathetic narrative. Montagne, at the defire of 
his father, tranflated from the Latin Sebonde's 
Natural Theology. He dedicates his tranf- 
lation to his father, and, with a filial refpect not 
very common, calls him every where in the de- 
dication Monjeignetrr, 

Cardinal de Perron ufed to call Montagne' s 
EiTays " Le Breviaire des Honnetes Gens.^* 
The feverer Huet entitles them " Le Breviaire 
^' des Parejfeux.'" The peevifh Scaiiger cries 
out, ^- What is it to the world in general, 

" whether 


" whether Montagne loves red or white wine 
" befl?** Yet in fpite of .this farcafm of that 
great fcholar, whatever Montagne, relates about 
himfelf comes home to the bufmefs and bofom 
of every lover of narure and obferver of the 
human charaAer. To his Elfays may be ap- 
plied from Horace, 

*' llle velutfidis arcana jo dallbus ol'im 

*' Credehat I'lhr'ts : neque^Jimale cejjerat iifquam 

" Decurrens alioy neque fi bene^ quo jit ut omnis 

'' Votiva pateat veluti defer ipta tabella 

« Fitafenh " 

Montagne, whom no one can fufped of pre- 
judice or bigotry, or of attachment to any thing 
merely becaufe it is eftabliflied, fpeaking of 
Kings, fays, with his ufual good humour and 
good fenfe, " We owe duty and obedience to 
" Kings ; for that regards their office. Eflieem 
" and affection we owe to them when they are 
" perfons of virtue. Let us make the facrifice 
*' for the fake of political order, to bear v/ith 
" them with patience, even when they are un- 
" worthy of their high office. For the fame 
" reafon let us conceal their failings, and make 
*' the moft we can even of their indifferent 
" aclions, as long as we fhall have occafion for 
^' their fupport^" 



Thoup-li always talking and thinking about 
his health, Montagne afFeded univerfally to 
ridicule the profefTors of medicine. He ufed 
to fay of them, " that they knov/ more of 
" Galen than of their patients. Yet," added 
he, " let them live by our follies -, they are not 
" the only perfons who do fo." To fome hy- 
pochondriacal friend of his he faid, " Get 3/our 
" phyfician to order you a medicine for your 
*' head ; it will do you more fervice there than 
" when applied to the ftomach." 

'^ Cowardice," fays Montague very well, in 
one of his EiTays, " is the mother of cruelty, 
*' Courage," adds he, " that I mean which • 
" oppofes itfelf only to refiftance, 

nee ntfi bellantis gaiidet cerv'tce juvenci'^ 

" flops when it fees the enemy at its mercy. 
" But cowardice," continues the acute Gafcon, 
" to fhew that it can alfo do its part, not hav- 
ing been able to figure in the firft rank, 
takes its part in the fecond, which is blood 
and flaughter. The murders attendant upon 
vidlories are generally committed by the 
lowefl clafs of the army, and by thofe that 
" have the care of the baggage. And what 
" caufes fuch unheard-of cruelties in all civil 
" wars is, that the populace, to (hew its bravery 

" and 


" and its militar}^ fkill, fleeps itfelf in blood up 
" to the elbows, and tears to pieces even the 
" body that lies proilrate at its feet/* 

I, in conjundion with the Baron of Cau- 
pene,'* fays this entertaining Writer, " had 
the patronage of a benefice at the foot of 
*' one of our Gafcon mountains, in a country 
*' of confiderable extent. The inhabitants of 
" this fpot, like thofe of the Valley Angrougne, 
*' lived after a manner of their own, and were 
" governed by certain laws and regulations 
" which had been received fi-om father to fon, 
" and to which they confented to pay obe- 
" dience, from the reverence they had to 
*' eftabiifhed cuitom. This little diftrid was, 
" from time immemorial, in fo happy a 
" fituation, that none of the neighbouring 
" Judges had ever taken the trouble to decide 
" any of their caufes. No lawyer had ever 
" been employed to confult with them ; no 
" ftranger had ever been called in to fettle 
" their difputes ; nor was any inhabitant ever 
" known to be reduced to afk alms. They 
" avoided very fcrupuloufly all connections 
" with the other parts of France, to keep their 
" minds in the utmoft ftate of purity , until 
" fome time fmce, in the memory of the fa- 
*' thers of the prefent generation, it unluckily 

" happened 


** happened that one of the natives took it into 
" his head to breed up his Ton as a lawyer, 
" having had him taught to write in a neigh- 
*' bouring village. This youth being now be- 
** come a perfon of confequence in his own 
" eyes, began to difdain the old cuftoms of 
" the diftrid, and to put into the heads of its 
" inhabitants high notions of the magnificence 
" that took place around them. One of the 
inhabitants having had a goat purloined from 
him, he advifed him to apply for juftice to 
the royal Judges that were nearefl to him ; 
and thus he w^ent on till he had deflroyed all 
the antient fimplicity of his countrymen. 
" At the tail of this innovation, the inhabi- 
tants fay, there happened . one of much more 
fatal confequence, by means of a phyiician, 
who unluckily for them took it into his 
head to marry a young woman of their vil- 
lage, and live amongfh them. He began 
with teaching them that there were fuch 
things as fevers, rheums, and impofthumes, 
and in what part of the human body the 
" heart, the liver, and the inteftines were 
placed, of which till then they had remained 
in perfe6l ignorance; and inftead of garlick, 
with which they had been accuftomed to 
cure all their difeafes, however violent and 
^ dangerous, he ordered them for a cough or 

" an 


^' an indlgeflion fome flrange foreign mixture^ 
*' and began to make a trade not only of 
their healths but of their lives. They fwear^ 
that until his time they never obferved that 
being out at night in the dew gave them 
" head-achs, that it was unwholefome to drink 
*' any thing warm, or that the winds of au- 
" tumn were more unwholefome than thofe of 
" the fpringj that fnice their making ufe of 
" the medicines introduced by him, they have 
" been befet with a whole legion of difeafes, 
" to which they had never been accuilomed; 
" and that they perceive a general falling-off 
^' of their antient vigour of conftitution, as well 
" as that their lives are fhortened by one half 
" at leaf!:/' 

" There is no nation," adds Montagne> 
'* which has not exiiled for feveral ages with* 
" out the knowledge of the art of medicine. 
** Phyficians were not known in the firft ages> 
'* that is to fay^ in the befl:, the moll happy 
" times, and even the tenth part of the world 
" does not make ufe of them. The Romans 
were fix hundred years without them ; and, 
after having tried them for fome time, dif- 
miiTed them from their city at the inftiga- 
" tion of Cato the Cenfor, who fhewed at leaft 
'' how well he could do without them, having 


^^ Iivea himfelf eighty -five years, and having 
*' eaabled his wife to attain to an extreme 
** old age without a phyfician, tho' not indeed 
'*' without phyfic, for I give that name to every 
^* thing which can contribute to the falubrity 
** of our lives^" 

The lively old Gafcoil mentions in his 
Eflays, that he faw three American favages at 
Rouen in France, who vifited that country from 
curiofity ; that they were prefented to Charles 
the Ninth-, who happened to be at Rouen at 
the time, and were fhewn every thing curious 
that the capital of Normandy poiTefled, as the 
Cathedral, the Bridge of Boats, &c. The King 
(poke to them for fome time by his interpre- 
ter j and after they had obfen^ed the fplendor 
of the Court, its manner of living, and the new 
fight to them of a fine city, they were afked 
what had mofl: flruck them. " They m.entioned 
" three things," fays TvTontagne, " I have for- 
** gotten one of them. They faid, they -vvere 
" much aftoni filed that fo many men of large 
^* ilature (meaning the King's Swils Guards), 
** with large beards, flirong, and bearing arms, 
** lliould fubmit to obey a child *, and that 

" they 

* A cotemporary Writer obferves, that another of tfee 

things which ftruck them was the market-pJace of Ronen, 

VOL. XV, F xrhcrt 


*« they did not rather chuie one from ther^v 
*' felves to command them. They were next 
" afloniilied (as they have a term in their lan- 
" guage for men, v/hich is, counterparts one of 
" another) that they had obferved amongft us 
" men full and gorged (gorgez) with all kinds 
" ot conveniencies, and that their counterparts 
" were begging at their doors, dyihg of hunger 
*' and poverty; and thought it ftrange that 
*' thefe counterparts to each other could fuffer 
■* fuch an injuflice, and that they did not 
" either take them by the throat, or burn their 
« houfes.'* 

" I afked one of them," adds Montague 
.•*- (who appeared to be the chief, and whom 
" the failors who brought them over called a 
" King) what advantage he received from his 
** fuperiority of rank to the reil of his brethren. 
" He replied, that he marched at their head 
" when they went to war. I afked him how 
" many men followed him on that occafion, 

where prDvifions and all kinds of conveniencies were im~ 
jnedlately to be had on a man's taking a piece of metal out 
of a bag. Here they flopped, and failed to obferve this 
as the effeifl cf a regolar efiabliihed government, whilft 
they, living free and independent, are reduced to all the 
miferies of extemporaneous life, and often die of hunger. 

" He 


^* He replied, pointing to a certain inclofurCy 
*' that there might be as many perfons as that 
*' could contain (about four or five thoufand 
perhaps). I then aflvcd him if his authority 
ceafed after the war. He replied, that this 
mark of it only remained, that when he 
" vifited the villages dependent upon his go- 
" vernment, they made a void through the! 
" hedges of their inciofures, that he might 
" pafs at his eafe." 

Montague, in one of his Eflays, with great 
truth calls the imagination " /a Folk du Logis^* 
that power of the mind which without proper* 
diredion ferves merely to embarrafs and diftracft 
the underftanding. 

" Plutarch," fays this excellent Writer, fays 
*' fomewhere in his Chapter upon Inequality, 
" there is not fo great a difference betv/een one 
" bead and another, as between one man and 
*' another. He is fpeaking of the powers of 
*V the mind and the internal qualities of man. 
" li\ truth, I find fuch a diftance in point of 
" intelled, as I think, between Epaminondas 
*' and a perfon who (hall be namelefs, that I 
" would readily go beyond Plutarch, and fay 
*^ that there is more difference between thofe 

F z *^ two 


'' two pcrfoiis than there Is between a parti- 
*' cular man and a particular beafl. 

*^ Hem^ Fir Viro quid prajlat ! 
" And there are as many different degrees of 
" underftanding in men as there are feet from 
** earth to Heaven : nearly without number. 

■JIf ^ '^ :3ff 

" In truth, except the mere name of King, 
** our Kings in France put us very Httle out 

** of our way. 

" Indeed, our laws are free enough," adds 
the honeft old Gafcon ; " and the weight of 
" fovereignty fcarccly affeds a French Gentle* 
'* man twice in the whole courfe of his life. 
" The eflential and effeftual fubjedion governs 
" thofc only who wifli to have it alfed them, 
" and who like to do thcmfelves honour and to 
" enrich themfelves by fuch fubjedion. For 
" the man who likes to keep fnug by his own 
** fire-fide, and to condud his affairs without 
quarrelling and without law-fuits, is as in- 
dependent a being as the Doge of Venice, 
Paucos fervitiis^ plures fervitutem tettent ."— 
** Slavery comes but to few perfons, but many 
perfons come to flavery.'*; 


C 69 J 


Charron's celebrated Treatife on Wifdom 
is a kind of Commentary on the EiTays of 
Montagne. The old Gafcon was fo pleafed with 
his book and his converfation, that he permitted 
hnn to take his name and to bear his arms. 
The times in which he wrote could fo ill bear 
the truths advanced in the " Treatife upon 
" Wifdom,'* that he was denounced by the 
Univerlity of Paris as a man of irreligious 
principles. His friend the Prefident Jeannin^ 
fo well known by his negotiations * in Hol- 
land, faved his book from being condemned, by 
permitting the fale of it as a book of pohtics. 
The frontifpiece to the Elzevir edition of Char- 
ton's Treatife reprefents the Goddefs of Folly 
leading mankind by their pafiions, 

Charron wrote another Treatife, not fo much^ 
read as his Treatife upon Wifdom. It is on the 
Three Great Truths. In the firft part he at- 
tacks the Atheifts; in the fecond he attacks 
the Pagan and the Mahometan religion -, and in 
the third he defends the doftrines of the 
Romilh Church, 

* Cardinal Richelieu ufed to call Jeannin's Memoirs of 
ttie Negotiations in Holland, the Breviary of Stateimen. 

F 2 Charron 


Gharron begins one of his Chapters upon 
Wiiclom thus : " Nihil e[i ^qualitate irueqiialitis * ; 
" There is nothing To unequal as equality." 
There is no hatred fo great as tl . r which 
takes place among perfon? who are equa^ to oviQ 
another. The envy and jealoufy with which 
equals are pofTciTed, are tlie caufes of troubles, 
{editions^ and civil wars. In all Govern- 
ments thi^re muft be ineqiiality of rank, but it 
fhouv be moderate. Harmony itfelf confifts 
not in a complete equality of tones, but ra a 
difference of tones, that itill accord one v/ith 



wrote over the door of his Library thefe words ; 
" Tiempus ager v^^us — Time is my eilate;" that 
only eftate which many literary perfons have 
poiTeffed, and which they fiiould be permitted 
fo cultivate without interruption. Cardan's 

* La Motte begins one of his Odes thus : 

Equahty, fo oft addrefl-, 

Canft thcu o'er v/retched mortals reign ? 
Alas, thou ne'er hail flood the left, 

Chimera boailed but in vain. 

CARDAN. , 71 

idea was thus dilated by the learned Sculter, 
and infcribed over the door of his ftudy : 

Amice quifqu'is hue venis^ 
Aut agita paucisj aut abi^ 
Aut me laborantem adjuva : 

One of three things 1 here requeft 
Of taofe my ftudies who moled: 
Or to be brief in what they fay, 
Or flrrait to take themfelves away; 
Or in my toil a part to bear, 
^nd aid me v/ith their frkndly care. 



exhibited great courage at the attack made by 
the Duke de Mayenne upon the City ofTours. 
Henry the Fourth, then King of Navarre, who 
Hood near him, faid, *' Sire, I am not aftonifb- 
" ed novv^ that our people loft the battles of 
" Jarnac and Moncontour, fo fatal to tr.e Hu^ 
^' guenot party/' — " My brother," replied the 
King of France, " we ought all to do our 
" duty.. Kings are not m.ore expofed to 
'' danger than other perfons : balls do not look 
" out for them more readily than for a com- 
{' men foldier; and I have never heard yet 

1^" 4 ^* that 


**' that a King of France has been killed 
*^ by a mufquet ball ; it will moft . probably 
*■ not begin with me," 

On his qu'tting the Kingdom of Poland ta 
take polTcffion of that of France, a Polifli 
Nobleman faid to him, *' Sire, if to have ii^ 
^' poffeflion the affedlions of a whole Nation be 
*f really to reign, where can you reign more ab- 
*' folute]y than in Poland ? You cannot ex^ 
ped to find in France, in the prefent fitua- 
tion of that kingdom, that which you leave 
behind you w^ith us." This fpeech was but 
too prophetic of what afterwards happened : he 
had not long been King of France, before he 
v/as aiiaiiinated by a Dominican Friar. The 
wound was not at firft thoug-ht fatal ; and on 
the day on which he died, during the celebra- 
tion of Mafs in his chamber, the Prince ex-^ 
claimed, with great devotion, "^ My Lord and 
*' my God, if my life will be ufeful to my 
" people, preferve it! if not, take my foul and 
*' body, Slid place them in thy Paradife I Thy 
" will be done!" 

** Henry's charadler of underftanding," fays 
Thuanus, " appears incomprehenfible , in fome 
" refpedls above his dignity, in others below 
f childilhnefs." The O^der of the Holy Ghoil 



was inftltuted by Henry ; that of St. Michael 
having been fo dilgraced by the unworthy per^* 
fons who had been decorated with it, that this 
Sovereign called it, ^' Le Collier a toutes Betes J^ 


When this Prince, brother to Henry the 
Third of France, was Lieutenant -General of 
the Low Countries for a fmall part of the years 
1582 and 1583, the army of his countrymen, 
as if they intended to iini(h the Feafb of the 
Huguenots, as they favagely called it, began 
in the year 1572 by the celebrated MafTacre 
of Paris, attacked the town of Antwerp, on the 
17th of January 1583, by furprize and againfl 
the faith of agreement, which they pillaged, and 
put to the fword many of the Proteftants of 
that city. One French Nobleman however, 
the Due de Montpenfier, brother-in-law to 
William Prince of Orange, who was prefent at 
it, told the Due d'Alen^on, that he ought to 
tear out the hearts of all thofe perfons who had 
advifed him to be guilty of fo perfidious an 
a6tion, which, added he, will fo completely 
decry you and your army, that it will render 
the French nation in general detefted and exe- 
crated by all the other nations of Europe. 


^4 ^^'C D^ALEN^ON. 

The French, indeed, fo late as that inhu-< 
man tyrant Louis the Fourteenth's unprovoked 
attack upon Holland, perpetrated fuch horrid 
cruelties in that country, tliat in the year 1673 
a quarto volume was publillied with this title : 
*^ Avis ficlele aux veritabhs HoUandois touchant 
^' ce qui ceji -pajje dans les Villages de Bodegravc 
** l^ Szvammerdam, & ks Cruaufes enormes que 
^' ks Francois y on exercees *." — " Good Advice 
" to all true Dutchmen refpedling what took 
*' place in the Villages of Bodegrave and Swam- 
*' merdam, and the unheard-of Cruelties that 
" the French exercifed upon them ; with an. 
*' Account of the laft March of the Army 
^' of the King of France through Brabant and 
^' Flanders." The book begins thus : 

^' What the French have done in this coun- 
" try in one year, exceeds in cruelty and 
*' in horror what any Hiftorian has faid of 
*' any Nation w4iatfoever, and whatever the 
^* tragic Poets have reprefented in any of 
'' their Tragedies. There are no pen or pencil 
<' to be found that can defcribe it -, and this 
** (fays the Author) was not perpetrated in 
*• towns that were conquered, but merely in 
" thole that were occupied by the troops of 
" France." 

* This curious Book is in the Britifli Mufeum. 


Dtrc E) ALEN^ON. 75 

The book is elegantly printed, and enriched 
with feveral very beautiful etchings by the 
celebrated Romaxi de Hoogue. It would 
fuVelv be well worth while to reprint this work 
for the lake of thofe who can read French, or 
to tranflate it into the different languages of 
EuroDe for tKofe who do not underfland that 
language, that they may be taught what they 
are to exoedl if they fhould admit amongft 
them a people *, wlio, under every form of 
Governmenr, as well that of a Monarchy as 
that of a Republic, have fhewn themfelves falfe, 
ferocious, and fanguinary, the Blafphemers of 
their God, and the Enemies of the Humam 



When her niece, Madame Chriftina, was 
fetting out for Florence, to be married to Fer- 
dinand de Medicis, ihe told her, " Bear in 
^' mind, my dear girl, that you will- always be 
" looked upon as a ftranger in the country 
'' where you are going, till you have borne a 
*' child; this vvill ingraft you to it." 

P This Article was firfl printed in the Autiinnn of 1 794^ 

[ 76 j 




-remained ever faithful to his Sovereign. At 
the celebrated day of the Barricades in 1588, 
the Duke of Guife wilhed to attach him to 
his party. Harlay replied, " that the rule of 
^' his condud fliould be, the fervice of the 
■*' King and the good of the State ; and that he 
^ would fooner die than depart from it.** 

The party of the League had him arrefted and 
put into the Baflile, On entering that horrid 
fortrefs, he uttered thefe remarkable words : 
^' It is a great pity, when the fervant is able 
^^ to difmifs the mailer, My foul is God's, my 
*' heart is my Sovereign's, and my body is in 
" the hands of violence, to do with it what it 
*« pleafes.*' 


Widow of Gui de Saint Exuperi^ was a Pro^ 
tefcant, and diflinguilhcd herfelf very much iii 
the Civil Wars of France = After her hufband's 
death fhe retired to her Chateau at Miremont, 



m the Limoufia; where, with iixty young 
Gentlemen well armed, (he ufed to make ex* 
curfions upon the Catholic armies in her neigh- 
bourhood. In the year 1575, M. Montal, 
Governor of the Province, having had his de- 
tachments often defeated by this extraordi- 
nary lady, toak the refolution to befiege her in 
her Chateau with fifteen hundred foot and 
fifty horfe. She faUied out upon him, and 
defeated his troops. On returning, however, 
to her Chateau, and finding it in the pofTelTion 
of the enemy, (lie galloped away to a neigh- 
bouring town, Turenne, to procure a reinforce- 
ment for her little army. Montal watched for 
her in a defile, but was defeated, and himfelf 
morially wounded. 

This is all that is known of this heroine, 
whofe courage and conduct we have fcQn re- 
placed in our times by the celebrated and un- 
fortunate CheValikre d'Eon. 

gW g E j Uj BlJM 


This celebrated fcholar was taken ill upon 
the road as he was travelling from Paris to 
Lyons s and, as his appearance was not much in 
-hh favour, he was carried to an hofpital. Two 



phyficians attended liirri; and his difeafe not 
being a very common one, they thought it right 
to try fomething new, and out of the uiual 
road of pradice, upon him. One of thenl, 
not knowing that his patient underftood Latin, 
faid in that language to the other, *' We may 
*^ furely venture to try an experiment upon the 
*' body of fo mean a man as our patient is." 
" Mean, Sirs !" replied Muretus in Latin to 
their aflonifliment ; " can you pretend to call 
" any man fo. Sir, for whom the Saviour of the 
" world himfclf did not think it beneath him 
« to die ?" 

This great fcholar wrote Latin with fuch ele-* 
gance, that he impofed upon Jofeph Scaliger 
fome Latin lines written by himfelf as a fragment 
of Terence. Scaliger was enraged on finding 
out the trick that had been put upon him, and 
as Muretus had very narrowly efcaped being 
burnt at Thouloufe by the fentence of the 
Parliament of that city, he made this diftich 
lapon him : 

.^i 7-igida; jia?7imas evaferat ante Tolojay 
Aluretusyfumos vcndidh ilk mihi^ 

[ 79 ] 


This elegant Writer, at the defire of Henry 
the Third of France, compofed a Latin Poem 
on the fubjecft of Hounds, of their varieties, or 
their education, and of their difeafes. The cele- 
bratc'd Epitaph on Henry the Third, killed by a 
Monk, was written by him. In that which he 
compofed for himfelf, he merely delires his 
fcholars to throw garlands of iiowers upon his 

grave ; 

-^Mea molUter ojfa quiefcentj 

Sint modo carminibus non onerata malls* 

Light o'er my bones the flowery herbage refl, 
And no officious lines their peace molefl. 

He adds, 

Veni^ ahii\ fie vos veniJliSy ahibliis omnes, 
I lived, I died ; the common lot of ail. 



This appears to have been one of the moft 
enterprliing Princes that ever this enterpriiing 
Houfe lias produced. ^His life may be fai<i 
to have bc^n one perpetual eiforte Germany, 



Spaioj France, Geneva, fcem to have been b)* 
turns the objedls of his ambition and of his alii* 
ances. He died it lafl of a broken heart in 
1630, at being defeated in moft of his projeds 
of aggrandizement. When he was prefTed by 
Henry the Fourth of France to reftore the 
Marquifate of Saluces, according to treaty, he 
remarked, " that reftitution was not a proper 
" word in the mouth of a Sovereign.'* 

This Prince was of fb clofe and referved a 
difpofition, that they ufed to fay of him, " that 
*' his heart was as inaccefllble as his country.'* 
His hiftorian tells us very fignificantly, that 
^* He was always building palaces and churches; 
" he loved and encouraged learning, but was 
" not fufficiently defirous "to make his fubjeds 
^' and himfelf happy." 

Charles Emanuel was an excellent GeneraL 
He ufed to fay, that two things were requifitc 
to make war with advantage, money and autho- 
rity i and that the latter was a more fure means 
of keeping foldiers to their duty than the former. 
He alfb laid, that the quality of Sovereignty, 
which was of itfelf powerful and troublefome, 
appeared to him agreeable in two refpedts ; firft, 
becaufe it ga e a Prince a power to be more 
geneious than any other perfon -, fecondly, be- 
2, caufe 


caufe it gave him the powej of faving the life 
of a criminal. 

In the opinion of the late Dr. Johnfon, a 
liillory of the Princes of the Houfe of Savoy 
would make a very curious and very entertaining 
compilation. Indeed, from their iituation, as 
keeping the entrance intej Italy on one fide, 
they have been ever much confidered and courted 
by the other Princes of Europe ; and they ap- 
pear, differently from moft of their Brother- 
Sovereigns who go to war, to have always ac- 
quired fome thing by that horrid expedient, 
either an increafe of territory, or fome valuable 
indemnification in money. 


[1589 1610.] 

This celebrated Prince was accufed by Scali- 
ger of not being learned himfelf, and of not en- 
couraging men of learning. He indeed fuffered 
Scaiiger to go to be penfioned in Holland ; but 
the Monarch was perhaps difpleafed with the 
haughtinefs and violence of this great fcholar, 
Henry founded a College in Paris, and took 

VOL. IV. G parti- 


particular care that the Profeilbrs fhould be 
paid their falaries regularly. In his early youth 
he had tranflated into French part of Cfefar's 
Commentaries ; and in the latter part of his life 
was preparing to put together a hillory of his 
own military exploits. It is faid, that he en- 
gaged the Prefident Jeannin to write the hiftcry 
of his reign ; telling him that he left him at 
perfed liberty to tell the truth, without artifice 
and without difguife. 

Henry ufed to fay of his fovereign power, 
" I moft inconteftibly hold my kingdom from 
" God. It belongs to him immediately. He 
" has only entrufted me with it. I ought 
" therefore to make every effort that he may 

reign in it, that my orders may be fubordi- 

nate to his, and that my laws may make his 

laws obferved and refpefted." 

" A King,'' faid he, " fhould bear the 
" heart of a child toward God, and the heart 
<« of a father toward his fubjeds." 

He lamented very often the heavy taxes he 
was obliged to impofe upon his fubjeds. 
*' They have," fays he, *' a double land tax, 
*'' one of which is collected for the fupport of 
'^ my expences, the other for the wages of my 

" officers i 


•^^ officers ; the fecond added to the firft makes 
the charge very heavy indeed. They prefs 
harder perhaps upon me than upon thofe who 
pay them. There is nothing that I defire fo 
'^^ much as to eafe my fubjefts of them. My 
" predeceflbrs," added he, " thought that their 
fubjeds exifled only for them, and that every 
thing belonged to them. With refped to 
myfelf, I always think that I reign over my 
" fellow- citizens ; there is not one of them to 
" whom I am not indebted. They are mine, 
" and T am theirs." 

He ufed to fay, that the greateft men were 
always the laft to advife war, though they were 
fure to carry it on well. He obferved once to 
Sully, who requefhed him not to expofe his 
perfon fo much in an engagement, " My friend,, 
fince it is for my honour and for my crown 
that I fight, I ought to look upon my life 
and every thing elfe as mere trifles." 

Firmly perfuaded that bravery fhould be one 
of the principal qualities of a King, he ufed to 
fay, that he fhould defpife a Sovereign, who in 
time of adion did not expofe himfelf like a 
common foldier. 

G z M, de 


M. de Noailles was in love with the aunt of 
this Monarch, and wrote one day, with a dia- 
mond, upon the window of her chamber, 

2^ul honheur me contents^ 
jibfent de ma Diviniti, 

When my Divinity I quit, 
All other pleafures fail. 

Henry, coming into the room foon afterwards^ 
wrote in the fame manner under them, 

iV* appellez paz ainft 7na Tante^ 
Elle aime irop rhutnanite. 

No fuch great name my Aunt can fit. 
She *s as a mortal frail. 

Irhere were feveral very devout Ladies at the 
Court of Henry. To a Courtier who was one 
day praifing their condud extremely, he replied^ 
" The Ladies, whether they are virtuous, or 
" wifh to become virtuous, have always oc- 
*' cafion for advice and for prudence ; of them- 
" felves, they always go to extremes *." 

On the birth of the Dauphin (afterwards 
Louis XIII.) he let every perfon into the room 

* The learned and acute Bifiiop Warburton ufed to fay, 
'• that the two moft difficult things to meet with in the 
** world, were a difinterefted man, and a woman who had 
^'' common fenfe ; that fenfe, without which wit is folly^ 
" h3xn\V)% pedantry, and virtue itfelf weakaefs of mind." 



to fee him. The midwife intimated her appre- 
henfions that the great crowd would make the 
child ilL " Hold your tongue, hold your 
" tongue, Mother Midwife,'^ replied Henry; 
^^ do not difturb yourfelf. As this child is for 
*^ every one, it is proper that every one fliouid 
^' have the fatisfadion to fee him.'' 

Some one told Henry, that a particular per- 
fon of confequence of the League party, to 
whom he had been very kind, by no means 
bore him any good- will. *' Well then," re- 
plied Henry, " 1 will be flill kinder to him, 
'^^ which will oblige him to love me." The 
Duke de Mayne, more generous, when Henry, 
after having taken him prifoner, gave him very 
liberal terms of pacification, faid, '■ Now, Sire, 
" I am really overcome." 

Henry once loft at play a very large fum 
of money ; a fum fo confiderable, that it was 
faid to have been fufficient to have retaken 
Amiens from the Spaniards. M. de Sully 
fuifered Henry to fend to him three or four 
times for it. At laft he brought it to the 
King when he was at the Arfenal near Paris, 
and laid it all out upon the table before him, 
in the principal apartment of that fortrefs. 
Henry fixed his eyes upon it for fome time 

G 3 with 


with great attention, and turning to Sully, faid, 
*' I am correfted ; I fliall never lofe any fum 
" of money again as long as I live." 

Of fuperftition be faid, that it was merely 
the ruft of religion, the mofs which grows on the 
flock of piety. " Water," added he, " has its 
" froth, the earth its duft^ and gold itfelf comes 
" not out of the bowels of the ground without 
" its impuritieSc" 

Humanity appears to have been a natural 
virtue in Henry. When he made excurfions 
into the diflant provinces, he ufed to ftop all 
the perfons he met, and afk them queftions, 
where they were going ? whence they came ? 
what they were carrying ? what goods they fold .^■ 
and what was the price ? One of his attendants 
appearing furprifed one day at his famiUarity, 
and at his entering into fuch details with his 
fubjecls, he faid to him, " The Kings of 
'' France, my predeceiTors, thought themfelves 
" diilionoured in knowing the value of a teflon. 
" With refpe6l to myfelf, I am anxious to 
" know what is the value of half a denier, and 
" what difficulty the poor people have to get 
" it, fo that they may not be taxed above 
*' their means." 



When fome of his Courtiers were one day 
exprefling their fears that his great famiharity 
would deflroy that refpedl for his perfon which 
fubjeds fhould feel for their King; he faid, 
" Pomp, parade, and a fevere gravity, belong 
only to t4iofe who feel that without fuch 
impofing externals they fhould have nothing 
that would imprefs refped. With regard 
to myfelf, by the grace of God I have in 
myfelf what makes me think that I am 
worthy of being a King. Be that however 
" as it may, it is more honourable for a 
" Prince to be beloved than feared by his 
" fubjecls." 

On declaring war againfb Spain, he had 
thoughts of aboHIhing the land-tax. Sully 
afked him where he fhould then be able to find 
the money he wanted for carrying on the war. 
" Lithe hearts of my people,'* replied Henry; 
" that is a treafure which can never fail 


He told the Prince of Rohan, that he made 
it his confhant prayer to God that he would 
infpire him with grace to forgive his enemies, 
to gain the victory over his paflions, and parti- 
cularly over his weakneiies, and to make ufe of 

G 4 the 


the power he had granted him with difcrction 
and moderation. 

On being told of the death of the Prince of 
Conde, when, as King of Navarre, he felt very 
fenfibiy the lofs which he had fuftained, and 
knew to what dangers and difficulties he fingly 
remained expofed, without a friend to affifl and 
advife him ; he exclaimed, " God alone is my 
" refuge and fupport : in him alone I truft, 
" and I lliall not be confounded * :" an excla- 
mation (fays Abbe Brotier) worthy of the Chie£ 
of the family of Bourbon, whofe motto is 
'' Efpoir;' " Hope.'* 

After the entire defeat of the party of the 
League in France, a tradefman flopped the 

* An ingenious young man came to London fome year* 
ago in the hope of geiting fome employment. Unfuccefs- 
ful in his attempt, and reduced to extreme poverty, he had 
intended to throw himfelf into the Thames. On pafling 
near the Royal Exchange to efFedl his daring and def- 
perate purpofe, he faw the carriage of the late excel- 
lent Mr. Jonas Hanway, under the arms of which was this 
motto, ** Ne-Tjer defpair.'*'' The Ciigiilar occurrence of tliis 
fentence had fuch an effect on the mind of the young man, 
that he immediately deli fled from his horrid defign, gained 
foon afterwards a confiderabie efiablifliment, and died in 
gnod circLimllances, in the common courfe of mortality. 



camp equipages of the celebrated La Noue; 
ivho complaining to Henry of it, the latter 
told him, " Though we have been viftorious 
**" over our enemies, we have not on that ac^ 
" count difpenfed from thejuft demands of our 
creditors ; and can you think it a hardlhip to 
pay your debts, when I do not pretend to 
difpenfe myfelf from paying mine?" He 
then took out of his pocket fome jewels, which 
he gave to La Noue to redeem his carriages. 

Of the readinefs of reply and good-humour 
of this great Prince, the following anecdote is 
told by Brotier : 

The Spanifli Ambaffador at the Court of 
Henry was one day enquiring of him the 
charader of his Minifters. " You fliall fee 
*' what they are in a minute," faid the 
Monarch. On feeing M. de Silleri, the Chan* 
cellor, come into the drawing-room, he faid to 
him, *' Sir, I am very uneafy at a beam that is 
" good for nothing, and which feems to threaten 
" to fall upon my head." — " Sire," replied Sil- 
leri, " you Ihould confult your Archited ; let 
** every thing be well examined, and let him 
" go to work ', but there h no hurry." Henry 
next faw M. de Villeroi, to whom he fpoke as 



he had done to Silleri. " Sire," replied Vil- 
kroi, without looking at the beam, " you are 
*' very right ; the beam is very dangerous in- 
*' deed.** At laft the Prefident Jeannin came 
in, to whom Henry made a fimiiar addrefs as 
to the former Minifters, " Sire,** faid the Pre- 
fident, " I do not know what you mean. The 
*' beam is a very good one.'* — " But,'* replied 
the King, " do not I fee the light through the 
" crevices, or is my head difordered ?** — " Go, 
" go, Sire,** returned Jeannin, " be quite at 
'^ your eafe; the beam will laft as long as you 
" will." Then turning to the Spanifh Minifher, 
Henry obferved to him, " Now I think you arc 
*' well acquainted with the characters of my 
" three Miniflers. The Chancellor has no 
*' opinion at all j Villeroi is always of my opi- 
" nion^ and Jeannin fpeaks as he really thinks^ 
" and always thinks properly." 

Henry, on his marriage with Mary of Medi- 
cis, placed Madame de Guercheville (whofe vir- 
tue he had attempted to feduce without fuccefs) 
about her perfon ; giving as a reafon, that as 
flie really was a Lady of Honour, fhe ought to 
be Dame d'Honneur to a Queen. 

When he befieged Paris, Henry permitted 
thofe perfons to come out of the town unmo- 



lefted through his army who were defirous to 
quit that city, then fuffering the moft horrid 
famine and ficknefs ; obferving, " I do not 
" wonder that the chief perfons of the League 
*^' and the Spaniards have fo httle compafTion 
" for thefe poor people ; they are merely their 
^' tjTants ', but I, who am their father and their 
" King, cannot bear to hear of the calamities 
" they fuffer without fhuddering, and being 
^' afflidled to the very bottom of my foul, and 
*^ without defiring eagerly to put a flop to 
** them. I cannot help thofe who are poiTelTed 
" with the Demon of the League from perifli- 
*' ing v/ith it ; but to thofe who implore my 
*' clemency, I will ever extend my arms ; they 
f' fhall not fuffer for the crimes of others." 

Some one was faying before this Prince, 
^' how happy Kings were.'*- — " They are not," 
replied he, " fo happy as you imagine them 
" to be. Kings are either bad or good men. 
" If they are bad men, they bear within them- 
*' felves their own plague and torment. If they 
*' are good men, they find from other people a 
" thoufand caufes of uneafmefs and affliction. 
*^ A good king feels the misfortunes of all his 
" fubjects j and in a great kingdom what innu- 
!* merable fources are there of afflidion T* 



|-IrniY, natuiMlly c heart iil hunfolf, lovtM 
Chcartulncfs in oilwY pcifons. "" 1 cannot/* 
hid lu\ *' willinglv employ a melancholy pci ■» 
w. fivn, lor a man thai is ill-huinouicd to him* 
♦* lolt', cannot caiily bo go^Kl-lumiouicd toother 
•* pertons. \\\vM fatistadSon can l>i procured 
<* tVoni a n\an who is diiliuisticd with hiui^ 

llis C\nirtiers one viay coniphinentnn;* hnn 
upon the llieni\lh ot his contliuilion, and telU 
ing hun that he uuill live to be ei^;luy yc.u"s ot 
agci lie replied, ** The number ot our days is 
•* reckoned. I have otien praved to Ciod tor 
"' iMace, but never tor a loni\ lite. A man 
••^ who has lived well, has always lived long 
•* cnoui\h, hvnvever early he may ilie." 

When tbme one was makino- a oTcat culo- 

v.. C 

gium upon the riches ot the kingdom of Spain, 
and addiiii^ that VVance was tull ot the pial- 
tivs ot'ihat countiy; lienry replied, ** When 
** thet'e piatlres remair\ in Spain, it is a mark 
*^ of the riches ot that kinp^dom, as, when they 
" arc (ecu out ot that kina:doni, ii is a mark of 
** its indigence. Indexxl the galleons ot Spain 
'* bring into that country eight millions ot 
** pialliUs l>^'t tour ot* theie millions arc lent 
'* into France lor ovir corn, our wiiie, our iiili, 
** oiir cloths, and our wool. Theie are our 

** miiniK^ i 

** miner. ; they enrich us without incurring the 
" dangers of the fea, or facrificing our fubjc^ts. 
•* The Spaniards come to trance to buy of 
** us, we never go to them: they do not give 
*< us their money, but pay it to u:j *." 

Refle6ting one day on the tranquillity which 
France was enjoying, whilft the greater part of 
Europe was at war, or in a near ftate of becom- 
ing fo ; he {aid, " Thank God, though wc 
*' have had the misfortune to have been upon 
" the theatre of war, at prefent we are only 
" fpc4a:ators/' 

Henry, though divorced from his firft wife 
Margaret de Valois, ever behaved to her with 
kindnefs and good-humour. The following 
letter of his to that Princcfs was publifhed a 
few years ago at I-'aris : 

^* MaSeur, 

"Jay ete byen ayfe daprandrc de vos nou- 
*•' velles par ie sr. dc fuyjac par le quel vous 
" aprandres des myennes & come la goutte 
" mayant quyte aus pyes ma prys au gcnoux 
" mes mayntenant je man porte mycus & elperc 

• Charles the Fifth ufed to fay even in hb time, " Every 
*• thing abounds in France ; in Spain, e^/ery thing h wanting. 
" En Frame ten: ah^nde^ ttut manque in E/pagne.** 

\ " demayn 



demayn coure un cheureuyl & mardy an 
cerf & sy de la au hors je vays en amandant 
come je lefpere je fere pour vous voyr dans 
la fyn de la femene cependant je vous dyre 
que ceft la moyndre chofe que vous pouves 
atandre de moy que le comandemant de 
lefpedyfyon du don que je vous ay fet pour le 
rapt quy a ete fet de la petyte fylle dudyt 
sr. de fuyjac encore que avant la receptyon 
de la vre jy euffe pourveu de facon quyl an 
aura tout contantement sy eft ce que conoy- 
fant que vous lafexyones yl vera come pour 
lamour de vous je lafexyone & ce refantyra 
de lefet de vore pryere & recomandafyon 
come vous par tout ce quy depandra de moy 
quy fuys 

" vre byen bon pere 

" Henry.'"* 

" ce X* aut a monceau.*' 
A ma Seur la Royne Margueryte.'* 

In 1599, when the Duke of Savoy came to 
Paris to accommodate his difpute with Henry 
refpeding the Marquifate of Saluces, Henry 
was advifed to keep him a prifoner till he had 
come to an agreement concerning it. The 
Monarch replied, " Whoever gave me that 
advice can be no true friend of mine, but a 
perfon who would deftroy my honour. Who^ 






*'' ever affe6ls my good faith, gives me more 
** uneafinefs than if he affecled my throne." 

Henry ufed to deplore thofe unfortunate dif- 
putes which divided Europe, and faid, that if 
the Chriflian Princes would but unite them- 
felves, in one year they might defhroy the 
Turkifli Empire, more particularly when all the 
principal perfons of that empire w^ere difcontent- 
ed, and whilft Perfla was an enemy fo formi- 
dable to it. 

When he was told of the defeat and lofs of 
the gallies belonging to the State of Malta, he ex- 
claimed, " How melancholy all this is ! Whilfh 
*' the Chriflian Republic fliould increafe, it 
" diminifhes. We are like thofe madmen who 
" tear the perfons in pieces that are bringing 
" them afliilance." 

When he was told what judgment his fub- 
je6ls were fom^times forming of himfelf and of 
his adlions, he ufed to fay, '' I remain alone 
" upon the throne, and am i^eQn. there by 
" many perfons of different iituations. I am 
" on an eminence, they are in a valley. We 
" judge but imperfedly of thofe objeds that 
" are at a great diftance from us : fo my fub- 

jeds judge of me," 




On the Chriflmas-day of 1609 Henry went 
\vith his Court to the Church of St. Gervais at 
Paris, to hear a celebrated Preacher -, who, vain 
of the honour of having fo illuftrious a hearer as 
his Sovereign, foon interrupted the thread of 
his difcourfe, and apoftrophized Henry, After' 
having paid him the. highefl comphments on the 
clemency, the juftice, and the humanity of his 
reign, he infifted upon many points, which^ 
more hike a poUtician than a divine, he thought 
neceflary for the good of reHgion and the fafety 
of the flate. Heniy heard him without the 
leafl: emotion, and on going out of church merely 
faid, " Why, the preacher of to-day did not 
** entirely fill up his hour.'* The day after- 
wards Henry came to hear him again, when 
meeting him as he was going into the pulpit, 
he faid to him, " My Father, every one exped- 
ed that at this time you fliould be in the 
Baflile, but the opinions of the world and 
thofe of myfelf do not always go together, 
I am much obliged to you for the zeal that 
you have fliewn for my falvation. Continue^ 
I beg of you, to requefl it of God for me, 
" and contribute to it yourfelf by your good 
" advice. In whatever place, and at whatever 
•* time, you ihall think fit to give^it to me, 
" you v;ill always find me well inclined to fol- 
" low it, I have only to requeft of you, that 

" 3^ou 


*' you will not let your zeal get the better of 
*' your difcretion when you think fit to give 
" me advice in public, and that you would 
*' defift from thofe invedtives which may alie- 
" nate the love, and diminifli the refped my 
*' fubje6ts owe to me. You know my extreme 
" jealoufy refpe6ling the former, and the ex- 
" treme delicacy that attends the latter. Ex- 
" cept in public, at any private audience you 
" may give as much latitude to your zeal as 
*' you pleafe. On my part, I will bring to it 
" all that docility of which I am capable; 
and if my weaknefs will permit me to go 
with you, it will be more my fault than 
yours if I do not become better. Once for 
all, continue, I beg, your regard to me, and 
be affured of my conftant protection.*' 

The Jefuits, on account of their learning and 
their very agreeable manners, were great fa- 
vourites with this Prince. He ufed to tell 
them, they had two Generals ; " the Gown, 
*' and the Sword. The firftwas at Rome; the 
*' fecond was himfelf." 

The Du chefs de la Tremouille, who was a 
Huguenot, was one day repeating to Henry 
fome fcandal refpecling Father Cotton, one of 
the Jefuits that was the mofh patronized by 

VOL. IV. H Henry, 


Henry, and who was his ConfefTor. Henry 
replied, " Madam, do. but attend to the fpirit 
*' of your religion : it prevents you from, be-^ 
" lieving in the Pope, at the fame time that it 
*' indines you to beheve a calumny." 

When fome of the Huguenot Minifters re- 
prefented to him that their fedt could not con- 
tinue fo long as there were Jefuits in France, he 
replied, " I will endeavour to preferve you both^ 
" fo that the good may fave the bad, and, if 
*' polTible, that no one may perifli." He was 
likewife told by the Huguenots, that he fufFered 
fiimfelf to be led by the Jefuits; " Oh, no," 
replied he, " for I lead both Jefuits and Hu- 
" guenots.'' He faid to the Deputies of the 
Parliament who wiflied to prevent that Order 
from being eflablifhed in France, " When I 
had ferious thoughts of introducing the Je- 
fuits at Paris, two forts of perfons oppofed it, 
the Huguenots, and the Catholic Priefts of 
" irregular living; both of whom reproached 
" them with endeavouring to attrad; to them 
" men of learning and of wit : now for that I 
" efleem them. When I miake levies, I wifh 
" to pick out the befh troops for the purpofe, 
" and I am anxious that none lliould enter 
" into the Parliaments but worthy and excel- 
** lent fubjecfts; fo that throughout my king- 

" dom 




" dom merit fhould be the mark that dif- 
tinguifhes honours. The Jefuits forced them- 
felves, fay their adverfaries, into my king- 
dom. I am fure that I forced my way into 
" it. Clement, who affaffinated my predecef- 
^' for, did not accufe them of being accom- 
*' plices with him ; and if a Jefuit had been 
*' concerned with him in that horrid a6tion, 
" (of which I wifli ever to lofe the remem- 
" brance) mufl the whole Order fuffer on hh 
*' account ? fhould all the Apoftles have been 
*' driven out of Judea for one Judas } The 
*' horrors of the League fliould no longer be 
" imputed to them. It w^as the error of the 
*' times ', and they, as well as many others, were 
*' concerned in it from the beft intentions.** 

Before the battle of Ivry, which decided the 
fate of the Crown of France, this magnani- 
mous Prince made the following pious addrefs 
to God : " If it fliould plcafe thee not to beftow 
*' the Crown upon me, or thou feeft that I 
^' am likely to be one of thofe Kings whom 
" thou givefl to mankind in thy wrath, take 
" away my life as well as the Crown ! Grant 
*' me to-day to be the victim of thy wife will ! 
" Grant that my death may deliver Frahte 
*' from the calamities of w^ar, and that my 
^' blood may be the lafl that fliall be fhed in 

HZ " this 


'^ this dlfpute !'* Immediately before he chirg-* 
ed the enemy, he laid to the regiment which 
he headed, " My Comrades, if you follow my 
*' fortune, remember I follow yours. I am de- 
" termined either to conquer or to die with 
*' you. Keep your ranks, I befeech you, but 
" if the violence of the engagement fliould 
make you quit them, endeavour to rally 
again ; that enfures victory. You will rally 
under thofe three trees that you fee there on 
the eminence ; and if you fhould lofe your 
** fliandards, do not lofe fight of my white 
" plume of feathers ; you will ever find it in 
" the road to honour and to vidory." When 
the enemy's ranks were broken, he exclaim- 
" ed, Sauvez les Francois dff mainbajfe fur 
'' FEtrangerr 

Soon after the entrance of Henry into Paris, 
the Spanifh AmbalTador, who had been there 
during the time of the League, faid, that the 
city was fo altered he hardly knew it. " It is," 
faid Henry, V' becaufe the father of the family 
" is prefent, and takes care of his children, and 
" fo they profper/' 

Henry once gave Into fome meafures which 
his fubjeds did not appear to approve of, and 
were therefore free in their conVerfations upon 



them. ^* My thoughts," faid Henry, " are 
" too elevated, and my defigns too deep for the 
" mafs of my people to fathom. They will, 
" however, fee by the event that God is my 
^' guide. With refped: to them, the peace 
" and the tranquillity which they enjoy, allow 
" them opportunities to fpeak. Their words 
^-' fly away, whilft my adtions remain.** 

Henry ufed to fay, that the world would 
be aftonilhed to find Queen Elizabeth of Eng- 
land a maid, Maurice Prince of Orange a maa 
of courage, and himfelf a good CathoUck. 

** This Prince,'- fays Brotier, " fo great, fo 
^' amiable, fo good, was well acquainted with 
" his own merit, but had in general the misfor- 
^' tune that thofe who were about himi had not 
'> the proper degree of feeling refpe61:ing it." 
On the day of his death he had heard mafs at 
the church of the Feuillans at Paris. On his 
return, the Duke of Guife and BalTompierre 
met him walking in the Gardens of the Thuil- 
leries, where he talked with them fo pleafantly, 
that he kept them in a continual laugh j and 
the Duke of Guife could not help laving to 
the Monarch, embracing him at the fame time, 
*^ Sire, vous etes a nion gre tin des plus agreahles 
•* Iwmmes du monde'^ The King then turning 

H ^ to 


to him and BafTompierre, laid in a grave tone of 
voice, " None of you fufficiently underftand me ; 
" but I (hall die one of thefe days, and when 
*' you have loft me, then you will know my 
*' value, and what difference there is between 
*' me and other men." Thefe melancholy 
ideas were, for fome days before he died, conti- 
nually crowding into his mind. The day before 
his death, he faw from a clofe tribune the cere- 
mony of the coronation of his fecond wife, Mary 
of Medicis, at St. Denis. The fpeclators, placed 
upon benches, filled the choir of the church to 
the very top of the roof of it. Struck with the 
immenfity of the crowd, he faid to Father 
Cotton, his ConfelTor, " You cannot guefs on 
*' what I w^as thinking juft now, when I was 
" looking at this great concourfe of people. 
** I w^as thinking of the laft Judgment, and of 
*' the account we are all then to give of our 
'' anions." 

By the kindnefs of Mr. Plant a, of tfie 
Britifh Mufeum, this Article of Henry the 
Fourth is enriched with two Letters of that 
great Prince, when King of Navarre, which have 
never been printed, and of which the Originals 
remain in the Bi-iiifh Mufeum. One was ad- 
dreffed to M. du Pleffis, his Minifter at the 
Court of Queen Elizabeth 5 the other to Mr. 



Anthony Bacon, brother to the celebrated 
Chancellor of that name. 

" (since henry the fourth of FRANCE), 
« SEPT. 23, 1586. 

" MoNs' Duplellys parce que Jay entendu 
" que Bufanval a receu a Londres quinfe cens 
" Ecus pour Mons' de Bacon & que Jay eu 
" playnte de ce que les ayant de fy longtems II 
" ne les a fait tenir au dyt S' de Bacon — Jay 
" bien voulu vous ecrire la prefante dautant 
*' que je defireroys le gratyfyer tant pour fon 
" meryte 8c en faveur de ceus a qui II aparty- 
" ent que J'eftyme beaucoup que pour etre de 
*' la Nation Angloyfe pour vous pryer de le 
" fecouryr de quelque fomme atendant quyl 
*' puyffe refevoyer ce que le dyt Bufanval a 
'' pour lui entre mayns. Je panfe byen que 
" vous aves peu de moyans par de la mays ce 
" me fera chofe fort agreable fy vous lui pouves 
" baylier & fere fournyr jufques a troys ou 
" quatre cens Ecus — vous pourres mander 

audyt Bufanval de fere tenyr par quelque 


" voye (comme ill fen pent trouver plufyeurs) 
" ce quyl a receu pour lui cz fere rembourler 
*' ce que vous luy aves fet fournyr Ce que 
" maflurant que vous feres Je ae vous en dyray 

H 4 " davantagc 


" davantage fy ce n'eft que je feray byen ayfc 
" que le dyte S' de Bacon ayt en cela contan- 
" temant. Adyeu Mons' du PlelTys, 
" ceil 
" Votre tres afedlyonne Mettre & 

" parfet Amy.'* 
** De la Rochelle, ce xxiii de Settambre.'* 

" DATED SEPT. 23, I586. 

" Mons' de Bacon Je fuys byen marry de 

*' ce que Bufanval na fet autre devoyr de vous 

*' fere tenyre la fomme quyl avoyt refeus pour 

*' vous car il fayt combyen J'eftyme ceus a 

'^ quy vous apartenes & combyen Je vous ayme 

*' Je mande a Mons' Dupleflys de vous fe- 

*' couryr de ce quyl pourra atendant que vous 

*' ayes receu vos denyers Je croy quyl le fera 

** encores que la neceffyte des afaires et des 

*' charges de dela foyt grande J^euiTe byen de- 

" fyre que voflre fante yous euft permys d'eilre 

*' aupres de moy, car J'euffe donne ordre que 

*' vous n'euflyes poynt tombe en telles dyfy- 

*' cultes Je vous prye fetes tousjours eflat de 

" moy et vous affures que Je fuys 

*' Vre afedyone et alTure Amy, 

" Henry." 



Abbe de Marolles, in his Memoirs, thus de- 
fcribes the flate of France under this excellent 
Monarch ; 

" The idea,'* fays he, " of thofe days Hill 

" gives me pleafure. I pafs over in my mind 

*' with an inconceivable fatisfadtion the beauty 

*' of the country at that timex It appears to 

^' me as if the country was more fertile then 

*' than it is now, that the meadows were more 

^^ verdant than they are at prefent, and that 

" the trees bore more and better fruit. What 

*' a pleafure it was to hear the warbling of the 

*' birds, the lowing of the cattle, and the 

*^ rufbic fongs of the fliepherd ! The cattle 

*^ then remained fafe in the fields, and the 

" hufbandmen in perfedl fecurity ploughed up 

*' the furrows to put in the grain, which the 

*' tax-^^atherers and the foldiers had not then 

*' begun to ravage. The peafant had then his 

*' little cottage, his neat furniture, and all that 

*' was neceiiary for him, and flept quietly in 

*' his own bed. When the feafon of harvefL 

*:* was come, it was a great pleafure to fee the 

" reapers, bending one over another, defpoil 

" the furrows of their corn, and gather up their 

*' treafures, which the more robuft tied toge- 

*' ther, while the others loaded the waggons 

** with the (heaves, and the children that were 

*' keeping 



keeping their cattle at a difhance, gleaned 
the ears of corn which a good-natured and an 
aife(^ed forgetfulnefs had left behind them. 
The flronger girls of the village reaped the 
corn as well as the boys, and their mutual 
" labour w^as occalionally interrupted by a 
^^ ruftic meal, that was eaten fometimes under 
" the fhade of an apple or a pear tree, wdiich 
f let down its branches, covered with fruit, 
*^ even into their very hands. 

" After the harveft, the peafants fixed upon 
*' fome holiday to meet together and have a 
" little regale (by them called the Harveft 
*^ Golling), to which they invited not only each 
"' other, but even their mailers, who pleafed 
^ them very much when they condefcended to 
'*- partake of it. 

"■ When thefe goods folks married any of 
" their children, it was a pleafure to fee the 
** ceremony; for befide the fine clothes of 
"- the bride, that w^as nothing lefs than a red 
*' gown, and a cap embroidered w^ith foil and 
" glafs beads, the parents were^drelTed in their 
** blue clothes, well plaited, that they drew out 
'^^ tor the occaiion from their old chefts, per- 
"• fumed with lavender, dried rofes, and rofe- 
" maiy. Favours in honour of the ceremony 

" were 


*^ were not forgotten upon the occafion. All 
" the perfons that were invited wore them, 
" either tied to their girdles or their lleeves. 
*' There was a ruftic concert of bagpipes, flutes, 
*' and hautboys; and after a very plentiful 
" dinner the dancing lafted till the evenings 
^' No one then complained of the excefs of the 
" impofts. Every one paid his little tax with 
*' cheerfulnefs, and I do not remember ever to 
*' have heard it faid, that any march of fol- 
*' diers * had ever pillaged a fingle village, 
*' much lefs defolated whole provinces, as we 
*' have but too often feen fmce that time by 

• I hate that drum's difcordant found, 
Parading round, and round, and round; 
To thoughtlefs youth it pleafure yields. 
And lures from cities and from fields. 
To fell their liberty for charms 
Of tawdry lace and glitt'ring arms, 
And when Ambition*s voice commands, 
To march, and fight, and fall in foreign lands. 

I hate that drum's difcordant found, 
Parading round, and round, and round ; 
To me it talks of ravaged plains, 
And burning town?, and ruined fwains, 
And mangled limbs, and dying groans. 
And widows tears, and orphans moans, 
And all that Mifery's hand beftows. 
To fill the catalogue of human woes. 

•* Fofms by M)\ Scott, of Jm-ivcU, Herfs'' 

*' the 



*' the calamities neceirarily attendant upon-. 

" Such was the clofe of the reign of Henry 
the Fourth. It was theend of a great many 
*' blefiings, and the beginning of a great many 
*' miferies, when a mahgnant and outrageous 
" Demon took away the life of this great 
*^' Prince ; of which difaftrous event I think I 
'^ had a very fenfible prognoflic ; for on the 
^•' night of the accurfed day in which he was 
'-^ aiTaffinated, the 14th of May 1610, I faw a 
" great light in the Heavens, nearly at mid- 
** night, that made the whole country appear 
" as if it had been on fire. I faw this light 
" juil as I was going to bed, and the perfons 
" who faw it at the lame time with me were 
" feized with the greateft aftonithment as well 
*' as myfelf. The tremendous phenomenon 
" lafted but a very fhort time, and the next 
" morning the news of the King's afTailination 
" was brought to our village.'* 

" Memoires de L'A^be pe Marolles/' 

Voltaire calls Henry, 

De jes jujets le vainqueur ^ le pere: 

His fubjefts conqueror, yet their father too: 

and no Prince ever better deferved the honour- 
able appellation of the Father of his fubjeds 



than Henry. His wifli that eveiy peafant in 
his kingdom might have a fowl in his pot every 
Sunday, and his efforts to render that wifli ef- 
fediual, by encouraging agriculture and by im- 
pofing eafy taxes , his humanity of difpofition, 
kis ealinefs of acceis, and the franknefs of his 
chara6ler, have made a French Poet fay, per- 
haps rather too ftrongly of him as his Sove- 

Seul Roi dont lepeuple a garde la memoir e : 
The only King whofe Royal name revered 
Lives in the grateful memory of the people *. 

Adivity was one of the flriking features la 
the charader of Henry. This made that great 
General the Duke of Parma fay of him, "that 
*' all the other Generals of his time carried on 
^ war like lions and tigers, while he carried it 
" on like an eagle/' 

Henry's device was Hercules taming a 
^lonfler, with this motto : 

Invia vlrtutl nulla ejl via : 
Virtue purfues each honeft path to glory* 

* He appears to have forgotten the excellent Louis XIL 
who had every virtue that Henry poflelTed, without the lead 
allov of frailtv or of vice. 




" Thofe who eat and drink much/' faid 
Henry, " are like perfons abfolulely buried 
" in their flefh *. They are incapable of any 
" thing great. If/* added he, " I occafionally 
" indulge myfelf in the pleafures of the table> 
** it is merely to enliven and infpirit my 
'' mind.'* 

When he was informed that fome of his 
troops had been living at difcretion upon the 
frontier, he fent word to their Officers, " If you 
" do not put a flop to thefe diforders, your 
*' heads Ihall anfwer for them. For know, 
" Sirs, by the honour of God I fwear^ that 
" whoever takes any thing from my people, 
" takes it away from myfelf.'* 

Being congratulated on a victory obtained 
by his army, in which many lives were loft on 
the part of his forces, he replied, " It is no fatis- 
" fadlion to me to fee fo many of my fub- 
*' jecls lying dead upon the field. I lofe much 
*' more than I gain.'* 

" Henry," fays Voltaire very beautifully, 
*' learned to rule, by being educated in the 
" hard fchool of Adverfity." His fituation from 

* " Gourmandife ejl U 'vice des ames qui n^ont point de 
*■ ' treinpe .-— R o u s s e \ u . 

:'^ 4 early 


early to middle life, had been a fuccefTioii of 
danger, exertion, toil, and difficulty. This 
better fitted him for the arduous tafk of reign- 
ing, by making him acquainted with every cir- 
cumftance incident to humanity, and made 
him feel for thofe miferies fo natural to man- 
kind, of which he had himfelf participated. 

His grandfather, Jean D'Albret, King of 
Navarre, carried his delire of m.aking him hardy 
fo far (anxious that heroifm fhould be trans- 
ferred to him from his mother, and that to be 
able to fuffer, and be patient under fuiferings, 
ihould make as much a part of his hereditary 
conilitution as the features of his countenance 
and the frame of his body), that he tqld his 
Daughter, who was then with child of Henry, 
that if (lie would iing during the pains of partu- 
rition the well-known Bearnois hymn to the 
Virgin, that begins, 

Notre Dame-i au hout de pont^ 
Aidez '17101 a cette heure 1 

Our Lady at the bridge's foot *, 
Support me in this painful hour ! 

* At the entrance of every town, and more particxilarlv 
on every bridge, in Old France, there was placed an image 
of the Virgin, or of fome Saint, to whom the inhabitants 
paid their devotions, 



he would give her a gold chain which had be- 
longed to her Mother, and which he knew fhe 
was very anxious to poflefs. She complied with 
her father's requefl very readily, and received 
the chain. 

" As foon as Henry was born," fays the 
Abbe Brotier, " Henri d' Albret his grandfather 
*' took him in his arms, and gave his mother 
*' his will in a golden box, telling her. The box 
" is yours, my girl, but the child is mine. He 
*' infhantly began upon that plan of hardy and 
" manly education which he intended to give 
" him, by rubbing his lips with a clove of gar- 
" lick, and by putting a drop of fhrong wine 
*' into his mouth. He was much pleated with 
*' the child, as he grew bigger and ftronger, and 
" ufed to ihew him to every one, exclaiming, 
" See what a Lion my Ewe has produced ! 
" He cauied him to be brought up like the 
" children of the peafants of his country, with- 
*' out allowing the leafh difhindlion to be made 
" between him and them, making him undergo 
*' the fame ilrong exercife which they did, and 
" permitting no one to call him Prince *, or 

" to 

* The celebrated Anne Connetable de Montmorenci was 
fcnt to ieive abroad by liis father at a very early age, who 


" to grant him the leaft indulgences. Then/* 
adds the Abbe, " foon afterwards, the vivacity, 
the penetration, the affabiUty that charac- 
terifed Henry, began to make its appear- 
ance." — Paroles Memorahles reciieiliies par 
L'Abbe Brotier, Paris, izmo. 1790. 

The two following Letters from this Prince 
to the Chancellor de Bellievre are copied from 
the MS. in the Britilh Mufeum. 

M'. De belyevre, ce m.ot par vacquyer 
cegretere de ma feur eft pour vous recoman- 
der tout ce quy la concernera et que je luy 
" ay cydevant accorde a ce que vous tenyes la 
" mayn quelle an JouylTe come ceft ma volonte 
" et que fur cella vous oyes le dit vacquyer 
*' audemeurant je ne puys trouver queftrange de 
*^ ce que ma court de parlemant contre ma 
*^ volonte et les arrefts que Jay donnes an mon 
*^ confeyl pour refon dun etat de mes cegreteres 
*' que je donnay a houdayer fyis dun de mes 

gave him two or three horfes and five hundred livres* 
*' He mil ft learn to fliift," faid he, *' and not be allowed 
" all the indulgences which are ufually granted to young 
" men of his rank. He will then learn to know what he is 
*' about, and to make a virtue of neceflity. No one can 
*' ever know any thing well, who has not been taught to 
*» encounter difficulties.'* 

VOL. IV. I " anfyens 


** aiifyens cervj^teurs et en faveur de ma feur le 
" jour de fon maryage veuylle mayntenyr dulys 
** an cet etat centre ma volonte et ce que Jan 
** ay ordonc pouvoyes a cette afere tellement 
" que je nan oye plus parler et fetes conoy tre a 
*' ma court de parlemant que je veus etre obey, 
" a Dieu M'. de belyevre (fu) lequel Je pryQ 
" vous avoyr an fa garde ce xxix'"' ceptambre 
" a fontaynebleau. 

" M'. le ciiancelyer. Jay done a ma fame 
** les denyers quy provyendront de la creafyoa 
de deus ofyces de confeylers an ma court de 
parlemant de bretagne pour acheter des meu- 
bles pour fa mcfon de monceaus lefquels il eft 
befoyn de creer pour randre les deus feances 
egales auiTy que ie fonds des gages ne ce 
prand poynt fur mes fynances Je vous prye 
done de feler ledyt atandu que ceft ma vo- 
lonte come aufTy la comutasyon de peyne de 
lamande honorable a me fere cervyfe a mets 
que Jay acordee et quy vous cera prefantee 
ced cliofc de p-eu et quy defameroyt un 
hcneile home quy apartyent a de mes cervy- 
teurs Jay feu auiTy quevous naves ancores 
fele la deckrafyon des papegaus de bretagne 
/ " come vous mavyes promys et de la remetre 

" ant re 










^^ antre les mains de M' de Sylery ce que je 
'^^ vous prye de fere au plufloft car ces longueurs 
" ruynent touttes les afayres et la bayler audyt 
" S' de Sylery auquel Jefcrys de la retyrer de 
*' vos mayns et vous feres chofe que Jaure tres 
" agreable quy me gardera de vous an dyre 
" davantage pour pryer Dieu M' le chancelyer 

vous avoyr an fa garde ce 2^ Avril a fontene- 


" Henry/' 




When Charles the Ninth gave his filler in 
marriage to Henry the Fourth, he faid, " J'ai 
^' aomte ma foeur en manage a ions les Kiigmmts 
^* de mon Royaiime''' She foon began to liv€ 
upon ill terms with her hufband, and was con- 
fmedin one of the fortrefTes of Navarre. She 
thus forcibly defcribes the etfe6l of folitude upon 
her mind; 

I Received thefe two advantages from my 
misfortunes and my confinement : I acquired 
" a tafte for reading, and 1 gave into devotion ; 
" two things for which I never iliould have had 
" the leaft tafle, had I remained amidft the 

12 *' pomps 


'^ pomps and the vanities of the world, far 
*' thefe advantages I am perhaps not fo much 
** indebted to fortune as to Providence, who- 
had the goodnefs to engage for me two fuch 
powerful remedies againft the evils which 
were to happen to me in future. Sorrow, 
contrary to gaiety, which carries our thoughts 
*' and our actions out of ourfelves, makes the 
mind rally within itfelf, exert all its powers 
to reject the evil, and to feek after the good, 
in hope to find out that fovereign and fu- 
preme good, which is the readieft way to 
*' bring itfeif to the knowledge and love of the 
« Deity." 

The Memoirs of Marguerite are very enter- 
taining. The tranflation of Plutarch's Lives by 
Amyot was a very favourite book with her in 
lier confinement, and fhe appears to have tranf- 
fufed into her Memoirs that naivete i^ vieux 
Gaulois which we admire fb much in his ftyle. 

Marguerite, who underftood Latin, on feeing 
a poor man lying upon a dunghill, exclauned. 

Pauper ubique jacet. 

In any place, in any bed, 

The poor man reds his weary head. 




The man, to her aftonifhment, replied;; 

/« thalamis hac ?io51e tuis Reglna^jacerem-f 
Si verutriy hoc ejfet^ pauper ubiquejacet. 

Ah, beauteous Queen, were this but true. 
This night I would repofe with you. 

Marguerite ill-humouredly retorted ; 

Carceris in tenebris pisrans hac nQ5le facer c^ 
Si verum hoc ejfet^ pauper ubiquejacet. 

If this were true, thou wretched wight, 
A Gaol fhould be thy bed to-night; 
Where ftripes and fitters, whips and pain, 
Thv tonc-ue's ftrans;e licence fhould reftrain. 

Marguerite was divorced from Henry on his 
<iccefiion to the throne of France, and led up 
Mary de Medicis, his fecond wife, to the altar- 
at St. Denis to be crowned. She was extremely 
charitable to the poor, and liberal to fchcdars 
^nd men of talents. Her palace at Paris was 
the rendezvous of the beaux efprits of that 
Capital. She was beautiful in her perfon, very 
fafcinating in her manners, and danced with 
fuch peculiar grace, that the celebrated Don 
John of Auilria went incognitQ from Bruffels to 
Paris to fee her dance. 

Befide Memoirs of her Life, which are im= 
perfeft, flie wrote fome PoemSo In the former 

I 3 fhe 


£he thus defer ibes what paiTed in her bed- 
chamber on the morning of St. Bartho- 
lomew : 

" My hufband rofe early in the morning to 
^' play at tennis, before he fhould fee the King. 
' He and hi^ Gentleman left me. I, per- 
ceiving that it was day, and fuppoling that 
the danger which my fiiler had predicted to. 
**^ me was over, overcome by walchfulnefs, told 
^' my old nurfe to fiiut the door of the room, 
" that I miight Heep more at my cafe. About 
*^ an hour afterwards, I was awakened out of 
*' a very profound fieep by hearing the door 
" knocked at very loudly, and by hearing a 
*' man cry out, Navarre ! Navarre ! My 
" nurfe, thinking that it v/as the King my huf- 
" band, who wiilied to come in, ran to the 
" door and opened it immediately. The per^ 
*' fon, however, that knocked thus violently, 
" was a Moniicur de Tejan, who was wcund- 
" ed in the elbow with a fword, and had like- 
" wife another wound in th.e arm with a hal-. 
'* bcxt ; aad who was clofely purfued by three 
*' dra.;^"Oons, who all of tlitm tcgether forceci 
" themfelves into the room. Ttj'an, anxious 
** to fave his life, tb ew himfelf upon my bed, 
*' I, perceiving myfelf held down by him, threw 
^ luyfelf upon the fide of the bed, and he after 

** me. 


^^ me, taking hold of mv waift, I had not 
" the leaft acquaintance with him, and in my 
" fright did not know whether the foldiers in- 
'^ tended mirchiefto him or to myfelf. At iafl 
" however, it pieafed God that Monficur de 
'' Nan.jey, Ca})tain of the King's Guards, came 
" ill to us, who, tinding me in this fituation 
" (although he was a man of great humanity), 
" could not refrain from laughter ; and ftorm- 
" ing at the foldiers for their infolent intru- 
^' fion, fent them away, and granted me the 
^' life of the poor man, who ftiil held by me". 
^' I afterwards ordered his wounds to be dreiTed, 
" and himfelf put to bed in my clofet till hq 
** was recovered. 

" When I had changed my Ihift (v/hich was 

*^ covered with blood), M. de ^3ancey told me 

*' what had happened, and informed me that 

*' the King my hufband was with the King my 

^^ brother in his apartment, and that not a hair 

" of his head would be touched. Then mak- 

**■ ing me throw my night-gown over me, he 

*' conduded me to the room of my -ifter the 

" Duchefs of Lorraine, and Vv'hich I entered 

** more dead than alive. As I was paiTing 

*'' thjTOugh the anti-room (the doors of which 

^* were all openj, I faw a Gentleman of the 

** name of Bourfe, in endeavouring to efcape 

I 4 ** fome 


" feme foldlers that were purfuing him, fall 
*^* down dead nearly at my feet, run through 
" with a halbert. I fell down at no great dif- 
" tance from him on the other fide, in a fwoon, 
<' into the arms of Monfieur de Nancey, firmly 
** perfuaded that the fame thruft of the halbert 
" had run us both through. Recovering, how- 
" ever, I made the befl of my way to my 
" fifter's bed-chamber, where I found M. de 
" Meoffins, firft Gentleman of the Bed- 
" chamber to the King my hufband, and 
Armagnac, his firfh Valet-de-Chambre, who 
came running up to me, defiring me to favQ 
their lives. I then haftened to pay my re- 
fpeds to the King and Queen ; when, fall- 
ing upon my knees, I requefted them to 
fpare the lives of thefe Gentlemen j with 
which requefh at laft they complied." 


The Pope having once written a letter to 
M. de Sully upon his becoming Miniiler, 
which ended with his Holinefs's wiflies that he 
might enter into the right way ; Sully anfwered, 
that on his part he never ceafed to pray for the 
converfion of his Holinefs. 

A CO- 


A CQtemparary writer thus defcribes this great 

5* He was,** fays he, " a man of order, 
^' exaft, frugal, a man of his word, and had no 
" foolifli expences either of play or of any tl^ng 
?^ elfe that was unfuitable to the dignity of his 
^' charadier. He was vigilant, laborious, and 
5' expedited bufmefs. He fpent his whole 
5' time in his employments, and gave none of 
f* it to his pleafures. With all thefe qualifica- 
tions he had the talent of diving to the bot- 
tom of every thing that was fubmitted to 
him, and of difcovering every entanglement 
and difficulty with which financiers, when 
*' they are not honefl men, endeavour to con- 
ceal their tricks and their roguerieso" 


When the confpiracy of Biron againfl: Henry 
the Fourth was difcovered, Henry told Sully, 
that a great number of perfons, even fome 
amongft the higheft Nobility, were concerned 
in it, and delired him to guefs who they were. 
f Good God, Sire 1 fappofe any man to be a 
f* traitor ? That is what I will never do." 

Sully ufed to fay, that paflurage and agricul- 
ture were two teats to a kingdom, that were 
worth all the gold of Peru. 


122 SULLY. 

In fpite of the fupcriority of his talents, and 
the purity of his intentions, this great Miniiler 
was always harralTed by calumnies and mifrepre- 
fentations. Many of them were ftudioufly related 
to Henry, who occafionally mentioned them to 
him, to hear in what manner he defended him- 
felf. Once, after a converfation of three hours 
on fubjeds like thefe, he embraced Sully on 
coming out of his anti-chamber before all his 
court, and faid, " I efteem you as the befl and 
" the mofi innocent man that ever was, as well 
*' as the moft loyal and the moft ufeful fervant 
*' I ever poircfTed." Then turning round to 
feme of Sully's enemies who were prefent, he 
added, *' 1 wifh earneftly to let you all know, 
" that I love Sully better than ever, and that 
" death alone can diirolve my efteem for 
'' him/' 

Sully, in conformity with the principles of 
ccmm.crce that obtained in his time, wifhed 
his Sovereign to iffue an edi6l prohibiting the 
ufe oijt/k; looking upon it as a luxury im- 
ported from a foreign country, that would take 
away money out of the kingdom of France. 
Henry replied to him, " Why, my good Rofny, 
" I had rather fight the King of Spain in three 
*' pitched battles, than engage v;ith all thofe 
** gentry of police, of finance, of the cuftoms, 

" and 

** and efpecially with their wives and daughters, 
" that you will iec upon me by your whimfical 
** and unrciiionable regulation," 

Madame d'Entragues, Henry's favourite mif- 
treis, was extremely angry with Sully one day% 
on his njt immediately paying to her brother 
fome gratuity which that Monarch had ordered 
him, " Thi King/* faid Ihe to him, '' would 
" ad very fingularly indeed, if he were to dif- 
*' pleafe perfons of quality merely to give into 
" your notions. And pray. Sir, to whom 
" fhould a King be kind, if not to his Rela- 
*' tions, his Courtiers, and his MiftrelTes?" 
" That might be very well. Madam," replied 
Sully, " if the King took the money out of 
*^ his own purfe ; but in general he takes it out 
" of thofe of fliopkeepers, artizans, labourers^ 
" and farmers. Thefe perfons enable him to 
*' live. One mafler is enough for us, and we 
^* have no occafion for fuch a number of 
^* Courtiers, of Princes, and of King's Mif- 
'' treffes." 

Henry gave Sully one day the contra6t of 
marriage into which he had entered with Made- 
moifeile d'Entragues, to read ; who faid, after 
having read it, " Sire, will you promife me not 
** to be angry .?*" Henry replied, " Yes, Sully, 

" I prO' 

J24 SULLY.. 

^' I promife you that I will not be angry.** 
Sully tore the contrad in pieces immediately, 
faying, " Sire, this is the ulc you ough . lo m.^.ke 
^' of it.*' — " What, Sir, are you mad, to be-^ 
" have in this manner ?" faid H^^ni^y. " It is 
*' true. Sire,'* replied Sully, " that I am a 
" madman, and would be fo great a madman, 
^* as to be the only perfon mad in France." 

The Lady whofe contract of marriage with 
Henry Sully had thus torn in pieces calle4 
him one day " Valet,'' in the prefence of his 
Sovereign, becaufe he would not aififl: her 
views of ambition. *' This is too much, Ma- 
" dam," exclaimed Henry. '^ I had fooner 
" part with fix miflrelfes like yourfelf, than 
" with one fervant like Sully, whom you dare 
" to call Valet in my prefence. My anceftors 
" have not difdained to ally themfelves with 
^^ his, I aiTure you." 

Sully was one of the moft laborious Minif- 
ters that ever exifled. He rofe at four o'clock 
in the morning. The firft two hours after he 
got up were employed in reading and in expe^ 
diting the papers th^t lay upon his table ; this 
he called " nettoyer la tapis ^ At feven o'clock 
he attended Council, and the reft of the morn- 
ing was fpent with his Sovereign in tranfacfl- 

StTLLY. 12^ 

itig tilt different bufinefs with which he was en- 
trufled. At twelve o'clock he dined on a 
fervice of ttn dirties, with fome felecfl guefts. 
After dinner he gave an audience, where every- 
body was admitted : firfl the ecclefiaftics, both 
Catholics and Huguenots ; then the farmers^ 
and the perfons of meaner rank; and perfons 
of quality fucceeded to them. After his au- 
dience, he returned to his clofet, where he read 
and wrote till fupper-time, when he ordered 
his doors to be fhut, and gave himfelf up to 
the pleafures of fociety with a fev/ friends , and 
at ten o'clock he went to bed. 

On the death of his Sovereign and friend 
Henry the Fourth, he retired to his Chateau of 
Villebon, where he compofed his Memoirs by 
the title of " (Economies Roy ale s^'' which were 
printed in four volumes foUo. Thefe were 
afterwards put into better order and more 
modern French, and many of the details they 
contained retrenched by the Abbe de i'Eclufe ^ 
and this is the Edition of the Memoirs of that 
great and good Minifter which is at prefent 

In the retirement of Villebon he lived thirty 
years, feldom or never coming to Court, 
Louis the Thirteenth however, wilhing to have 


t26 SULLY- 

his opinion upon fome matters of confequenc^, 
fent for him to come to him at Paris, when 
the good old man obeyed his fummons, but 
not with the greatefh alacrity. The gay Cour- 
tiers, on feeing a man dreft unUke to them- 
felves, and of grave and ferious manners totally 
different from their own, and which appeared 
to be thofc of the lafh Century, turned Sully 
into ridicule, and took him off to his face. 
Sully, perceiving this, faid coolly to the King, 
" Sir, when your father, of glorious memory, 
*' did me the honour to confult me on any 
" m^atter of importance, he firft lent away all 
" the jefhers and all the buffoons of his 
" Court." 

At his table at Villebon he always kept up 
the frugality to which he had been accuftomed 
in early life in the army. His table confided of 
ten difhes, dreffed in the plaineft and mofl 
fimple manner. The Courtiers reproached him 
often with the fimplicity of his table. He ufed 
to reply, in the words of an Antient, '' If the 
" guefts are men of fenfe, there is fufhcient for 
" them ; if they are not, I can very well dif- 
*' penfe with their company.'* 

Sully dined at the upper end of the hall 
with the perfons of his own age^, at a table 


StTLLY. 127 

apart. The young people were ferved at a table 
by themfeives. The venerable hod gave as a 
reafon for this arrangement, that the perfons of 
different ages might not be mutually tirefome 
to each other. 

Abbe de Longuerue fays, " that the Duchefs 
** of Nemours told him, that ibe had often 
" feen the good old man M. de Sully; that he 
*^ was fo altered by being difmiifed from his 
" employments of ilate, that there remained 
*^ nothing about him which reminded you of 
" the celebrated Minifter of his name ; and that 
*^ his mind was entirely taken up with the 
^^ management of his eftate and of his family 
" affairs. 

«' His fecretaries,'' adds the Abbe, " filled 
*^ his Memoirs with faults which he was not 
** in a ftate of mind to corred." 


was a Marlbal and Mafter of the Artillery of 
France, and was no lefs a man of learning than 
a great General. 

'' He 


" He loft," fays Brotier, " no opportunity^ 
*■' of inftrudling himfelf, and wrote down in hi^ 
*' common-place book whatever he heard of 
*^ met with that was worthy of his notice. 
*^ Thefe Were called, Les Devines "Tablettes dS 
«* Bircnr 

No lefs liberal than brave, when his Maitre 
d'Hotel advifed him to make a reform in his 
houfehold, and get rid of fome of his fupernu* 
merary fervants, giving as a reafon, that he 
could do without them; "Perhaps fo," re- 
plied Biron, " but let me know firft, if they 
" can do without me," 

At the battle of Ivr}^, Henry the Fourth 
joined the Walloon Troops at the rifk of his 
life, and left Biron with a corps de referve, to 
prevent the enemy from rallying. When the 
enp^agement was over, Biron told his Sovereign, 
" Sire, this is not fair : you have done to-day 
*^ what Biron Ihould have done, and he has 
" done what the King ought to have dpne." 

" He had," fays Brotier, " the weaknefs 
" too commonly incident to Generals — that 
*« of continuing rather than terminating a war. 
" He faid to his fon, who afked Lim to give 
'^ him fome troops for an adion, which would 
§ ': be 


'^^ he peculiarly favourable to the caufe in 
" which they were engaged : You blockhead 
" you ! what you vACh then that we may be 
^' lent to plant cabbages at our country feat ? — ■ 
" Quol done, maraut, nous veux tu envoy er planter 
*' des cJioux a Biron ^'* 

Biron wrote fome Commentaries on his Mi- 
litary Expeditions ; of which Brantome laments 
the lofs. He boatled that he had paffed from 
the lowefl rank in the Army to that of Gene- 
ral, and faid, that was the only legitimate way 
to become a Marfhal of France. He had 
been wounded in {qwqw different engagements. 
When he was made a Knight of the Holy 
Ghoft, being required to produce his Letters of 
Nobility, he contented himfelf with exhibiting 
a few pieces of parchment to the Sovereign 
and the Commiilioners, faying, " Sire, voila -ma 
" NobleJJe hien comprized Then putting his 
hand upon his fword, he added, *' Mais^ Sire^ 
" la voila mieux'^ 

His device was a match burning, with thefe 
words : " Perk fed in armisT He gave Henry 
the Fourth the wife advice to remain in France^ 
and not to fly into England or Switzerland, on 
the death of Henry the Third. The Marfhal was 

VOL. IV. K killed 

t^6 AflMAlgD DE BllCiN. 

killed by a muiquet ball, at the fiege of Eprt'- 
nay in 1592. 

Biron xvas Godfather to the celebrated Car- 
dinal de Richelieu, to whom he gave his owa 
baptifmal name of Armand. 


fan of the Marfhal Biron mentioned in the pre- 
ceding Article, was fo early an excellent Officer,, 
that at the age of fifteen he was chofen, by the 
common confent of the Army commanded by 
his Father, to fupply his place as General, when 
the latter was prevented by his wounds from 
alTuming that diftinguilhed fituation. 

Biron ufed to fay, that fometimes prudence 
was unneceflary in war. 

He confpired againfl his Sovereign Henry 
the Fourth, who would have pardoned him^ 
had he relied fufficiently upon his clemency 
and his gratitude to have confefTed his treafon 
to him. He who had (o often looked upon 
death with intrepidity in the field, beheld it 
upon the fcaifcld with the utmofl fear and emo- 
tion y 


tion; and the Executioner was obliged to do 
his fad office by ftealth. Biron had ridiculed 
the quiet and refigned manner with which the 
amiable but unfortunate Earl of EiTex met his 
fate, ^s bordering upon pufilianimity and cow- 
ardice. Nemefis is but too often upon the 
watch to revenge obloquy upon itfelf, and to 
render thofe perfons juftly obnoxious to its at- 
tacks, who have been liberal of them upon other 

Henry has been much blamed for not Ipar- 
ing the life of his fellow-foldier and companion, 
and the occafional caufe of liis vidories. Biron 
was, however> fo violent, fo expenfive, and fo 
difTatisued with his Sovereign's behaviour to 
him, that he would perhaps have ever looked 
lip to a Revolution to gratify his revenge, or 
to fatisfy his neceflitieSi He was extremely ad- 
dicled to play, at which he lofh fuch confider- 
able fums, that he ufed to fay^ " [fe ne fcais Jt 
" je momrai fur iin echaffav.t^ mats je fgais hlen 
'^ que je ne mourrai pas a PHopitaiy — •" Fatal 
" alternative," fays D'Anquetil, '' that but 
" too often attends thofe who rilK their for- 
*^ tunes on a die or a card," 

Brotier fays, " that when Blron's friends 
" fohcited his pardon from Henry 5 by way of 

K 2 ** palliating 


" palliating his crime, they faid that his pridv? 
'* had made him oppofe his Sovereign." Henry 
replied, " It is always agreeable tc me to par- 
" don, but my device is that of my king- 
** dcm : 

Parcere fuhje^is et dehellare Juperhos. 

To fpare the conquered, and liibdue the proud." 

Biron v«?as To confcious of the fate which 
awaited him, that upon being told when he' 
was in prifon that he Vv'ould foon be releaied, 
he replied, " Alas 1 I am not one of thofe 
" birds who are put into / a cage to let go-^ 
** again." / 


belon2:ed to the deteflable fadtion of the 
League, but, in conjundlion with a few excel- 
knt men of his party, would not give into 
the horrid mafiacre of St. Bartholomew. He 
was Prefident of the Parliament of Dijon when 
Henry the Fourth, on his taking pofTefiion of 
Paris, faid that he would make him one of his 
Council of State. Jeannin excufed himfelf by 
faying, that it was not jufh that he fliould. 
prefer an old Leaguer to fo many difhinguiflied 
perfons, v/hofe fidelity to him had never been 



fufpected. " I. am certain, Sir," replied 
Henry, " that a pcrfon who has been faithful 
^^ to a Prince will not be defective in fidelity 
« to a King." 

A rich Country Gentleman of Burgundy, 
being much ftruck with Jeannin's eloquence 
in the Parliament of that Province, was very 
anxious to have him for his fon-in-law, and 
waited upon him to tell him of his intention. 
On his afking him what property he pofTefled, 
Jeannin, pointing to his head, and to a fmaii 
colledlion of Books in the room, faid, " In 
*' thefe, Sir, conliit all my v/ealth and ail my 
^' fprtune/' 

Some Prince having afKed Jeannin v.'hofe 
fon he was, he replied, " I am the fon of 
'' my own merit." 

Jeannin was Ambaffador from Henry the 
Fourtli to the States- General of Holland, and 
negotiated the peace between that Republic and 
the Spaniards (one of the mofb difficult that 
ever took place) with fuch ability and impar- 
tiality, that he gained the confidence of the two 
parties. Cardinal Bentivogiio fays, that he liad 
often heard Jeannin fpeak in the Council of 
Si&tc, where he appeared to carry in his 

K 3 .manner 


manner and countenance all the dignity of his 

Henry faid of him, " I am obliged to gild 
feveral of my fubje6ts to take off the edge of 
their malice. With refpecl to Jeannin, I 
have as yet contented myfelf with faying 
good things of himj without doing any for 
*' him.'* 

Jeannin's " Memioirs of his Negotiations 
" with Holland" were publiilied by himfelf. 
When Richelieu was baniflied to Avignon, he 
lludiecl them very much, and profeiTed himfelf 
greatly indebted to them for his knowledge of 
the difficult art of Negotiation, 

■ Jeannin, though Prefident of the Parliament 
of Dijon, ufed to fay, *' We are not always fa 
" well infhruded in the Parliam.ents as the 
*^-' Prince and his Minifters are refpeding what 
'^ makes for the general good of the country, 
*' Sometimes the fame thing taken feparately 
" appears unjufl:, which in the general is 
" juft." 

' Henry the Fourth, once finding a flate-fecret 
betrayed, faid to his other Minifters, *' See 
*^ amongfh yourfelves v;^ho it is that has be-- 

^* trayed 


** trayed us ; I myfelf will anfwer for that good 
^' creature there (pointing to Jeannin), that he^ 
*' has not done it." 


This eminent Negotiator was the ion of a 
fmith, and loll his Father and Mother when he 
was very young. At th-e age of nine, he was 
placed in the fervice of a young Nobleman of 
Auch y his Mailer was likewife an orphan, and 
they iludied together. D'Offat foon outftrip- 
ped his A-lafter, and became his Preceptor : he 
was afterwards called to the bar, and by de- 
grees rofe to the dignity of a Biihop and Car- ^ 
dinaL His negotiations at the Court of Rome 
procured the abfolution of Henry the Fourth i 
a matter, at that time, of no fmall difficulty. 

" He was a man," fays his Biographer, 
of great penetration, and took his meafures 
with luch precaution, that it is irnpoilible to 
find a fmgle error or miftake in any of them. 
He united in the higheil degree politics and 
probity, honours with modefty, and dignities 
with difintereftednefs. His letters, though 
upon fubjedis which now ceafe to intereil, 
have been efteemed very much by Negotia- 

K 4 " tors. 




*' tors. The late intelligent Sir James Porter 

*' was extremely fond of them, and recom- 

" mended themx as models of diplomatic com- 

** munication.'* 


Henry tkz fourth, King of France (thea 
King of Navarre;, going one day to Condillac,, 
the country-feat of Francois de Foix, Billiop of 
Aire, defired him to permit him to fee his Ca- 
binet of Curiofities. To this the BiihoD con- 
•fented, on condition that the King fnould take 
with him no peribns who were men of igno- 
rance, and void of curiofity. " With all my 
" heart, Uncle," rephed the King; « I fliall 
" introduce no one who is not more capable 
*' of obferving and of appreciating your Ca- 
^^ binet than m^yfelf," Coming m then to the 
Cabinet with the Sieurs Clerval, Du PlefTis, 
Du Sainte Angebonde, P^iifTon, and Theodore 
D'Aubigne ; while the Kifig and the reft were 
amufing themfelves in feeing a cannon lifted up 
by a fmall machine which a boy of fix years of 
age had ip his hand, and were very attentive to 
this operation, D'Aubigne obferved a piece of 
•black marble which ferved as a writing-deik to 


the Biillop; and having found a pencil, hq 
wrote upon it this diftich : 

Non ijihac Princeps Regem tra^are doceto^ 
Sed doSla regni -ponder a f err e manu. 

Teach not the King to toys to give his c&re, 
But Empire's pond'rous weight v/ith eafe to bear. 

Having done this, he covered over the piece of 
marble, and joined the company. When they 
came up to it, the Biihop faid, " Sire, fee this 
^' is my writing-delk!'' but having taken off 
the cover, and feeing the diftich, he faid, '^ Ah, 
«' ah ! a Man has been here, I fee." — " Nay," 
faid Henry, " what do you take us all for 
'' Beafts then V and turning to the BiOrop, 
" Uncle," faid he, '* can you guefs, by the 
" coujitenance of us, Vv^ho has put this trick 
" upon you V This faily of his Majefly 
afforded much amufement. 

D'Aubigne wrote the Hifbory of his Life, 
and addrefied it to his Children. *' My chil- 
" dren," fays he in the Preface to it, " Anti- 
" quity will furnifn you with diredions and 
•^ examples, in the lives of Emperors and of 
•^ great men, how to behave againft the at- 
/' tacks of enemies and of difobedient fubjedis. 
''^ You will there fee how they have refilled tl^e 
f^ attacks of the one, and the rebellions of the 


" Other; but it will never teach you that kind 
" of condu(fb which is fuited to common and 
'* ordinary life: and this third kind of know- 
*' ledge requiring more dexterity than the other 
" two, you have more occalion for inftrudion 
^* in it, lince you are rather to imitate perfons 
" of a middling (lation than thofe who are of 
^' a diftinguiilied rank in life ; having to ftrug- 
" gle againil your equals, where there is more 
" occalion for addrefs than for force. This 
" want of accommodation has often put Princes 
in a perilous iituation. Henry the Great, 
the fourth Sovereign of that name in France, 
was not pleafed when he found his fervants 
reading the lives of Emperors and of great 
men. Having difcovered one of his fervants, 
by nam.e Neufy, very fond of reading Taci- 
tus, and fearing left his courage fhould take 
too high a flight, he advifed him to quit that 
kind of reading, and perufe only the lives of 
** perfons in a iituation fimilar to his own.'* 

At four years of age D'Aubigne's father put 
him into the hands of a Preceptor, who taught 
him the Greek, Latin and Hebrew lang-uaees 
at the fame time ; and he fays, that at {tvcn 
years of age he tranflated the Crito of Plato, 
upon a promife which his father had made him, 
that the tranHation fluotild be printed, with a 



portrait of himfelf at that very early age 
prefixed to it, 

D'Aubigne, wlio was a Proteftant, attached 
himfelf to Henry the Fourth, to whom he was 
a faithful and adive fervant, and often ex- 
pofed his life in his fervice. Henry repaid his 
attachment in no other manner than by making 
him a prefent of his portrait, D'Aubigne wrote 
the following lines under it : 

Ce Prince ejl d'etrange Nature^ 
Je nefgai qui Diable r a fait, 
11 recompenje en peinture 
Ceux qui k fervent en effet. 

Henry had a favourite Spaniel, which 
D'Aubigne, finding half flarved in the flreets, 
took home with him and kept,, infcribing thefe 
lines upon his collar : 


Le fidele Citron qui couchoit autrefois 
Sur voire litfacr^^ coiiche ores fur la dure \ 
Cefi ce fidele Chien qui apprit de la Nature 
A fair e des Jmisy et des traitres le choix, 


Cefi kit qui les Brigands effrayant defa voix^ 
Des dents, des ajfajfins, d'oit vient done qu^il endure 
Ji,a faitn-i le froid, les coups -^ les dedans^ etl^ injur e^ 
fakement coutumier du fervice des Rois^ 




Sa Jierte-i fa beautc-^ fa jeunejfe agreahle 

Le fit cherir de vous ; mats ilfut redout abls 

A vos haincuiCy auxfuns pour la dexter ite, 


Court fans^ qui jettez vos dedaigneufes vues 
Sur ce Chien delmjfe^ rnort defahnpar les rues^ 
Attendez ce loycr de la fidelitL 

The Dog was loon afterwards taken to the 
King, who changed colour when he read thefe 
lines, and remained confufed for fome time. 
Eut not long afterwards he was more abafhed, 
when in an Aliembly of the Deputies of the 
Proteftants of Languedoc he was aiked what 
was become of D' Aubigne, wdio had faved their 
Province ; and what he had done for fo adlive 
and fo ufefui a fervant of God. He replied, 
" that he always looked upon him as much 
*' attached to him^ and that he would take care 
*' of him." 

Before D' Aubigne returned to the Court of 
Henry, he fent one of his Pages to announce to 
the Sovereign that he v\'as on the road. The 
King afked him from whence he came ? The 
Page faid, " Yes, yes;" and to every queftion 
that was put to him returned, " Yes, yes." 
On the King's aiking him, why he continued 



to anfwer his queilions in that manner, he re- 
plied, ".Sire, I faid yes, yes, becaufe Kings^ 
" drive away all perfons from their prefence, 
" who will not make ufe of thofc words to 
" every thing which their Sovereigns require oi 
" them." 

Henry had quarrelled with D'Aubigne on 
fome occaiion or other, and being afterwards 
reconciled to him, embraced him very heartily. 
D'Aubigne told him, " Sire, when I look in 
" your face, I fee that 1 may take my old free- 
" doms and liberties with you. Open now 
^'^ three of your waiilcoat buttons, and be fa 
" kind as to tell me how^ I have difpkafed you." 
Henry growing pale at thefe words (as was his 
cuilom w^hen any thing alfeded him) anfwered, 
*' You were too much attached to the Due de 
" le Tremouille, to whom you know I had an 
" averfion."— " Sire," replied D'Aubigne, " I 
** have had the honour of being brought up at 
the feet of your Majefty, and I have learned 
from you never to abandon thofe perfons who 
were afflidled and oppreiTed by a power fu- 
" perior to their own. You will then fijrely 
*' approve in me that lelTon of virtue w^hich 
*' I learned under vourfelf." This anfwer was 
fucceeded by another hearty embrace from 



One night as D*Aubigne was lying in 
Henry's chamber with fome of the Gentlemen 
of his fuite, he faid to La Force, who was afleep 
by his fide, " Our Mafter is furely one of the 
" mofl ungrateful men upon earth !'' La Force, 
between fleeping and waking, alked him what 
he was faying. " Why,'* exclaimed the King, 
whom D'Aubigiie thought to be afleep, " are 
" you deaf? do you not hear what he fays? 
** that I am the moft ungrateful of mankind ?** 
" — Sleep on. Sire," replied D'Aubigne ; " I 
" have a good deal more to fay yet.'* — "^The 
" next day," adds D' Aubigne, " the King did 
" not look unkindly at me, but he fail gave me 
'' nothing." 

After Henry's death, D'Aubigne, retaining in 
his hands two towns near Rochelle, was told^ 
that if he would give them up to the Queen, 
he fliould have of her Majefty what he pleafed. 
He replied, " I (hall receive of the Queen all 
" I defirei^ for I only wi(h her to look upon 
" me as a good Chriflian and a good French- 
" man." 

He wrote a Univerfal Hiftory, fome Trage- 
dies, and other Works, of which he fays, " that 
^ in his retirement at St. Jean d'Angeli, he 
" printed them at his «wn expence 3 and that 
§ *' they 

rHEODORE d'aueigne. 143 

^^ they had fcarcely appeared in- the world, when 
" they were burnt at Paris by the hands of the 

D'Aubigne Hkewife wrote, " Les Aventures 
*' du Baron de Fanejiey* in ridicule of the Ca- 
tholics and the Leaguers, He mentions thefe 
lines, which w^ere made upon fome Reformers of 
the Abufes in Church and State : 

Enjin chacun detcjie 
Les guerreSy et p rote fie 

Ne vouloir que le h'len, 
Chacun au hien afpire^ 
Chacun ce h'len defircy 
Et le defire fien. 
Each party civil war detefls, 
And each with folemri vows protefts 

He nothing means but good. 
Each fays it is his only aim, 
Each to this good puts in his claim, 
His own ftill underflood. 


The day before the battle of Ivry, the Ger- 
man troops w^hich Schoiriberg commanded 
mutinied and refufed to fight, if they were not 
paid the money which was due to them. Schom- 



berg went to Henry the Fourth with this mef-* 
fage, who anfwered him angrily, " How, Colo- 
" nel Thifche (a nick-name given to him), is 
*^ it the behaviour of a man of honour to de^ 
*^ mand money, when he (hould take his orders 
*' for fighting?** 

The next morning, Henry, recollefting what 
he had faid to Schombera, went into his tent 
before the engagement began, and faid to him, 
*' Colonel, this is perhaps the only opportunity 
" I may have — I may be killed in the engage- 
*' ment — it is not right that I fliould carry away 
*' with me the honour of a brave Gentleman 
*' like you. I declare then, that I recognize 
" you as a man of worth, and incapable of 
*' doing any thing cowardly.'* 

Schomberg, ftruck with admiration and grati- 
tude at this noble behaviour of Henry, replied 
to him, " Ah ! Sire, in reftoring to me that 
*' honour which you took away from me, yoii 
*' take away my life : for I ihould be unworthy 
*' of it, if I did not devote it to vour fervice^ 
" If I had a thoufand lives, I would lay them 
" all at your feet,'* 

[ HS ] 


As this Knight of Malta, who was AmbafTa- 
dor from France to the Pope, was one day walk- 
ing with the Venetian Ambaflador in the Square 
before the beautiful Church of the Ge(u at 
Rome (where it feems there is always air, even 
in the hotteft day of fummer), he faid to him, 
" What an odd thing it is that there fliould be 
" always fomething of a breeze here! Can 
^^ your Excellency account for it ?'* — " Perfedlly 
** well," replied the Venetian^ " upon a tradl- 
" tion that has been long current in this city^, 
'*' The Devil and the "Wind wer6 one day walk- 
*' ing together in the fhreets of Rome, v/hen^ 
^' coming to the Jefuits College in this pla(^e, 
" the Devil faid to the Wind, Pray be fo good 
^' as to {lay here a minute or two, I have a 
^' word to fay to thefe good Fathers within. 

The Devilj as the flor}^ goes^ never returned 

to his companion, who has been ever fincot 

waiting for him at the door." 

Memoires de l'Abbe d'ArnaulPo 

After the aliaffination of Henry the Fourth^ 
Mary de Medicis burfl into Jie room where 
Sillery was fitting, and exclaimed, " The 
*' King, Sir, is dead !"— " I beg your Majefly's 

Voi. iv» I, " pardon/' 

14^ M. t>E SILLERY. 

" pardon/* replied Siilery, who was then Churi* 
ccllor, " the King of France never dies.** 

He was baniihed to his feat at Siilery, and 
fupported the lofs of his power and confequence 
with great impatience. His Phyficians, on his* 
death-bed, refufing to acquaint him with the 
danger of his fituation, an old and faithful fer- 
vant took the painful tafk upon himfelf, and 
faid to him, " Sir, your trial is over : you muft 
** prepare yourfelf for death. You have not 
*• above (tven or eight hours to live." — " Is it fo,^ 
*' my friend?*' replied Siilery; "letmc^ 
" employ, then, the fhort time that I have to 
*' live in a proper manner. Send for my Con* 
" feffor.** 

'* M. de Siilery 's virtues and faults were (o 
•* well counterbalanced,'* fays Sully, " that it 
** was no difficult matter for me to employ the 
" hrtt. ufcfully, and to guard myfelf againfl: the' 
" dangers of the latter." 


Henry the Fourth, on feeing Crillon come 
one day into the Drawing-room of the Palace 
€i Fontainble&u, exclaimed, ** Here comes the 

" braveft 

cllILLOI^^ 147 

^^ braveft man in my dominions!" — "Sire," 
replied Crillon, "your Majefly tells an untruth; 
** he is yourfelf.*' 

Crillon being deiired by his Sovereign Henry 
the Third to affift in the aflaffination of the 
Duke of Guife, refufed in as gentle a manner 
as he could i adding, " I will attack him. Sire, 
'" fairly in fiiigle combat, with all my heart ; 
" I will run in upon him; he will, of courfe^ 
*' kill mej and I lliall kill him. A man that is 
" carelefs of his own life has, you know, that of 
" his enemy always in his power;** 

Crillon was not prefent at the battle of 
Arques, where his beloved Sovereign Henry the 
Fourth gained a complete victory, and afterward 
Wrote to him this laconic epiftle : " Hang yourfelf 
" immediately, brave Crillon ! We have had 
" an engagement at Arques, and you were not 
" there. Adieu ! Je vous aime a tort et 5 
" travers,^* 

The fecond Duke of Guife, when Jbe was 
very 3'oung, endeavoured to alarm the courage 
of Crillon by pretending that the town in which 
he was aileep was befieged by the enemy. Cril- 
lon, awaked from his Heep by the noife, rufli* 
ed out with his ufual intrepidity, and finding it 

L 2 to 


to be a trick, fald to the Duke, " Young mari^- 
" I would advife you never again to think of 
" founding the courage of a man of honour. 
*' By death itfelf, if you had found me fail, I 
" fhould have flruck my dagger into your 

" heart. 


Courtefy, no lefs than courage, was always 
the appanage of the family of Crillon. That 
In thefe refpeds the iaft of that illuftrious 
Houfe did not degenerate, the conquefl of Mi- 
norca, and the following letter fent by him to 
Lord He ath field, the preferver of Gibral- 
tar, on his being made a Peer, are convincing 
proofs : 

Permettez-moi, mon aimable et refpe6lable 
enemi, de ne fonger qu'au titre d*Ami que 
** vous ayez bien vouiu m'accorder, pour re- 
*' jouir avec vous de ia grace que le Roi votrc 
" maitre vient de vous accorder. 

" Ceft par Moniieur Foivler: Walker^ 
un vos Compatriotes et Admirateurs, que 
je Fai appris. La qualitc de My lord n'ajoute 
rien a toutes celles qui vous rendent cher a 
*^*' mes yeux; mals en me prouvant lajuftice que 
" votre nation a f^ue rendre a vos fervices, et 

*' a votre 


** a votre perfonne, elle me devient perfonelle 
*' en me rappellant les temoignages particulieres 
" de bonte et d'eftime que j*ai recu a vos 
*' cotes, et a ceux de vos braves foldats. Ce 
" moment ne s'effacera jamais de ma memoire, 
*' heureux 11 en trouvant d'autres occaiions de 
" meriter d'avantage les fuffrages de votre gene- 
" reufe nation, en fervant nos deux Maitres 
*' comme Allies, je pouvois avant mourir vous 
^' embraffer et vous repeter de vive voix Taf- 
" furance des fentimens d'eilime de votre na- 
" tion, et d*amite que vous m*avez infpire, et 
** avec lefquels j'ai honneur d'etre de votrQ 
" Excellence, 

" Monfieur, 
^* Tres humble et tres obeiflant Serviteur, 
" R. R. Due DE CrilloNs 
" Due de Mahpn, 
** A Plombieres, 
<* le9 Juillet, 1788. 
** A fon Excellence Mylord Heathfield, 
" Capitaine Genenl des Armees 
" de fa Majefte Britannique.'* 


This French Nobleman, a partizan of the 
Count du Blois, went one day to confer with 

I, 3 Richard 


Richard Bembron, the Englifli Commandant of 
Ploermel, a fmall fortrefs in Bretagne, for the 
Countefs of that Province, on the means of pre- 
venting the mutual outrages their refpedivq 
foldiers committed upon the peafants. Soon, 
however, the rivahty between the two nations 
burfl forth, and interrupted the conference ; 
each Commander fpoke with contempt of the 
prowefs of his rival's countrymen, and with 
veneration of the valour of his own. They 
grew warm, and a challenge took place. It 
was agreed, that the two Commanders fliould 
meet at a given fpot with thirty on each fide, 

and decide the difpute. Beaumanoir and Bem- 


bron appeared at the day appointed armed 

cap-a-pie dy 2,nd 2it the head of their' refpeftive 

foldiers, The enthufiafm th^t inflamed thefe 

modern Horatii and Curiatii may eafily be 

im.agined. They charged moft furioufly man 

^gaifift man, but foon the fortune of war began 

to fhew itfelf. Of the Englifh, only twenty-five 

in a fhort time remained. Soon afterwards 

five are taken prifoners, killed, or incapable of 

fighting on account of their wounds. Beau-^ 

manoir changes the plan of battle. Bembron • 

does the fame. They form themfelves into a 

little fquadron. The Commander of the Eng- 

lifli is thrown down, and flain upon the fpot. 

The Commander of the French, dangeroufly 



wounded, and ready to fink with heat and thirft, 
defires one of Iiis remaining companions to give 
him fomething to drink. He exclaims, " Beau- 
^' manoir, drink fome of your own blood, and 
your thirft will go oif. You mufh perfifl to 
the very lafb extremity." Bcaumanoir, ani- 
mated by thefe words, perfifls, and remains 
pafler of the field. 



This author of the celebrated and very rare 
Memoirs relative to Henry the Fourth of 
France which bear his name, v/as at firfl a 
Proteftant Minifter at the Court of the King 
of Navarre, and was much prefTed by the Count 
of SoifTons to marry him to one of the PrincefTes 
of the Houfe of Navarre. He refufed ; as not 
thinking it honourable to be concerned in giv- 
ing- the fandiion of religion to a marriage which 
he knew to be difagreeable to the Royal 
Family of Navarre, and to which he was fure 
they would never give their confent. The 
Count of Soiflbns ftill infilled — Cayet refifted 
with great intrepidity. On the Count's threaten- 
ing to flab him if he perfifted in his refufal, he 
very fpiritedly replied, " Well, then, your High- 

h 4 " nefs 


^' neTs may kill me, if you pleafe ; I prefer 
^' dying by the hand of a great Prince to dying 
•* by that of the hangman.*' 



The effect of motive upon the human frame 
was perhaps never better illuftrated than in 
the following account of Abbe Ru^ellai, in 
that entertaining Book, written by Dom' Noel 
d' Argonne, a Carthufian friar of Gallion in Nor- 
mandy, entitled, Mdanges d'KiJloire et de la 
Literature, par Vi^netiil de Merveille, — "This 
*' Abbe was the great nephew of the celebrated 
" Monfignor de la Cafa, fo well known by the 
*' excellence of his Italian writings : he came 
^' from Rome to Paris with Mary de Medicis,^ 
*' wife of Henry the Fourth, w^here he lived in, 
^' gre^t fplendor and profufion. Fie ufed tQ 
*' have ferved up at his table, during the def-* 
^' fert, bafpr^s enamelled in gold full of elTences,, 
perfumes, of gloves, fans, and evea piftole^ 
for his company to play with. By thefe cir- 
cumstances one may readily judge what fort 
of a perfon M. Ru^ellai w^as. His delicacy 
I' in every thing was exceffive : he drauk no- 
^S thing but water^, but it was a water that 


ABBE Rir^ELLAt. I53 

^* was brought from a great diflance, and 
*^ which was to be drawn drop by drop (if one 
*' may fo exprefs it). The leaft thing in the 
^^ world diftrefled him : the fun, the dew, heat, 
cold, the leaft change in the atmofphere feem- 
ed to have an efFed: upon his conftitution. 
The mere apprehenfion of becoming ill 
would make him keep his room and put 
" himfelf to bed. It "is to him that our phy- 
" licians are obliged for the invention of that 
*' difeafe v/ithout a difeafe, called Vapours, 
" which makes the employment of thofe per- 
" fons who are idle, and the fortunes of thofe 
" who attend them. The poor Abbe groaned 
^' greatly under the weight of thefe trifles, 
^^ daring to undertake nothing where there was 
" the leaft trouble or fatigue. At laft, however, 
*' goaded by ambition, or rather perhaps from 
*' a delire to revenge himfelf upon fome perfon 
" who he thought had not ufed him well, he ' 
" undertook to ferve his old miftrefs, Mary 
" de Medicis^ in fome ftate intrigues which 
^' were very cornplicaied, and which required 
f^ great adivity. At firft^ the fight of that 
*' trouble which had always appeared to him 
*' to be fo dreadful a thing, was very near 
^' making him abandon his undertaking ; but; 
^' getting the better of his fears, he became 
p fo hardy and fo adive, that his friends, who 

1! ^W 


f^ faw him work hard all the day and take no 
*' reft at night, who faw him riding poft upon 
" the moft execrable horfes, and not caring 
** what he ate or drank, but contented always 
" with what he found, ufed in joke to aik him 
^ news of the Abbe Ru^ellai, pretending not to 
■*' know what was become of him, or what 
perfon had changed fituations with him, or 
into what other body the Abbe's foul hacj 


is one of the lateft of the modern Saints, buf^ 
as a lady well obferved of him, a moft gentle-- 
man-like Saint, for to the rigid virtues of religion 
he added the graces of urbanity and politenefs. 
He preferred his own miferable Biftiopric of 
Geneva to that of Paris, which Henry the 
Fourth offered him. This excellent Prelate 
was a model of humility, charity, and piety. 
The Abbe MarfoUier has written a very enter- 
taining life of him, in two volumes i2mo. ; and 
the " Efprit de St, Francois de Sales ^'' 8vo. 
contains the fummary of his maxims and doc-, 
trine very well compiled. 




To feme ecclefiaftic of his diocefe who was 
brought before him as a perfon of vicious and ir-* 
regular Hfe, and who had fallen on his knees be- 
fore him to beg pardon for the fcandal he had 
given, the Prelate replied, falling alfo on his 
Jcnees before him, " I have in my turn, Sir, to 
*' requefl of you, that you will have fome com=^ 
*^ paffion upon myfelf, and upon all thofe who 
*' are ecclefiaflics in my diocefe, upon the 
^' Church and upon Religion, whofe reputa- 
*' tion and honour you difgrace by your fcan- 
*' dalous life, which gives occafion to the cne-^ 
*' mies of our holy faith to blafpheme it/' 

This fpeech, fays the author of this anecdote, 
made fuch an impreffion upon the culprit, that 
he took up a new way of life, and became a 
^odel of piety and virtue, 

Henry the Fourth ufed to call St. Francois 
de Sales, '' PEvefque des Evefqties — the Bi(hop 
^^ of Bifliops. He has," faid he, " birth, 
^^ learning, virtue, and piety." 


^* Pray of what did your brother die ?" faid 
tJiis celebrated General one day to Sir Horace 



Vere, « He died. Sir/' replied Vere, « of 
^*" having nothing to do."—" Alas, Sir,** faid 
Spinola, '* thi^t is enough to kill any General of 
^ us all;* 

Montefquieu fays, "We in general place 
" idlenefs among the beatitudes of Heaven^ 
*^ it Ihould rather, I think, be put among the, 
" torments of Hell" 


This great fcholar had much of the in{b- 
lence which but too often accompanies great 
learning. In his writings he is very profufe of 
the epithets of *' beaft, blockhead, ignorant fel- 
" low," &c, to thofe who differed from him in 
opinion, and who knew not fo much Greek a^ 
liimfelf. His pride was much mortified, when, 
previous to his going to fettle in Holland, Iiq 
took leave of his Sovereign Henry the Fourth 
of France, who merely faid to hin>, " So, M, 
" I'Efcale, the Dutch have fent for you ! They 
** will, I fuppofe, give you a very handfome 
♦' penfion : I am very glad of it." Then care-r 
lefsly turning to him^ he faid, " Pray, Sir, is it 
^' true, that you have fometimes been three 
<' weeks without blowing yo\irnofe?" 

§ Scalige?^ 


Scaliger, in his tbree hundred and fifty- 
fccond Epifile, fays, ** Even the beft fcholars 
s,mong the Englifli fpeak Latin with fo 
wretched a pronundation^ that I remember 
*^ being m company with an Englilhman of 
*^ that defcription, who talked Latin to me for 
** a complete quarter of an hour, and whom I 
*^ miderftood no more than if he had talked 
** Arabic *« I made my excufes for not anfwer* 
** ing hiiiij as I did not veiy well underftand 
** Englilh. On this my friend, who introduced 
** him to me, burft out into a loud fit of 
** laughter 5 fo that I could never afterwards 
** fee him without confufion/' 

The proniinciation of Latin by Englifhmen, 
letting afide all reafons deduced from tlie make 
of the letters, the founds of the vowels, and the 
i-ales for the pronunciation of them that have 
been laid down by Quintilian and by others, is 
furely defeftive, as it differs from the pronun- 
ciation of all other NationSy and renders an 
Englidiman out of his own country, and even 
in Scotland, when he fpeaks Latin, as unintelli- 
gible as if he were fpeaking the Hottentot lan- 
guage. It would be furely worth while in our 
fchools to teach the Italian pronunciation of 

• Quam Ji Tftrcici loqueretur, 



Latin, whicti we may neceffarily fuppofe to ht 
the moil perfed, and which Was adopted by 
Milton himfelf, when he taught fchool in 


[161O— 1643.] 

The difafirous fate of Henry the Fourth pre« 
vented this Prince from completing that educa- 
tion which the excellent Prince his father would 
have givefi him* Of the defedl of this he was 
fo fenfible, that hearing fome young perfons of 
his own age engaged in a ferious converfation, 
he ran into his clofet, where M. Bordas (wh(>> 
was then his favoutite) found him ini tears; and 
on afxving the Prince the reafon of them, he told 
him, " I lament my iituation extremely. The 
" children of private gentlemen are more happy 
*' than thofe of Sovereigns. They a:re in- 
" ftrudled in the knowledge of the world and 
" in bufinefs. As for Princes, their ignorance 
" is defirable to thofe about them, as they may 
** then more eafiiy render themfelves mafters 
^* of and deceive them. Hence arife the mif- 

" fortunes 


*^ fortunes of States, and the .. fmall degree of 
/' reputation which Sovereigns pofTefs in the 
« world/* 

On the death of the Marefchal d^Ancre, he 
laid, " God be thanked for his death ! Send me 
" hither the old fervants of my father, and the 
** old Members of my Council of State ; I will 
" in future be direded by their advice/' 

This Prince had occafionally fits of ftrength 
of mind, but they were not lafting. When the 
Deputies from the Huguenots of France re- 
queiled him to confirm the decrees in their fa- 
vour, which were rather extorted fword in hand 
than granted freely, and quoted to him the 
examples of Henry the Third and Henry the 
Fourth, who favoured them^ Louis repjiedy 
^* Henry the Third was afraid of you, and my 
** father loved you : now I neither fear nor 
** love you *.'* 

* When after the (lege of Rochelle, the Deputies from 
tke Huguenots in that city came to deliver the keys of it 
to Louis the Thirteenth, they told him, that they came to 
throw themfelves at his feet. M. de Marlilac, who was 
prelent, faid, ** You are not come, Gentlemen, to throw 
** yourfelves at the King's feet, but you have fallen at 
** thepi in defpite of yourfelves/*. 



When Madame de Bouteville, and fome tnort 
Ladies of diftindVion, entreated him to fave the 
life of M. de Bouteville, who was condemned to 
be beheaded for fighting a duel, he replied, " I 
" feel his lofs as fenfibly as any of you, but 
*' my confcience forbids me to grant him a 
" pardon/* 

When Lord Leicefter waited upon this Prince 
to know whether he intended to affift the Par- 
liament of England againil Charles the Firft, he 
teplied, " Le Roi mon frere peuteire ajfur^, que 
je fHaime point les rebelles et les feditieux, et que 
je ne les ajjijlera jamais contre leur Prince^^ 
The King my brother may reft affured, that 
I am no friend to rebels and feditious people 5 
*^ and that I will never affift them againft their 
*' Sovereign */* Had the Cabinet of the un- 
fortunate Louis XVI. been of this opinion^ had 
they not affifted the Britifli Colonies in Ame- 
rica againft their Mother-country; had the)^ 
not fufFered the fubjeds of their own defpotic 

* Yet fuch is the good faith of politicians, that Louis, of 
rather his Minifter, Cardinal Richelieu, did interfere in thc- 
difputes between Charles the Firft and his Parliament. The 
French Agents were very bufy in Scotland, and a letter of 
[Richelieu's was detected, in which he faid, '' Before a yea^ 
" is elapfed, the King of England fliail know that 1 am' 
*' jiot a perfon to be defpifed." 



?iatlon to take thofe lefTons of liberty at a 
diftance which they afterwards came and re- 
peated with fiich energy at home 5 France might, 
perhapSj have efcaped her pail and her prefent 

The French have generally affedied to diftin- 
guifh their Sovereigns by fpecific names ; and it 
has commonly happened, that they have treated 
thofe worfe than the reft, whom they had diftin- 
guiihed by the moft honourable appellation *o 
Louis XIII. was called " the Juft ;" and as he 
had not any particular virtues, or any talents, 
except that of being a good fliot, fome one 
faid, " // etoit jufte a iirer de rarquebtife'^ 

Louis feems to have chofen his Minifters for 
very different reafons : the one, le Due de Luynes, 
for being an excellent bird-catcher; Des Noyers, 
for finging hymns with him ; and Richelieu, 
whofe talents he revered, and whofe charadler 

* Louis XII. was called by his fubje(5ls *' Le Jufle," and 
** the Father of his People." Him they treated with ridi- 
cule, and took oif to his face upon the ftage • and in our 
times they have brought to the fcafFold a Prince dignified 
with the title of ** Le Jufle,;** a title which he eminently 
deferved, as the whole aim of his life was to comply with 
the wilhes of his people, and to let the general will of the 
Nation prevail over the individual will of the Sove- 

VOI. IV» M he 


he detefted, becaufe he could not govern his 
kingdom without him. Louis was extremely 
devout, and compofed a private office of devotion 
with this title : " Parva Chrijliande Pietatis Offi- 
" cia per Chrijliannm Regem Ludovicum XIII. 
'^ ordinata.'** Dubois, one of his Valets-de- 
Chambre, publilhed a very curious account of 
the laft illnefs of this Prince, in which he ap- 
pears to have been an extremely patient and re- 
ligned fufferer. His refiedlions on feeing the 
towers of St. Denis (the place of fepulture of 
the Kings of France) from the windows of the 
palace of St. Germain, difplay a magnanimity 
and a refignation to the lafl hard law of fate, 
which thofe in eminent iituations do not often 

" Not many hours before my Sovereign 
" died,'* fays Dubois, " waking fuddenly from 
** a long and deep fleep, he called the Prince 
** of Conde to his bed-fide. I have been dream- 
*' ing, my couiin, faid he, that your fon the 
" Duke d'Enguien had come to an engagement 
" with the enemy; that the battle was very 
" long and obftinate ; that the vi6tory hung 
" in fufpence for feme time; but that after 
" great efforts on both fides we got the better, 
" and remained mailers of the field. This/* 
adds Dubois, " was prophetic of the battle 

« of 


^* of Rocroy-j which was gained by the Das 
** d'Enguien, at the fame time that the King 
" mentioned his dream to th^ Prince of 
*' Conde." 

Louis, like his fon, and all other Sovereig-nft 
who, during their lives, have wafted the treafure, 
flied the blood, arid deilroyed the happinefs of 
their fubjects by unnecefTary wars, felt upon his 
death-bed great remorfe for thofe in v/hich he 
had been engaged. " He fald one day, in a 
" loud tone of voice," fays Dubois, " Qjue fi 
** . cetoit la volonte de Dieu quil revint au monde^ il 
tidpliit luifaire la grace de dotiner la paix a touts 
V Europe : That if it was the will of God that 
he ihould be reflored to life, he hoped that 
^' it would pleafe him to permit hirn to give 
peace to all Europe/* 

" Memoire fidele des Chafes qui font pafjees a la 
" Mori de Louis XIII. Roi du Franc^^ 
" par Dubois, Pun des Valets de Chamhrs 
^* deja Majefti; le. 14 Mai 1 643/' 

Mother of louis xiix» 

When this Princefs made her efcape from 
the CaiUe of Blois to joih the Duke of Epernon 


1^4 MARY i)E MEDICtS. 

at Angoulefme, fhe let herfelf down from the 
window of the caftle by the fheets of her bed> 
She infehded to l>^ve -taken with her a valuable 
cafket filled with jewels, but on reachirtg the 
ground, flie difcovered that in the agitation of 
her mind fhe had forgotten them. It was now 
too late to think of recavering them, and fhe 
proceeded on her journey on horfeback. 

Among the archives of the Parliament of 
Paris, is a fingulor petition of this Queen : 

Su^plie Marie Reine de France <ff de N'a-*, 
varre, difant que depids le 23 de Fevri'er au- 
roit eie Prifonnien an Chateau de Compeigney 
*^ fans etre ni accujee ni Joupconnee.^^ 

This Princefs fliould have been treated with 
more refpecl by the people >of Paris than fhe 
met with. She contributed much to embellifli 
that city, by archited:ure and 43y painting. The 
Palace of- the JLuxembourg, 'and its celebrated 
Gallery painted by Rubens, owe their exiftence 
to her. .--**-r^ 

Mary was*^ei:tfemely fond of devices. On the 
birth of her ion Me took ^'i^X. of Juno leaning 
on a peacock, thus infcribed ; 

'"^" Viro pni-tuque 'hhta-i~ / 



Wlien fhe was examined before one of the 
Prefidents of the Parliament of Paris, refpading 
fome intrigues fhe had entered into againft the 
Cardinal de Richelieu, fhe faid of him, " that 
*^ fhe believed he was the greateft diflemblet 
" that ever exifted ; that he could feem what- 
'' ever he pleafedj that in one half hour he 
" could look as if he were dying, and that in 
" the next he could affume the appearance of 
*' full health and of chearfulnefs." 

The Cardnial, who had been the fervant of 
this Queen, drove her out of the kingdom of 
France, and fhe died at Cologne. Chigi, the 
Pope^s Legate in that city, alPifted her in her 
lafl moments. With great difficulty he pre- 
vailed upon her to fay that fhe forgave Riche- 
lieu; but when he preffed her to fend the Car- 
dinal a bracelet, or a ring, as a token of her per- 
fcd reconciliation with him, fhe exclaimed, 
;■*' Qjiefto i pur troppo,—T\\\% is indeed too 
^^ muchJ'* and died foon afterward, ' 

" Lithe month of Augufl 1641,*' fays Lilly, 

.1 beheld the old Queen-Mother of France, 

Mary of Medicis, departing from London, 

'in'company of Thorhas Earl of Arundel. A 

fad fpe^^acle of mortality it vvas, and pro- 

i^ 2 " ducccj 


*' duced tears from mine e^^es, and many other 

^* beholders, to fee an aged, lean, decrepid, poor 

" Queen, ready for her grave, neceflitated to 

" depart hence, having no place of refidence 

" left her, but where the courtefy of her hard 

" fortune affigned it. She had been the only 

*' ftately and magnificent woman of Europe, 

" wife to the greateft King that ever lived in 

** France, mother unto one King and unto two 

'' Queens." 



This Princefs was continually haralTed by 
the irnperious Cardinal de Richelieu. He oc- 
cafionally caufed her to be examined by fome 
of the Prelidents of the Parliament of Pari^, 
relpe(5ling the plots that were carrying on ij;i 
Spain againfh his Adminifhration. On one gf 
thefe trying pccaiions, flie faid to him, *' M. le 
*^ Cardinal^ Dieu ne paye pas toutes les femaineSy 
** raais enfin il paye — My Lord Cardinal, Go<;l 
" does not fettle his accounts with mankind 
" e\'€ry week, but at laft he fettles them with 
!* efxect/' 



This Princefs, in fpite of the cruel treatment 
fhe had received from Cardinal Richelieu, was 
ilill fo confcious of his great talents for govern- 
ing, that on feeing a pidure of him, foon after 
ihe became Regent of France, flie exclaimed, 
" If Richelieu had lived to this time, he woulcT 
" have been more powerful than ever/' Ma- 
dame de Baviere, in her Letters, fays, " Abbe 

" was detected in an intrigue : Anne of 

*' Auftria however did much worfe; flie was 
" not contented with intriguing with Cardinal 
" Mazarin, ihe married him." This fhe could 
do, as the Cardinal had not taken priefl's or- 
ders. Mazarin, however, became very foon 
tired of the Queen, and ufed her very ill, the 
ufual conlequence of fuch a marriage. Yet 
vyhen Mazarin founded this Queen refpedling 
the marriage of her fon Louis the Fourteenth 
with one of his nieces, fhe nobly replied, " If 
*'^ the King was capable of degrading himfelf fo 
" far, I would put myfelf with my fecond fon 
*•* at the head of the whole French Nation 
" againli the King and againfb you/' 

The following Impromptu of Voiture to this 
Queen, who, on feeing him walking alone, aiked 
him of what he was thinking, gives fome foun- 
dation to the report of her taking in very good 

.M 4 part 


part the gallantry of the Duke of Buckingham 
to her : 

^e pefifois (car nous autres PoeteSy 

Nous penfons extravagement]^ 
Ce qiie^ dans l^humeur ou vous etes^ 

Fous fieriez^ft dans ce moment 
Vous avifiez en cette place 

Venir le Due de Buckingham ; 
Et lequeljeroh en dijgrace^ 

De lul^ ou du Fere* Vincent, 

At the Dutchefs of Norfolk's feat at Holme, 
near Hereford, there is a whole-length portrait 
of the Princefs, wiih this infcription, " Anne 
" Rem de France y grojfe de Jex mois; fait par> 
" Bmubruyt 163 8:'' and indeed the Queen's 
pregnancy is pretty vifible in the pid:ureo 


This upllart Minifter, by name Concini, an4 
fofter-brother to Mary de Medicis, was fo in- 
folent, that he ufed to call the Gentlemen 
who were in his train, ^^ My Hundred-a- 
year Scoundrels/' Concini governed France fo 
wretchedly and fo defpotically, that Malherbe 
faid after his death, '' Now it has pleafed Hea* 

* The Qneen's ConfeHbro 




ven to taKe Concini away from uS;, we have no 
prayer left to make/' 

■Howell, in his Letters, relates this account 
of the death of the Marlhal d' Ancre from an 
tye-witnefs : " The young King Louis XIIL 
" being told that the Marfhal d' Ancre was 
the ground of the difcontent amongft the 
people of Paris, commanded M. de Vitry, 
Captain of the Guards, to arreft him, and 
" in cafe of refiftance to kill him. This bu- 
" iinefs was carried very clofely till the next 
** morning, that the faid Marquis was coming 
** to the Louvre, with a R-iffling train of gal- 
" lants after him, and pafling over the draw- 
" bridge at the Court-gate, Vitr}^ flood there 
*^ with the King's guard about him, and, as 
the Marquis entered, he told him that he 
had a commiffion from the King to ap- 
prehend him, and therefore he demanded 
" his fword. The Marquis hereupon put his 
" hand upon his fword ; fome thought to yield 
" it up, others to make oppofition. In the 
" mean time, Vitry difcharged a piftol at him, 
" and fo difpatched him. The King, being 
" above in his gallery, afked what noife that 
'' was below. One fmilingly anfwered. No- 
" thing, Sir, but that the Marfhal d' Ancre 
^* is flain, Vv^ho flew him ? The Captain of 

" your 


^' yoiar Guards, Why ? Becaufe he would 
" have drawn his fword at your Majefty's royal 
^^ commiffion. The King then repHed, Vitry 
has done well j and I will maintain the a^t. 
Prelently the Queen-Mother had all her 
guards taken from her, except fix men and 
''* iixteen women, and fo fhe was banifhed 
*" Paris, and commanded to retire to Blois. 
" An ore's body was buried that night in a 
^ church-yard by the Court; but the next 
t^ morning the lacqueys and pages (who are 
^ more unhappy here than the apprentices of 
** London) broke up his grave, tore the coffin 
*' to pieces, ripped the windlng-flieet, and tied 
*' his body to an afs's tail, and fo dragged him 
*' up and down the gutters of Paris (which are 
** none of the fweeteftj ; they then fliced off 
♦' his ears, and nailed them upon the gates of 
" the city : they cut off his genitories, ^nd fent 
•' them as a prefent to the Duke of Maine. 
" Tlie red of his body they carried to the 
*^ new bridge, and hung him, his heels upwards 
**■ and his head downwards, upon a new gibbet, 
** that had been fet up a little before to punifh 
^^ them who fhould fpeak ill of the pi'efent 
*^ Government, and it was his chance to have 
" the firfl: fruits of it hirnfelf. His wife was 
^' hereupon apprehended, imprifoned, and be- 
?* headed for a witch, fome few days aftei^. 


^A MARECHAL d'aNCRS. 17't 

^^ Upon a furmife that (lie had enchanted the 
Queen to dote fo upon her hufband : and 
they fay, the young King's pidure was 
found in her clofet, in virgin wax, with one 
** leg melted away. A little after, a procefs was 
** formed againft the Marquis her hufband, and 
** fo he was condemned after death. This was 
" a right a6b of a French popular fury, which, 
** like an angry torrent, is irrefiftible, nor can 
** any banks, boundaries, or dykes j flop the 
impetuous rage of it." 



This Nobleman, true to his race, from ear* 
liefl: life exhibited the charaderiflic of family 
courage. Jn a Letter in Sir Ralph Winwode's 
Colledion of State Papers, dated Paris, 30th 
pec, 1612, it is faid : 

" The Duke (then Chevalier de Guife, his 
^^ brother being alive) meeting fome days fince 
** with the Baron de Luz in the -ilreet, chal- 
" ienged him to come out of his coach to fight 
^ him, and killed him on the place. The 
" ground of which quarrel is pretended to 
*• have been, for that the faid Baron did of 
SJ late let fall fome words that he was of coun- 

'' cil 


^ cil to the killing. pf the iatp^^Duke of Guile 
f*,at Blois, and tii^t he ha4 hinderjed the Mar- 
.^^ flial of Brjfac. , froa^ difcovering thsjt pur- 
" pofe/' 

In another Letter in the fame Colledlon> 
dated Paris^ January 26, 1 6 1 2, it is added, 

" A duel has happened between, the Cheva- 
^*^ lier de Gjaiie.'af^ the young Baron de Luz; 
** who, to revenge his father's death, hath caft 
** himfelf into the fame rnisfortune. He hath 
*^ been much more pitied than his father, both 
*' for the ground of his quarrel, and for his 
^^ own worth, he l^eing one' of the befl: horfe- 
^' men in this Court, and of a very good cou-» 
" rage, as he hath lliewed in this private fight, 
y. -i^S^yhich was very long and very well maintained 
^^ on both fides, for he had three mortal wounds, 
** and the Chevalier five, but all very favour- 
" able, fo that he is almofh already recovered 
." of them, and hi$, fecond alfo, a Knight of 
^ Malta^ called M. de Grignan, who had a 
** dangerous thrufl: through the body. The 
** Baron's fecond, called Riolet;, had only a cut 
^' in his hand. Of all thefe champion?, the 
*^ Chevalier h^th carried away the .cjiief honour i 
^' uot fo much for tlie refpe^ P^Ji^^ ^[ua/lit'ya 

, ru .. -la " -which 


'^^ which lie hath negfe^ed-in- tMs^ a^l&h, as" 
** for his rfeadinefs'^ih the--acce|)tance of the 
*' combat, and for his valour in the perform* 
" ance thereof with fo favourable a fuccefs^ 
" for as fooQ as he had received the challenge, 
** which was early in the .-morning, he did not 
" take the leifure to read it, but put the fame 
" in his p6ieket, and -rriad'e ^himfelf prefently 
** ready; offering to Riokt,'wte brought him 
the challenge/ to go "fingle " atlong-' with hiftl 
to meet the Baron- #ho was already 'but 
of the gates ; but feeing he was delirous to 
have a fecond, he fent fecretly upbii another 
pretence "Br thie faid Knight of Malta; and 
*' fo ha\^ng taken each of them a lakey and % 
" good horfe out of the Duke of GuifeVhr^ 
" ftable, they went forth and met the faid 
" Baron de Lu'z with his' fecond, with whom 
" they agreed to fight in their fliirts on horfe^ 
^' back'; #!i^eh as foon ^as the Dake of Quife 
*^ underftood, he caufed the gates of his houie 
^' to be fhut, left that any of his fervants or 
" friend-s fhould go to his brother's alliftance ; 
" which atiiion of theirs hath gotten thenl 
*' a great reputation here. And fo far was 
* the Queen from fhewing herfeif offended 
*^ with it when (he underftood the rhanner 
*'^ thereof, as that both tiie King and flie fent 
6 " prefently 





" prefently to vifit the Chevalier de Guife, an4 
" all the great ones of this Court have alfo vi-- 
*^ fitedhim/* 


When Henry the Fourth held this iliuA 
trious and unfortunate Prince in his arms 
as his godfather at the chriflening, he faid^ 
" What a fine infant is this fon of mine ! If 
" the Houfe of Bourbon fhould fail, there is 
*' no Family in Europe that has fuch claims 
*' as his to the Crown of France, of which 
" it has always fupported and increafed the 
" fplendor, at the expence of its own blood/* 

As this illuftrious Nobleman was one day 
playing at hazard, he won a confiderable fum of 
money. A gentleman flanding near him faid 
to his friend, " That now is a fum which would 
" make a Gentleman's fortune." — " Would it 
" fo, Sir ?" replied the Duke -, " take it then, I 
" only wifh that it were more.** 

As the Duke was walking one day in the 
fields near Thouloufe with another Nobleman^ 
tlieir difcourfe turned upon the happinefs of 
men in different fituations, and whether thofe 



were moft to be envied who w^re in eminent, 
or thofe who were in low lituations of life. 
*^ Ho !" feys the Duke, on obferving three or 
four peafants, who were making their frugal 
meal under a tre'e^ " thefe men fhall fettle the 
** point for us/' He comes up to them, and 
accofting them in his ulual gracious mann^ 
fays, " My friends, are you happy r Pray tell 
*^ me.'* Three of them told him, '• that 
"** confining their happinefs to a few acres 
" which they had received from their anceftors, 
" they defired nothing farther." The fourth 
faid, " that ail that he wiihed was to be able 
" to regain the poiTeffion of a part of his pa- 
" trimony, which had palled mto other hands 
** by the misfortunes of fome of his family," 
*^ Well then, my friend, if yon had it again, 
" you think that you iliould be happy r" — 
" As happy, my Lord Duke, I think, as a man 
" can poffibiybe in this world," *' NVhat wotild 
" it cod you to recover it r" ^'^ Two thoufand 
« livres, Sir."— ^' Well, thtn," faid the Duke, 
turning to one of his attendants, " prefent him 
" with the money, that I may fay I have had 
*^ the fatisfadion to-day of making one peribn 
" happy.** 

When Louis XIII. prefefited him with the 
Marfliars ftaff of France, he faid, " Take it, 

" my 


" my coufin ; you will do it more honour than 
" it will do to you.'* The fame Sovereign 
feeing him as he was fetting out for the expe- 
dition againft Piedmont, exclaimed, " Foi/a k 
flus brave homme de mon Royanmey 

After the battle of Veillano, where the Duke 
behaved with the greatefb valour, M. de Cra- 
mail afked him, if amidil fo many dangers 
he had at all thought of death; *' I have 
*' learned, Sir,'* replied the Duke, " from my 
*' anceflors, that the fnoft glorious life is that 
*' which finiilies on a vidiorious field of bat* 
« tie/' 

When he was taken prlfoner at the battle of 
Caftelnaudari, and was condemned to death 
by the Parliament of Touloufe, as bearing arms 
againft his Sovereign, he faid to the two Judges 
who came to his prifon to fignify to him the 
fentence which the Parliament had pronounced 
againft him, " Gentlemen, I thank you and your 
" illuftrious Court. AlTure them that I look 
" upon this fentence no lefs as proceeding from, 
" the mercy of Heaven, than from the juftice 
*' of my Prince/* 

St. Preuil, who headed the troop which took 
the Duke prifoner after the battle of Caftelnaut 



dari, fell at the feet of his Sovereign, to requeft 
the life of his illuflrious captive. Richelieu^ 
who was prefent while he was thus forcibly im- 
ploring the clemency of Louis, cried out, " St. 
" Preuil, if his Majefty were to treat you as 
" you deferve, he would lay your head at your 
« heels*." 

Montmorenci, when brought to his trial at 
Thouloufe, was, contrary to the cuflom ob- 
ferved with ftate-prifoners in France, placed 
upon a (lool on a level with the Court. When 
the Judges delivered their opinions refpeding 
the fentence that was to take place upon this 
diftinguillied culprit, the firfl to whom the 
Prefident applied, gave his opinion for death, 
the dreadful but well-deferved punifhment of 
him who appears in arms againfi: his Sove- 
reign* The reft, one by one, rofe from their 
feats, uncovered their heads, but faid nothing; 
too plainly fliewing, by their mournful lilence, 
the cruel necefhty they were under to difpenfe 
the rigid fentence of the law, however at vari- 
ance v/ith their widies and their affeciiions. 

* The Cardinal never forgave St. Preuil for tellirxg his 
friends, " that if he had known that the Duke was to have 
*' periihed on a fcafFold, he would have blown his brains 
" out when he took him prifoner." 

VOL. IV. N The 


The Chancellor Scguier, Richelieu's mcanell 
minion, and who had been brought up by the 
father of the Duke, prefided at this, tribunal (as 
it is laid) at his own particular defire. On his 
afking the Duke in the ufual forms of French 
criminal procedure, '• What w'as his name?'* 
the Duke replied, '' I am fure, Sir, you ought 
** to know it, wdio have fo long eaten the bread 
" of our Houfe." 

The Duke appeared much affecled when he 
was afked whether he had any children ; with, 
refpecl to every thing elfe, he m.ade his anfwers 
as ihort as poflible. He not only admitted the 
fadls of which he w^as accufed, but confeiled 
feveral charges that were not brought againfl 
him, in hopes to fave the lives of thofe whv 
had followed him in his fatal expedition. When 
he was aflied, whether the Duke of Orleans, his 
Sovereign's brother, had not prevailed upon 
him to take up arms agmft their mutual Sove- 
reign ; he replied, " that he did not pretend to 
" lay any blame upon him, but that it was 
*' his accurfed deftiny v;hich had precipitated 
" him into fo great a crim.e j" yet he always 
proteflied, in the moft folemn manner, tliat he- 
had not the leafh intention to affeifl the govern- 
ment of the country. 



The Duke, foon after he had undergone his 
interrogatory, begged to be permitted to retire 
for a moment, when, addreffing the tribunal 
with a mcft refpe^lful bow, he faid, " Gen- 
" tlemen, I had nearly forgotten to tell you, 
" that when M. Guillemot was confronted with 
" me, I accufed him of having counterfeited 
" my feal. I was then greatly agitated. I 
" now completely difcharge him from the ac- 
" cufation which I made againfh him in that 
" fituation. He is an honeft man. I (igned 
" with my own hand the agreement with the 
^ States of Languedoc/* 

Soon after the condemnation of the Duke, 
the King fent for his Marflial's Staff and his 
Collar of the Order of the Holy Ghoft. Thefe 
diflinsiuilned marks of the Sovereign's favour, 
and of the Duke's merit, were brought to 
Louis as he v/as playing at Chefs. The Duke 
de L'ancourt, and all the perfons of rank who 
were in the room with Louis, men and w^omen, 
burfl into tears. " Sire," faid M. de Charlus, 
who was fent to the Duke by the King, " be- 
" hold the Collar of the Order and the Mar- 
" fliai's Staff, which I prefent you on the part 
'' of the unfortunate Due de Montmorenci. 
" He has given me in charge. Sire, to affur® 

your Majefly, that he dies under the deepefi: 
K 2 ** imprellion 



*^ impredion of forrow for having offended you > 
^' and that fo far from complaining of the 
*^ fentence by which he is condemned to die, 
" he thinks it bears no proportion to the enor- 
" mity of the crime of which he has been 
" guilty.'* Having faid this, M. de Charlus 
fell at the knees of the King, and taking, liold 
of them with both his hands, and burfting into 
tears, iliid, " Ah Sire, ah Sire, pardon M. de 
" Montmorenci ! his anceflors have been fuch 
good fervants to your predecefibrs i Pardon 
him. Sire ! pardon him !" At this inflant^ 
every perfon that was in the room (and it hap- 
pened to be extremely crowded) men and wo- 
men, as if impreiTed with one inftantaneous 
impulfe, fell upon their knees, crying, " Sire, 
^ for God's fake, pardon M. de Montmo- 
** renci 1" Louis, at this dreadful and aifeding 
fcene, appeared totally unmoved e '^ No,'* faid 
he, railing his voice, " M. de Montmorenci 
'• muft not be pardoned. There cannot pof- 
" fibly be any pardon for him. You ought 
" not to be forry to fee a perfon die,, who has 
**^ fo well deferved to die as M. de Montmo- 
*' renci. The only favour that I can grant 
" him, is, that the executioner fiiail not tie 
*^ his hands^ 2.pA that he Hiall only behead 
** him/' When this was told to the Duke, 
his Surgeon (M. de Lucante)^ who came- to 
4 him 


him to cut off his hair to prepare him for his 
execution, fell into a fwoon by the fide of his 
Mailer. " Ah ! poor Lucante/* faicl the Duke; 
" you, who while I was in priion fo firmly 
" exhorted me to receive all mv fufferin^s as 
'' comino' from the hands of Him who made 
" me — you, I fee, are more afSidted than my- 
" felf ! Comfort yourfelf j let me embrace you^ 
" and take my laft farewell of you," Then 
turning to his ConfelTor, he Ciid, " 1 am_ ready 
" to go to thQ fcaffoid." 

The fcaffold was eredled in an inner court of 
the Town-houfe of Thouloufe, in which the 
Duke was confined. In palling to it, he ob- 
ferved the ftatue of Henr)^ the Fourth, which 
ftood in the middle of the area ; the ftatue of 
a Monarch who had been in fome meafure in- 
debted to the Duke's father for the Crown of 
France. He flopped fome minutes, and looked 
at it very attentively, reflecting, perhaps, ou 
the ingratitude and cruelty of the King his fon. 
His ConfefTor, who was befide him, atked him 
what was the matter, and whether he wanted 
any thing. " No, no, my good Father," re^ 
plied the illuftrious Crim.inal, *^ I w^as merely 
■ ' looking at the flatue of Henry the Fourth. 
*' He was a great and a noble-minded Prince, 
^^ I had the honour to be his godfon. Let us 

N 3 *^ go 


" go on.** Then pointing to the fcaffold, he 
added, " That is my only road to Heaven." 

As foon as he came upon the fcaffold, he 
faluted the Commanding Officer, and all the 
perfons prefent, more particularly the Town- 
Guards, who had orders to attend this melan^ 
choly ceremony in the drefs they wore on fo- 
lemn cccafions. He entreated them all to bear 
their teflimony to his Sovereign, tliat he died 
his miofc obedient fubjedl, and penetrated with 
the deepefh contrition at having offended him. 
He then placed himfelf upon the block, and 
having committed his foul into the hands of 
the Author of his bein^, received the fatal blow. 
The blood flew out upon the walls of the area; 
and fuch is flill the veneration of the people of 
Thouloufe for the memory of M. de Mont- 
morenci, that a few years ago they aifecled,. 
v/ith tears in their eyes, to fnew the marks of it 
upon the w^alls of the Court '*^ 

* The Surgeons having opened the body to embalm it, 
found five mufquet balls within it. They remarked, that 
of the leventeen wounds which he had received at the 
battle of Cailelnaudari, not one was mortal. Soon after 
the Duke was taken prifoner, his Surgeon offered to drefs 
them. *' Oh ! no, my good friend," faid he, *' it L by 
" no means nectfTary ; one more will foon cure them 
*' all," 



It appears by the Memoirs of M. Pu3i^regiir, 
that this iiiuilrious culprit was decapitated by 
the Douloir^ an inflrument of death much re- 
fembliiio- the modern Guillotine. 

Thus, by the hands of the executioner, and 
as a pubUc rped;acle on a fcaffold, perilhed 
Henri Due de Ivlontmorenci, a Nobleman 
highly diftinguiilied for the fplendid virtues 
of munificence and of courage, of no in- 
competent parts and underftanding, a Peer and 
Marihal of France, Knight of the venerable 
Order of the Holy Ghoft, and the firft Chrif- 
tian Baron of Europe*; qualities and titles 
which would have pleaded very ftrongly in fa- 
vour of the life of him who poiTefled the n, 
had he not diminiilied their power, and de- 
ftroyed their infmence. by committing tieafon 
againPc the executive government of his coun- 
try ; the greateft crim^e which a fubjeA can 
comimit ; in itfclf but too apt to contain all 
other crime?, and in its own pernicious germ to 
inclofe the feeds of, rapine, devaftation, and 

* In a converfation with the late excellent Dr. Johnfon 
on the fubjec^ of this Nobleman, he iiiid, " Had I been 
" RicheHeu, I could not have found in my heart to have 
^' fufFered the firfl Chrlftian Baron to die by the hands of 
^' the Executioner.*' 

N 4 murder; 


murder ; the diffolution of all order, and the 
deflruftion of civil fociety *, 

Pere Arnaux, the ConfefTor Vvho attended the 
Duke to the fcaffold, came to Louis immediately 
after the execution, to tell his Majefty in what 
manner his illuftrious penitent had behaved in 
that avveful moment. " Your Majefty," added 
he, " has given a very ftriking example to the 
" world, by the death of M. de Montmorenci ; 
" but God, by his great mercy, has made him 
'' a Saint in Heaven/' — " Alas ! my Father,'* 
replied the Monarch, *' I iliould have been 
*' happy to have contributed to his falvation by 
" gentler methods." 

To the Prince of Conde, a relation of M. de 
Montmorenci, this Prince faid, " How unhap- 
" py w^e Kings are, to hear accounts of things 
" that are made up partially on purpofe for 
" us : to have no confidence in our neareft re^ 
*' latives, in our principal officers, and in thofe 
** of whom we are fondeft ; and to be obliged 
" to regulate our condu(fl by thofe phantoms 

^ ^^ Le plus grand de maux eji la guerre civile, ha palx 
*' e^ le loKi-erain hlen. ha guerre civile ttant iin des plus grand i 
*' maux quon pwjjt cofnmcttre contre la chariie du frochain^ on 
*' lie pent pus cijpz ex agger er la grandeur de cette /aute.^^"-^ 
** Fenjees d^ Pascaj,." 

*' of 


" of politics that are but too often the inte- 
*' reds of other perfons aifesfledly made our 
'' own/' 

Richelieu, in his " Political Teftament," fays, 
^' La fuort dc Marillac et de Mont raor end oni 
^' mis dans un hi/Iant ions les grands dans kur 
*' devoir y 

The gentler Olivarez, Prime Minifler of 
Spain, faid to the French AmbalTador, on the 
execution of the Duke, " What ! has C^rdmal 
" de RicheUeu dared to put to death the 
^' great efh and moil: powerful Nobleman of 
*' France ? Has he forgotten thai he is himfelf 
-' afubjedlj that Kings die; and that the exe- 
^* cration which executions like this procure is 
^^ eternal ?'* 

Could an ^6t of rebellion againft the Sove- 
reign be ever pardoned in a powerful noble- 
man, what claims to mercy had this iliullrious 
Frenchman ! His character feems to have been 
compofed of the virtues which fh. uld diftin- 
guifli high rank, courage and liberality. When, 
after the fatal battle of Cafte^naudari, he was 
brought wounded in many places to be ex- 
amined before the Parliament of Thouioufe, 
the Officer who had taken him prifoner was 



afkcd by him, how he could identify his pcr- 
fon. *^ Alas, my Lord,'' replied he with 
in his eyes, " the flames and the fmoke with 
" which you were covered prevented me at firfl 
" from diftinguifhing you ; but when I faw in 
** the heat of the engagement a perfon who, 
" after having broken fix of our ranks, was ftill 
*' killing fome of our foldiers in the feventh, 
" I thought that he could be no one except 
" M. de Montmorenci. I did not indeed cer- 
" tainly know that he was the perfon till I faw 
" him lying upon the ground with his horfe 
^^- dead upon him.'* 

After having beaten the Huguenot army 
TiCar the Ifle of Rhe, he gave up to his fol- 
diers all the plunder of the place which be- 
longed to himfelf ^ and when he was told how 
very great it was, and v/hat a facrifice he had 
made, he replied with a noble difdain, *' I 
" came not here to acquire money, but 
^^ glory." 

On going to his Government in Languedoc, 
he called upon a young French Prince, to 
whom he was related by marriage, who was 
ftudying at La Charite, and made him a pre- 
fent of a purfe of Louis d'ors. On his return, 
finding that the young Prince had kept it 



locked up in his bureau, he took it from him 
and threw it out of the window among the po- 
pulace ; tlien turning faid to his relation, " You 
*' oblige me to do that for you which you ought 
" to have done for yourfeif. The firfl duty of 
" a Prince is to be hberal to thofe who ftand 
" in need of his afliftance." 

His Sovereign, Louis the Thirteenth, would 
moft readily have granted him his pardon; but 
the vindi6live RicheHeu, whofe favour he had 
refufed to court, would not permit him. The 
Duke v/as fo beloved m his province (Langue- 
doc), that for fear of a revolt of the people in 
his favour, he fuffered in the Inner Court of the 
Town-houfe of Thouloufe, at the foot of a mar- 
ble flatue of Henry the Fourth. This circum- 
ilance occafioncd the following lines : 

jfnte patr'tsjlatuam^ natt implacabiUs ira 
Occubuiy indignd morte manuque cadens, 

Jllorum mgemu'it neuter^ mea fata videndo ; 
Ora patriSy ?iati pe£lora marmor erant. 

The Duke is made to fpeak : 

DoomM by the Ton's refentful rage, 
Which neither tears nor prayers alTuage, 
Beneath the royal father's feet 
A vile difgraceful death I meet 5 



Yet fympatbetic with my ftatc. 
Neither deplores my wretched fate : 
The Father's face, the Son^s hard brcafl^ 
Alike of marble ftand confeft. 

When the Duchefs of Montmorenci was in- 
formed of the death of her hufband, (lie ex-r 
claimed, " What ! is this, then, that King who 
^' is called Louis the Juil ? Oh my God," faid 
file, burfiiiig into tears, " my Montmorenci 
" was the only thing that I loved in this world, 
** and vou have taken him from me, that I 
*'' may love you only 1" The Duchefs retired 
to the Convent of the Vifitation at Moulins, 
where (he fpent the remainder of her days u\ 
forrow and in penitence. She erefled a mag- 
nificent maufoleum in the chapel of the Con- 
vent to her beloveti liufDand, which fhe vifited 
every day till (he died. She lived two years m 
this manner, when Louis pafHng through Mou- 
lins fent one of his Gentlemen to enquire after 
her health. She received him in the room in 
which VnQ always fat, which was hung with 
black cloth, and illuminated by tapers, with a 
crucifix on the table, and a whole-length pic-^ 
ture of her deceafed hufband over the chimney, 
" Tell his Majefly, Sir," faid Q^q, " I entreat 
** you, how aftoniihed I am that he fhould 

*^ havQ 


** have the leail recollediion of a widow fo 
**^ wretchedj and fo unworthy of that honour 
*^ which he does her, as myfeif; but I pray 
*^ you, do not forget to tell him all that you 
** fee here/' 

Richelieu himfelf imitated his Sovereign^ and 
fent a Gentleman on his part to this difconfolate 
Frinccfs, as if to mock hery who looked upon 
him as the only caufe of her misfortunes. She 
replied to his compliments in the fame ftyle c£ 
dignity and of moderation. 

Madame de Montmorenci died at Moulins 
in 16645 after having in her retirement received 
the vifits of Anne of Auflria, Louis the Four- 
teenthj and of Chriflina Queen of Sweden. 


Tkis great Statefman was intended for the 
army ; but, on his elder brother's giving up the 
Biihopric of Lucan to become a Carthufian, he 
was prevailed upon by his family to take or- 
ders, to be put in poileffion of that benefice. 
He procured the neceifary bulls for that pur- 
pofe of the Pope, then Paul the Fifth, by falh- 



fying his baptifmal regifter, and gaining one 
year by this artifice, he made up the term re- 
quifite by the Canons. The Pope, not finding 
out the trick put upon him till it was too late, 
contented himfelf with faying, *' This young 
*' man will not flop here, I fancy.'' 

Richelieu performed his exercife for the de- 
gree of Do6lor of Divinity at the Sorbonne in 
his epifcopal robes, he being then not five-and- 
twenty years of age, and took for his thefis^ 
" Quisfi milts niihi. — Who is hke to myfelf?*' 

He early in Hfe attached himfelf to Mary de 
Medicis, and in the difputes betv/een her and 
her fon, Louis the Thirteenth, took her part, 
for which he was baniihed to Avignon. There 
heamufed his leifure by writing a " Catechifm," 
and " The Inftructions of a Chriftian," which 
he afterwards printed at the Louvre Prefs wdtli 
great fplendor. 

On his return to Paris with the Queen, he 
was admitted into the Council, as Secretary of 
State, agaf nfh the opinion of his Sovereign, who 
told his other Minifters that they would repent 
of their placing him in fo eminent a iituation. 
Soon, however, in this fituaticn, his tranfcend- 
ant talents began to difplay themfelves, and he 



became- Prime Minlfler, with a plenitude of 
power and authority which no Minifter in 
France before his time ever poffeffed. 

He brought his brother from his retreat in a 
Carthufian Convent, and made him a Cardinal, 
Archbifliop of Lyons, and Grand Almoner of 
France. The brother was dragged unwihingly 
into public life, and was continually writing to 
his brother at Paris to perfuade him to reiign a 
fituation in which he had fo little time to attend 
to his fpiritual concerns. Thefe letters the 
Cardinal never read, after he had been a little 
ufed to their contents. 

Rlclieiieu, amid all his other triumphs, was 
very defirous of the diftinLlion vvhich literary 
fame affords. He offered M. Jay a confider- 
able fum of money, if he would permit him to 
have the credit of his learned Polyglot Bible ;^ 
and the want of fuccefs of a political Comedy 
which he v^a'ote, called " U Eur ope y' gave him 
ferious uneafmefs. 

Richelieu had the merit of inftituting the 
celebrated French Academy, and of eftabiiihing 
a flandard of the French language. In a femi- 
nary which he founded in his native town of 
Richelieu, he directed that the French language 



fliould be the only one taught at it, and that the 
fciences fliould be communicated to the pupils 

in that language alone. 

So ambitious was the Cardinal to have 
every thing bend to his will, that he fpoiied 
the convenience of the magnificent palace which 
he built at Richelieu, merely to prcferve the 
room entire of the old Chateau in which he 
was born. 

One trait in the CardinaFs conduct muft ever 
demand our applaufe. An officious perfon came 
to his Eminence to inform him of certain free 
expreflions which feme perfons of confequence 
had made ufe of, refpeding his character and 
his condu(ft, in his hearing. " Why how now, 
you fcoundrel," replied the Cardinal, "have 
you the impudence to curfe and call me all 
tliefe names to my face, under pretence of 
their having been laid by other particular 
perfons, who I know entertain the highefh 
reipecl for me?" Then ringing his bell, and 
turning to the page who anfwered it, he faid, 
" Go, one of you, and turn this troublefome 
" and malicious fellow do\Vn flairs." 

Richelieu at one time, in the unprofperous 
events of public affairs, had caufed his plate 



and jewels to be packed up, and was preparing 
to quit the kingdom : he was, however, advifed 
by his friend Cardinal de la Valette to get into 
his coach, and (hew himfelf openly to the 
people of Paris. This advice he very wifely 
took. — He was fome time afterward, if poffible, 
in flill greater danger. Mary de Medicis, his 
old protedirefs, had prevailed upon his Sove- 
reign to difmifs him from his high office, and 
a new Adminiftration w^as forming ; he had, 
however, the good fenfe and firmnefs of mind 
to demand a private audience of his Majefty, at 
which he prevailed with that afcendancy which 
llrong minds mud ever have over thofe of a 
weaker and feebler texture. 

Voltaire had fuppofed the famous " Political 
" Teftament'* attributed to this Cardinal to 
be a forgery. A copy of it has, however, been 
difcovered fince his death in the Library of the 
King of France, in his own hand-writing. 

The Cardinal, according to Segrals, had four 
hundred thoufand livres a-year. He gave one 
hundred and twenty thoufand crowns of it in 
penfions to men of learning and fcience, be- 
ftowing in that manner the money which his 
table would have cofl him. He was a valetu- 
dinarian, and never kept a table. 

VOL. IV. o Th<j 


The Comte de Charofl had two brothers, one 
a General, the other an Archbifliop. Riche- 
lieu one day complained to him of the conduct 
of the AtchbilTiop. " Does not your Emi- 
nence know,'* replied the Count, " that 
where there are many brothers in a family, 
the greateft blockhead is always put into 
the Church ?"— " Thanks to you, M. de 
Charoft, for your compliment,'* replied the 

Richelieu, whofe genius aimed at every thing, 
gave Defmaretz the plan of the Comedy of 
" Les VifionaireSy^ which he completed. The 
Lady reprefented in it as being in love with 
Alexander, was Madame de Sable, who had 
paid no attention to the Cardinal's addreiTes. 
This made the World fay, that fhe was in 
love only with the Macedonian Hero. Riche- 
lieu likewife gave the plan of " Mirame" * to 

• " I pxifTcd the winter of 1641 at Paris,'' fays Abbe 
Arnauld, in his very entertaining Memoirs, *' where the 
*' Cardinal celebrated the marriage of his niece with the 
^ Due d'Enguien, afterwards the great Conde, with great 
" magnificence. The Comedy of Mirame, of which his 
*' Eminence gave the plan to Defmaretz, was reprefented 
*^ on the Cardinal's private theatre, when the Queen was 
'* prefent; and myfelf as well as many others were much 

'* afloniflied 


In the different provifions which were expe- 
dited for the feveral commiffions which Riche- 
lieu held, it was declared that he was to be 
obeyed as the King's own proper perfon. 

The Cardinal, while in the agonies of death, 
was afked by his Confeflbr if he fincerely par- 
doned all his enemies. " I never had any but 
" thofe of the State/* was the anfwer of the 
dying Penitent. 

Richelieu was refolved, that even his place of 
fepulture fliould partake of that magnificence 
which had diftinguiflied whatever he had done 
throughout life. He ordered himfelf to be 
buried under the Dome of the celebrated Col- 
lege of the Sorbonne, w4iich he had rebuilt with 

*' aftoniflied that they had the boldnefs to invite her 
** Majefty to be a fpeflator of an intrigue which moft 
*' affuredly conld not pleafe her, and which, from reafons 
*« of refpe(5l, I fliall not explain. But flie was obliged to 
** fuffer this infult, which it was reported flie h?.d brought 
*' upon herfelf by the contempt with which flie had 
*' treated certain foUcitations of the Cardinal. Her Ma- 
*• jefty was perhaps a little indemnified by the very fmall 
'' applaufe the Piece met with, which mortified his Emi- 
" nence extremely. It was, indeed, the only fatisfaction 
" to be had for the infults of a man who was^er 
" of every thing, and formidable to every one, whatever 
*' indignation might naturally enough be felt againll him 
*' for fuch a condu(5t." — Memoircs de V Abhi Arnauld. 

o 2 great 


great fplendor. A maufoleum was erefled over 
him, at the expence of his niece ; it is the c/icf 
d'oeuvre of that great fculptor M. Girardon. 
Not long after it wa^ finiflied, the Princefs of 
Conde, filler to the Due de Montmorenci, 
whom Richeheu had caufed to be beheaded, 
came to vifit it, and (pointing to the tomb) ex- 
claimed, in the words of the Sifter of Lazarus 
to the Saviour of the World, " Domine fi 
" fi^^Jf^^ ^'^^> /r^/^r mens non mortuiis ejjet — Lord, 
" hadft thou been here, our brother had not 
« died/* 

Richelieu was a great Theologian : his " Me- 
" tJiodes des Controverfes fur ions les Points dc 
" la Foi,'' is fuppofed to be the bcft book that 
had appeared on the fubjed in France, before 
Arnauld, Nicole, and BofTuet. He feems to 
have been very anxious that the Huguenots 
iliould become Catholics. " The Cardinal," 
fays Choify, " after having m.ade the Calvinifts 
"■ fubmit by force of arms, defigned to attempt 
" to win them over to the Catholic Faith by 
*^ gentle means. For that purpofe he intended 
to give penfions to their principal Minifters, 
" that might prevent their being in diftrefs ; 
'* and afterv/ards to appoint public conferences, 
" at which nothing ihould be made ufe of as 
" proofs but the authority of the Scriptures 

'^ themfelves. 



*' themfelves, without admitting tradition. He 

" entrufled his defign to Pere du Laurent, who 

" had been a Proteftant Minifter when he was 

" vouno;. I w^ill neither, iaid the Cardinal to 

" him, make ufe of the Doctors of the Sorbonne, 

" who are of ufe only againft the heretics of 

" old; nor of the Fathers of the Oratory, 

" verfed in myftic divinity ; nor of the Jefuits, 

'* too open and too violent enemies to the Pro- 

" teftants. We muft merely quote to them 

" the' pure word of God; they will then attend 

" to us ; and if they will but attend to what 

'* we fay, they are our own." 

When the Princefs of Guimene, a Lady of 
great beauty, entreated the Cardinal to fpare 
the life of the Due de Montmorenci, who had 
been her lover, and to remember what marks 
of friend Qiip he had given him very lately at 
Lyons when there was a plot formed againft 
him, Richelieu replied in an angry tone of 
voice, " Madam, I did not break firfh with the 
" Duke." 

On the day of the Duke*s execution, lie 
found fome French lines on his table to this 
purport : 

In this degenerate and ungrateful aijc. 
Evils alone the memory engage : 

o 3 On 


On plates of brafs we injuries engrive, 
And kindnefs trufl; upon the tracklefs wave. 

Richelieu died completely worn out with 
fatigue of body and of mind, at the age of 
fifty-eight. A few hours before he died he 
fent for M. Chicot, his phyfician, and defired 
him as a man of honour to tell him what he 
really thought of his fituation. " In four-and- 
" twenty hours,'* replied he, " your Eminence 
*' will be either dead or cured." — Richelieu 
knew very well what this meant, and fent im- 
mediately for his ConfeiTor, who adminiftered 
the lafl: Sacraments to him. With his eyes 
fixed attentively upon the veffel which con- 
tained the holy elem.ent, he exclaimed, " O my 
" Judge, condemn me, if, in what I have done, 
" I have ever had any intentions but thofe of 
" ferving the King and the Country !" 

His Sovereign, on being informed of his 
death, faid coolly, " Foila un grand ■politique 
" mort P' 

Richelieu was, during the whole of his ad- 
miniftration, very fubject to fleeplefs nights, 
He had always by his bediide one of his pages 
to read to him when he was indifpofed to reft, 
A young man who had been recommended 
to him as one of his readers, imagining that 
§ the 


the Cardinal was afleep, was looking over feme 
papers that lay upon his bed. The Cardinal, 
who had feigned to be afleep merely to try 
the young man*s difcretion and honour, darting 
fuddenly a look of great fternnefs upon him, 
ordered him immediately to leave the room, and 
never afterward to come into his prefence. 

One of the Cardinal's maxims w^as, *' That 
" an unfortunate and an imprudent peribn 
" were fynonymous terms.'' Of his own me- 
thod of a6ling, he gave this account to the 
Marquis de Vieuville. *' I never dare under- 
take any thing until I have well confidered 
it ; but when I have once taken my refo- 
lution, I go direcftly to my point. I throw 
down every thing that fhands in my way; 
I cut up every thing by the roots that op- 
pofes me ; and then I cover every thing with 
*' my Cardinal's robe." — Richelieu ufed to fay, 
" That the favourites of his Sovereign *, and 
*' their intrigues, gave him more trouble than 
" all Europe taken together." The com- 
pleted tefhimony that was ever given to the 
talents of Richelieu was by Peter the Great, on 

* *' Le Cabinet du Roi ^ fon petit Coucher me caufeni phi 
♦' ^' emharras (^uc V Europe entiere.'^ 

" Fie de Richelieu." 
o 4' feeing 


feeing the flatue of the Cardinal at the Sor- 
bonne. " This," fald he, " was a man to whom 
" 1 lliould very gladly have giVen one half of 
" my dominions, if he would have governed the 
'' other half for me." 

" The Cardinal," fays Abbe Brotier, " knew 
" well the refources of the great country which 
*' he governed. He ufed to fay of it, France 
" can raife fix hundred thoufand foot and 
" one hundred and fifty thoufand horfe, and 
" be able to go to war wdth them in a fort- 
" night." 

The Cardinal's device was an oflrich, with 
this motto, in allufion to the fuppofed power 
that bird has of digeiling iron : " For f is dura 
*'' coquhy According to Brotier, he firfb put 
this motto on the cannon of his Sovereign 
Louis the Thirteenth, " Ratio tiltima Regum *." 

When Richelieu fent the celebrated Abbe 
de St. Cyran to the Caftle of Vincennes, his niece, 
the Duchefs d' Aguillon, and many other per- 
fons, entreated him to give him his liberty^ 
J-Ie rephed, " If in the lafl age Luther and 
■* Calvin had been fhut up in prifon, it would 

» '' Farcies Memorables.'' 

" have 


" have faved Europe a great deal of trouble and 
« ofbloodfhed/' 

A favourite faying of Richelieu was, that 
" fecrecy is the foul of all great affairs," 

The Cardinal had an odd whim of havrns a 
Comedy compofed by five different perfons, 
each of whom took an Ad:. It was called " La 
" Come die de T^uillerles^ par les cinq Autenrs,^* 
It was reprefented before the King and Queen 
and the Court of France with great magnifi- 
cence. The Adlors fat by themfelves on a 
bench. Chapelain was fuppofed to have been 
the planner of it. He, however, only corrected 
the piece in feveral places. The Cardinal re- 
quefted his help in this bulinefs ; promifing in 
return to give Chapelain his ailiflance on a 
fimilar occafion. 

^' How happens it," faid the Cardinal one 
day to M. de Valancey, the difeur des bom mots 
of his time at Paris, " that you, who fcatter your 
^' abufe upon every one, have never once taken 
"' it into your head to find fault with me ? Is 
" it becaufe you are afraid ?" — " No, Sir," re- 
plied M. de Valencey, " it is becaufe your Emi- 
^^ nence commits no fluilts." 

A fcarce 


A fcarce medal is fometlmes met with in the 
cabinets of the curious, reprefenting on one 
iide the head of Louis XIII. with his ufual 
titles 5 and on the other, the head of his Prime 
Minifter Richelieu^ thus infcribcd, " Nil fine 
** Conftlio ;" alluding, perhaps, to the favourite 
faying of his Eminence, that an unfortunate 
^nd an imprudent perfon were in general fyno- 
nymous terms. Juvenal had indeed faid long 
befgre him. 

Nullum numen aheji^fi fit prudentia* 

Prudence to man each other aid fupplies, 
And claims him the protedlion of the fkies. 

** Tlie Cardinal de Richelieu and M. de 
" Bullion, Surintendant of the Finances," fays 
M. Bourbon, '' making an average between 
" them, are enabled to do every thing they 
" defire. The iirfh hardly ever lleeps at all, 
*' and the laft is always alleep ; and yet every 
" thing fucceeds as they wifh." May not 
Claudian*s Epigram be applied to them ? 

Mallius tndulget fomno mSiefque dlefque 

hijomn'is Pharius facra prophana rapiU 
Omnibus hoc liala Gentes expo/cite votls 
Mallius ut vigilefy dormiat ut Pharius. 
Bullion through nights and days his fleep extends, 
His watchful Colleague all our treafure fpends j 
Then, O ye Gods ! in fafety France to keep. 
Let Bullion wake, and Richelieu ever fleep I 

[ 203 3 


was the brother of the great Cardinal of that 
name, and was prefented by Henry the Fourth 
to the Bifliopric of Luc^on, which he gave up 
to his brother, and became a Carthufian Monk 
of the Grande Chartreufe near Grenoble, where 
he rcfided for near twenty years, and was known 
in the Convent by the name of " Father Al- 
*' phonfe." He was taken from this retreat 
by his brother (when he became Prime Mi- 
nifter), and made Archbifliop of Lyons, Great 
Almoner of France, and Cardinal. When the 
plague broke out in his diocefe, he diftinguillied 
himfelf by his attention and liberality to his 
difeafed flock, whom he never could be pre- 
vailed upon to quit, whilft they were in this 
ftate of danger and diftrefs. 

On his death-bed he ordered his body to be 
buried in the Chapel of an Hofpital at Lyons, 
with this infcrlption : " Pauper nattis fiim, pan- 
" pertatem vovi^ pauper morwr^ et inter pauperes 
" /^i^^/^W vo/o — I was born poor, I made a vow 
" of poverty, I die poor, and I am buried 
^^ amongfl the poor,'* He told his Confellor 



in his laft moments, that he had rather have died 
as Father Alphonfe than Cardinal of Lyons. 

This Prelate, who, like his brother, was a 
valetudinarian, was the means of bringing cho- 
colate into vogue as a diet in France. That 
diet requires no effort of maflication to become 
nutritive, and, united with fome faccharine 
fubftance, extremely well fupports thofe (as is 
particularly the cafe with perfons of a certain 
age in the Weft Indies) who have been deprived 
of their teeth. 


w'as brought to the fcaffold by the fanguinary 
Richelieu in 1632. Forty years of fervice, and 
his memory rehabilitated by the Parhament of 
Paris after the death of that Minifter, have 
reftored his name to that degree of refpecl and 
efieem which it ever deferved. 

In order to be able to make out any accufa- 
tion againft the Marfhal, his enemies were 
obliged to recur to fome trifling abufes in his 
conduct as Commander in Chief, to fome profits 
he had made by contrads, or that fome perfons 



tinder him had made on the building of the 
Citadel of Verdun. On hearing thefe charges 
read, he exclaimed to his Judges, " What an 
" extraordinary thing it is, that a man of my 
" rank fliould be profecuted with fo much fe- 
" verity and injuflice ! After all, there occurs 
" nothing in the charges againfi: me but the 
" words hay, ilraw, ftores, and mortar.'* 

When he was required to give up the flaiF 
of Mar dial of France, previous to his being led 
to execution ; " The King," faid he, " gave it 
" to me, and put the power of it into my hands, 
" which I have often ftained with the blood of 
" his enemies : but now I return it to him in 
" a manner much more bloody." 

As he was condu6ling to the Place de Greve 
to be executed, he palTed before the Hotel of 
Cardinal de Richelieu. " Alas !" faid he, " in 
" that houfe I was promifed many things, which 
" to-day I find not to be true." 

r 206 ] 


was the elder brother of the Marfnal of that 
name, and was made Keeper of the Seals of 
France in 1626. They were taken from him 
in 1630, and he died in confinement in 1632. 
The two brothers were much attached to Mary 
de Medicis, and incurred the difpleafure of 
Richelieu for their attachment to that perfe- 
cuted Princefs. 

M. de Marillac ufed to fay to the young 
Lawyers of his time, " Only take pains, and 
" be modeft, and you mull rife in your pro- 
'' fefiion." 

He called his high office an office of perpe- 
tual denial : " For," faid he '^ I am in general 
" obliged to refufe nine requefts out of ten 
" that are made to me." 

He often repeated what his predecelTor M. 
de L'Hopital fays in his Poems of a Chancellor 
that ufed to refufe nothing, whether the re- 
quefts were juft or unjuft : " That it is no 
" praifo to a wife man to have one quality 

" which 


^^ which he has in common with a young prc- 
*^ digal, or with a woman who has loft her 
" virtue.'* 


This great General and excellent Politician 
firft (hewed his talents in the latter capacity at 
the meeting of the Proteftants at Saumur in 
1 6 1 1 5 w^here he took the part of the great and 
good Sully, his father-in-law, againft the 
Due de Bouillon with fuccefs. " It was here," 
faid he, '^ that I laid the foundation of that 
*' knowledge to which the great ought particu- 
" larly to apply themfelves, that of managing 
" mankind*." 

The Duke had the courage to refift Cardi- 
nal Richelieu, that idol of power to whom 
every other knee in France bowed. In fpite of 
the diftrelTes of th@ Huguenot party in France^ 
of which he was the leader, he adopted the 
daring refolution to affemble another army of 
that party, and took care to let the Cardinal 

• *' y'ai jette la les fondements de la fcience que les granJs 
" doivent Jkr toutes chofes apprcndre^ qui eft de gagmr la 
** hommesJ^* 


io8 Due DE ROHAN. 

know, that pacification between the Catholic*? 
and Huguenots was the great obje6t of his de- 
fires ; that whatever might happen, he was re- 
folved to perfift, as well as to perilhi himfelf 
with all the remains of his party, rather than 
not obtain a general peace conformably to the 
acknowledged edicts for that purpofe; and re- 
commended to his Eminence to confider how 
dangerous it was to preclude a man of courage 
in arms from every hope of fafety. 

The pacification was foon afterwards figned 
by Louis the Thirtecnthj at Aletz, June 27, 
1629, being the third which the Duke had the 
honour to conclude with his Sovereign. He 
then retired to Venice, where he was received 
with every diftindlion due to his rank and charac- 
ter, and in which city he wrote the celebrated 
Memoirs of his Life and Negociations ; by 
which means he filled up that leifure which to 
a man of his ardent and active mind would have 
been infupportable without fome employment. 
He was often heard to fay, that there was no 
misfortune could happen to a man {o great as 
-^ihat of having nothing to do, and that he really 
wondered Viow a man of fcnfe could ever find 
himfelf in that horrid fituation ; but which in- 
deed always happened to thofe, who, having 
no powers of mind, exift only upon the favours 



of fortune j and that when her feeble power 
abandoned them, and they had loft the idle 
and fedudive air of the Court, they became 
expofed to vexation, and fell into ilich a ftate 
of reftlelTnefs as rendered them incapable either 
cf eafe or pleafure. 

His maxims as a General refpe6ling his 
countrymen were, that they fhould always be 
placed by their Commander in fuch a manner 
that they might begin an engagement *. ''I 
*' know well," faid he one day, " the difpo- 
fition of the French ; they are incapable of 
maintaining foot by foot any advantage they 
may have gained over their enemies ; they 
fhould always be kept in a poflure of attack, 
and not of defence. Their quick and impe- 
*^ tuous character inclines them rather to a6t 
" than to fuffer, and to advance rather than 
*' wait the attack of their enemies." 

The celebrated Pere Jofeph, the confidant of 
Richelieu, wrote by his order a letter, as from 
the Cardinal Infant of Spain to the Duke, by 
way of founding his inclinations toward that 
Court. The Duke repligd, that he was too 
good a Frenchman, and too dutiful a fubje6t 

* " II faut mettre les Francois en ejlat de fr^ip^r les 
" premiers ,^^-— Hi/hire du Due de Rohan^ 

VOL. IV. P to 


to his King, to pay the lead attention to any 
thing that was prejudicial to his Prince ; and 
that however ill he was treated at his own 
Court, he had mod alTuredly very good reafons 
for complaint, but none for being deficient in 
fidelity to his Prince. 

The Duke de Rohan was mortally wounded 
at the battle of Rhinsfield. Previous to the 
engagement, the Duke of Weymar, one of the 
mofb difhinguiQied Generals of his time, de- 
fired him to p^ive the word of commiand ; add- 
ing, that he fliould be afliamed to give it him- 
felf, whilfh before the greatefh General in Eu- 
rope. The Duke de Rohan replied, that he 
was only there to fight as a foldier under his 
orders, and to fee the difference there was be- 
tween military operations which depend upon 
the underftanding and mere coups du main-y but 
that if he really wiflied to have his opinion 
on the prefent ftate of the army, he would 
very readily give it to him, to the befc of his 

The Duke of Weymar confultcd him and 
took his advice, which proved unfortunate only 
to the Duke de Rohan, as he was wounded and 
taken prifoner. As they were taking him off 
the field, tlic Duke of Weymar, rallying his 


Due DE ROHAN. 211 

troops, took the party prifoners who were carry- 
ing off the Duke de Rohan, and had the me- 
lancholy fatisfadlion of giving him every ailifl:- 
ance in his wretched fituation. He died a few 
days after the engagement, on the thirteenth of 
April 1638, in the Abbey of Coningsfieldj 
where his heart is depoiited in a box : his body 
was carried with much funeral pomp to Ge- 
neva, and buried in the 2:reat church of that - 

When the Chiefs of his party accufed this 
great man of having fold to Louis the Thir* 
teenth fomie of their fortrefles which they were 
unable to defend, he faid with great indigna- 
tion, prefenting his breafh to them at the fame 
time, " Strike ! ftrike ! I am willing to die by 
" your hands, after having fo often rifqued n?^ 
** life for your fervice." 

The Duke, amongfh his various other works j 
wrote a book on the Intereft of Princes, with 
a dedication to the Cardinal de Richelieu ; m 
which he tells him, after mentioning the great 
difficulties attendant on the government of a 
kingdom, that no certain and invariable rule can 
be laid down for it, and that what caufes a re- 
volution in the affairs of the world, caufes aifo a 
Gompleat alteration in the fundamental maxims 

p 2 of 


of government, " therefore/' adds he, " thofe 
*' perfons who condudl themfelves more by 
^' examples of paft times than by reafons taken 
" from the prefent fituation of things, of ne- 
*' ceffity make many miftakes." 

In his chapter on the Intereft of England, 
he fays, 

England, which is like a fmall feparate 
world, had nothing to do with other States, 
" unlefs when the necefTity to proted its com- 
" merce obliged it, which was then its true 
*' intereft. It is by that it has acquired its 
" w^calth, which, joined to its fituation, has 
^' rendered it fo confiderable. But fince, under 
" the fhadow of the myfterious marriage be- 
" tween Philip and Mary, the politics of Spain 
** have infenfibly entered into thofe of England, 
*' which before that time had maxims of poHcy 
** of its own, it has, by little and little, fome- 
" times accommodated itfelf to the interefts of 
'' France, and fometimes to thofe of Spain. 

" Queen Elizabeth,'' added he, " who by 
her prudent government has equalled the 
fame of the greateft Sovereigns that Chriftian 
Europe ever pofielTed, well acquainted with 
"^^ the iituation of her kingdom, thought that 
" the true intereft of it was to keep it in a ftate 

* " of 




" of perfecV union, having deftroyed all the re- 
*' mains of the former fadlions; very wifely 
" judging, that England is a great animal which 
" can never die unlefs it deftroys itfelf : " Qi^e 

" PAngleterre eji wi grand anirtial qui 7ie -pent 
" jamais mourir s'il ne Je tue ltd mefme" 


This pious man died, as the late excellent 
Mr. Granger died, while he was celebrating the 
Sacrament. The Cardinal fell dead upon 
the fteps of the altar, at the moment of Confe- 
cration, as he was pronouncing the words " kanc 
" igitiir oblationem'^ This occafioned the fol- 
lowing difhich : 

Ccepta fub extremis nequeo dumfacra facerdos 
Perficere^ at faltem v'lSluna perficiam. 

In vain the reverend Pontiff tries 
To terminate the facrificej 
Himfelf Vv'ithin the holy walls 
The Heav'n-devoted vi6lim falls. 

Cardinal Berulle came over with Henrietta 
Maria, Queen of Charles the Firft, to England, 
as her ConfefTor, to the Court of which he en- 
deared himfelf by the fanclity of his morals, and 

p 3 the 


the extreme propriety of his behaviour. Liko 
the late learned and excellent Dr. Balguy, he 
pofTeffed the nolo epifcopari in the extremefb 
purity of intention ; for when his Sovereign 
Louis the Thirteenth of France prefled him 
to take the Bifhopric of Leon, he refufed ; and 
on that Monarch's telling him that he fhould 
employ the folicitation of a more powerful ad- 
vocate than himfelf (meaning the Pope) to pre-, 
vail upon him to accept of it, he faid, " that 
" if his Majefly continued to prefs him^ he 
*' lliould be obliged to quit his kingdom." 

He eftablifhed the venerable Order of the 
Fathers of the Oratory in France, founded by 
San Philippo Neri, and was a man of fuch emi- 
nent goodnefs, that Pope Leo the Xlth faid 
of him, when he faw him at Rome as a fimple 
fiuar, " Le Pere Beridle 71 eft pas tin Iiom'me, c'eft^ 


Thi s excellent Engraver was born a fubjecfl of 
the Duke of Lorraine. When Nancy was taken 
from that Prince by Cardinal Richelieu, he 
wifhed Callot to make a fet of prints defcrip- 
tive of the fiege of that important place. The 



Artift refufed ; and, on the CardinaFs inrifting; 
with him very peremptorily, he replied, " My 
" Lord, if you continue to urge me, I will cut 
*' off the thumb of my right hand with my 
" pen-knife before your face. I will never 
" confent to perpetuate the calamity and dif- 
*' grace of my Sovereign and protec'tor.** 

Callot w^ore, attached to his button-hole, one 
of his fmall copper-plates, which he thought 
his chef-d'mivre. Were every diftinclion of 
ornament as well applied, who would not envy 
Sovereigns the powder of befliowing them. ? 

This great Artift's mafter-piece is his '• Mi- 
'' feriesofWar;" miferies which, in the pre- 
fent diftraded flate of Europe, do not require 
to be recalled to our minds by the powers of 


Th I s celebrated Dominican Friar of Naples 
is mentioned by Mr. Burke in his ingenious 
*' Effay on the Sublime and Beautiful." He 
was accufed of treafon and of herefy by an aged 
Friar of his own Order w'ith v/nom he difputed, 
and over whom, mofh 'orobablv, he had the ad- 
vantage in the difpute. He was imprifoned 

P 4 foi' 


for twenty-feven years, and was put to the rack 
feven times, for twenty-four hours each time. 
By the power of abftradlion which his mind 
poiTefled, he bore the tortures inflidled upon 
him with the greatefb tranquiUity. He was de- 
hvered from his confinement at the foHcitation 
of Pope Urban VIII. in 1624, and came to 
Paris, where he was much conhdered by Cardi- 
nal PvicheUeu. Campanelia wrote " Atheifmus 
" I'yiiimpkatits'' and " Monarchia MeJJia-,'* 
books now become extremely fcarce, like many 
others, from their not being worth the re- 


It is fuppofed that the immediate caufe of 

the profecution of this excellent and intrepid 

man was, that his grandfather had mentioned 

Cardinal Richelieu's father in his celebrated 

Hiftory of His Own Times, in a manner not 

much to his credit. His Judges were anxious 

to fave him. " Al. le Chancelier a beau dire^'' 

fays Richelieu, " ilfatit que M. de Thou meure ; 

" The Chancellor may fay what he pleafes, 

'' but M. de Thou muft die *." 

* ** He has put my father in his Hiflor}^," faid the vin- 
di^iive Richelieu, '^ and I wixi put his grandfon's name in 




De Thou, whilft he was in prifon, had made 
a vow to endow a chapel whenever he gained 
his liberty. On the morning of his execution 
he compofed the following infcription for him- 

Chrifto Liberator! 

Votum in carcere pro libertate conceptum, 

T. Augustus Thuanus 

E carcere vitae jam jam liberandus 

Morte folvit xli Junii, 1642. 

Confitebar tibi Domine, quoniam exaudifti me & 

faftus es mihi in falutem. 

He died with great courage. 



It was in the year 1638," fays Abbe 
Arnauld, in his very amufing Memoirs, " that 
*' I had the honour to become acquainted with 
*' that Amazon of our times Madame de Saint 
" Balmont, whofe life was a prodigy of courage 
" and of virtue, uniting in her perfon all the 
" valour of a determined foldier, and all the 
*' modefty of a truly Chrifhian woman. She 
" was of a very good family of Lorraine, and 
" was born with a difpoiition worthy of her 
" birth. The beauty of her face correfponded 
^' to that of her mind, but her fliape by na 

" means 


^' means agreed with it, being fmall and rather 
*' chimf}^ Providence, who had defined her 
*' for a life more laborious than that which 
** females in general lead, had formed her more 
" robufl and more able to bear bodily fatigue. 
*' It had infpired her with fo great a contempt 
*' for beauty, that when (lie had the fmall-pox 
" fhe was as pleafed to be marked with it as 
" other women are afflided on a fimilar occa- 
" fion, and faid, that it would enable her to 
" be more like a man. She was married to the 
*' Count de Saint Balmont, who was not infe- 
** rior to her either in birth or in merit. They 
lived together very happily till the troubles 
that arofe in Lorraine obliged them to fepa- 
rate. The Count w^as conftantly employed 
by the Duke his Sovereign in a manner fuit- 
able to his rank and difpofition, except when 
he once gave him the command of a poor 
" feeble fortrefs, in v;hich he had the alfurance 
*' to refifh the arms of Louis XIV. for feveral 
^' days together, at the rifque of being treated 
" with the extremeft feverity of mihtary law, 
" which denounces the moft infamous and de- 
" grading punilhment againfb all thofe Officers 
^' who hold out without any profped of fuccefs. 
" M. de Saint Balmont went indeed farther, 
*' and added infolence to raflmefs ; for at every 
^^ fliot of cannon that was fired at. the forUefs, 

" hQ 


^' he appeared at the windows attended by 
^^ fome fiddlers, who played by his fide. This 
" madnefs (for one cannot call it by a more 
" gentle name) had nearly coil him very dear ; 
*' for when he was taken prifoner it was agi- 
^' tated in the Council of War, compofed of 
*' the Officers whom he had treated with this 
" infolence, whether he fliould not be hung up 
" immediately; but regard was paid to his 
" birth, and perhaps to his courage, however 
" indifcreet. Madame de Saint Balmont re- 
" mained upon his eftates to take care of them. 
" Hitherto fhe had only exerted her foldier- 
'*' like difpofition in hunting and fhooting 
(which is a kind of war), but very foon an 
opportunity prefented itfelf of realizing it, 
and it was this: An Officer in our cavalry 
^' had taken up his quarters upon one of her 
*' hufband's efiiates, and was living there at dif- 
*' cretion. Madame de Saint Balmont fent 
-' him a very civil letter of complaint on his 
'• ill behaviour, v>'hich he treated with great 
^' contempt. Piqued at this, flie was refolved 
** that he fliould give her fatisfa(5lion, and 
" merely confulting her refentment, fhe wrote 
*' him a note, iigned, Le Chevalier de Sabu 
*' Balmont, In this note ihe obferved to him, 
*'' that the ungentleman-like manner in which 
^' he had behaved to his fifler-in-law, obliged 

*' liim 


" him to refent it, and to defire that he -would 
" give him with hisfword that fatisfadlion which 
" his letter had refufed. The Officer accepted 
" the challenge, and repaired to the place ap- 
" pointed. Madame de Saint Balmont met 
" him drefled in men's clothes. Thev im- 
*' mediately drew their fwords, and our he- 
roine had the advantage him -, when, after 
having difarmed him, (he faid, with a very 
gracious fmile, You thought, Sir, I make no 
doubt, that you were fighting with Le Che- 
*^ valier de Saint Balmont ; it is, however, a 
" female of that name who returns you your 
" fword, and begs you in future to pay more 
*' regard to the requefts of the Ladies. She 
^^ then left him, covered with fliame and con- 
^' fufion ; and, as the ftpry goes, he immedi- 
*' ately abfented himfclf, and no one ever faw 
" him afterwards. But be that as it may, this 
incident ferving merely to inflame the cou- 
rage of the fair challenger, fhe did not reft 
(Ixtisfied with merely preferving her eftates by 
** repelling force by force, but (lie afforded pro- 
*^ tedion to many of the Gentlemen in her 
^' neighbourhood, v/ho made no fcruple to 
'^ take refuge in her village, and to put thcm- 
** felves under her orders when fhe took the 
" field, which Ihc always did with fuccefs, her 
" defigns being executed with a prudence equal 

" to 


" to her courage. I have often, fays the Abbe, 
*' been in company with this extraordinary per- 
^^ fonage at the houfe of Madame de Feu- 
" quieres, wife to the celebrated Marilial of 
" that name, at Verdun ; and it was quite 
" ridiculous to fee how embarrafled fhe ap- 
peared in her female drefs, and (after fhe 
had quitted it in town) with what eafe and 
fpirit fhe got on horfeback, and attended the 
" ladies that were of her party, and whom fhe 
" had left in her carriage, in their little excur- 
" fions into the country. 

" The manner of living, however, of Ma- 
** dame de Saint Balmont, fo far removed from 
" that of her fex, and which in all other females 
" w4io have attempted it, has ever been found 
" united with libertinifm cf manners, was in 
" her accompanied with nothing that bore the 
" leaft refemblance to it. When fhe was at 
home in time of peace, her whole day wa* 
employed in the offices of religion ; in 
prayers, in reading the Bible and books of 
devotion, in vifiting the poor of her parifli, 
" whom file was ever aiTifling with the mofb 
adive zeal of charity. This manner of liv- 
ing procured her the admiration and efteem 
of perfons of all defcriptions in her neigh- 

" bourhood, 


" bourhood, raid infurcd her a degree of re- 
•' fped: that cou-ld not have been greater to- 
"' wards a Queen *»'* 


" The mere name of this Lady," fays Abbt. 
Arnauld, " deferves an eulogium from thole 
*' who know how to appreciate fenfe, wit, and 
** virtue. I fhail never forget," adds he, *' the 
" firfi: time that I had the honour to fee this 
" excellent Woman in her coach with her foil 
" and daughter. They reahzed what the 
** Poets have told us of Latona between Apollo 
*' and young Diana, fo miuch beauty and ele- 
" gance appeared in the Mother and her chil- 
" dren. She then did me the favour to pro- 
" mife mc her fricndibip, and I am not a Uttle 
" proud oF having preferved to this day a pre- 
*' fent fo dear and fo precious. But I muil fay 
" indeed, to the honour of the Ladies, that I 
" have ever found them more conflant in their 
" friend ill ips than the Men. By the Men I 

* The late excellent Duchefs Dowager of Portland had a 
Priut of this extraordinary woman in her Coiie6lioii, 

^' have 


" have often been deceived ; — never by the 
" Ladies *." 

I III III I'll' 


in the year 1618, quoted the following Latin 
verfes, which, he fays, were written by a Pro- 
teftant Advocate of the Parliament of Paris 
fifty years before that time; " or rather," adds 
he, " by an Angel, who didated them to 
" him;'' 

Fejiinat propero curfu ja?n temporls ordoy 
^uo locus et Franci Majejlas pr'ifca Senatus^ 
Papay SacerdoteSy Mijf^^ Simulachra^ D'llqiie 
Fi5litit-i atque omnes fuperos exofa potejias 
'Judic'io Domini jujio fublata peribunt. 

In the dark volume of refiftlefs Fate 

What changes menace v/retched Gallia's State ! 

In one, one luc kiefs yet approaching hour 

The Roman PontifPs arrogated power; 

The Mafs itfelf; the Priefts, a facred train, 

Who each time-honour'd rite with zeal maintain; 

*• The fagacious Dr. Franklin ufed to fay, that the pureft 
and moil ufeful friend a man could poflibly procure, was 
a Frenchwoman of a certain age who had no defigns upon 
his perfon ; " they are," added he, " fo ready to do you 
*' fervice, and from their knowledge of the world know fo 
** well how to ferve you wifely," 


224 LEMERItrs. 

Weak mortals raifed to the empyrean throne, 
Gods that man's bafe and wretched fabric own; 
Powers that the foul in flavifli fetters bind, 
Debafe the noble nature of mankind, 
With their own phantoms fcare his genVous breaft,' 
And every fway except their own deteft; 
Thefe, " v.'hilft eternal juftice rules this ball," 
Thefe, thefe, by Heaven's own high behefl, (hall fall; 
In endlefs rain and confufion hurl'd, 
A dread example to a wondering world. 


What contrarieties often occur in the fame 
perfon ! How often the indulgence of one vice 
prevents the exertion and the advantage of many 
good qualities, and of many virtues ! Auberi du 
Maurier, in his " Memoires de Hambourg^'' thus 
defcribes the celebrated Marflial Rantzau — 
" He was a German of hig;h birth, and a Ge- 
" neral of fuch- great note, that Mazarin ufed 
" to oppofe him to the Prince of Conde, when 
*^ that p;reat Commander had the misfortune 
" to be in arms againil his country and his 
" Prince." M. Rantzau poifelTed admirable 
qualities both of body and mind. He was tall, 
fair, and very handfome. To fee him only, one 
would fay he was born to command. He was 
the fineil horfeman ever beheld. He would hit 

a fmgle 


a fingle piece of money with a piftol at a hun- 
dred paces diflant. He was invincible with the 
fmall-fword. He fpoke the principal languages 
of Europe, and had a general taile for the 
fciences. He was acquainted with all the great 
Generals of the age, having made w^ar under 
them from the moment he was able to bear 
arms. He faid in converfation many lively 
things ; and as an infallible proof of the force of 
his eloquence in any council of war in which 
he ever fat, he always drew over the other Mem- 
bers to be of his fentiments, fo ably did he fup- 
port them with powerful reafons. If he fpoke 
well, he wrote ftill better. To his courage no- 
thing was impoffible. He poiTelTed perfedt cool- 
nefs in the greateft danger, and found expedients 
under the heaviefb misfortunes. His liberality 
procured him the love and efteem of his foldiers, 
and no General knew how to give his orders fo 
well. But fo many excellent and rare virtues 
were effaced by his great vices. Never was there 
a more determined debauchee. He loved wme 
and women to excefs, and the mod feafoned 
drinkers were afraid of him. He fought their 
company from all parts, and no one couid equal 
him in this fpecies of vice. He fometimes re- 
mained in a ftate of infenfibility for wdiole days. 
The diforder that reigned in his private atFairs 
was inconceivable. He gave away whatever he 
had about him without difcrimination, and he al- 
voL. IV. Q ways 


wa)^ had much money in his pocket, which he 
was robbed of during his inebriety. Thus, Ukc 
a cafk without a bottom, all the riches of India 
would not have been fufficient for him, and he 
found himfelf com.pelled to fell all his effefts 
for httle or nothing. He often loft his befl 
friends for a bon-mot. Du Maurier, who was 
Rantzau's great friend, told this extraordinary 
man one day, that his excefTes and irregularities 
would deftroy his health, and that they would 
prevent his rifing to the principal employments 
in the State- " I would not,*' anfwered he, 
darting a moil ferocious and haggard look 
upon Du Maurier, " I would not give up my 
*' pleafures to become Emperor of Germ.any.*^ 
His exceiTes, during the liege of Dunkirk by 
the Spaniards, are thought to have loft that 
place. He was, however, confined for fomc 
tim^e in the caftle of Vincennes for this fuppofed 
negle(5l, and was cleared from any imputation 
of treachery or of cowardice. He died foon 
after his reieafe. During the fiege of Grave- 
lines, he had one day appointed the Duke of 
^Orleans, and fome of the principal French No- 
bility, to fup with him. He went, however, 
in the morning, to pay a vifit to the famous 
Dutch Admiral Van Tromp, where he got fo 
drunk with Malaga wine, that he fell under 
the table as if he was dead, and was obliged to 
be put to bed. His Aid-du-camp made an apo- 

Marshal rantzau. 22/ 

loo-y to the Duke of Orleans for his mailer's not 
being able to a(:tend him at fupper, and put it 
upon an exceffive fwell of the fea, which had 
prevented his leaving the Admiral's Ihip. 

To (hew the dangers of ebriety, the Catholic 
Legends tell us of fome Hermit to whom the 
Devil gave his choice of three crimes j two of 
them of the moft atrocious kind, and the other 
to be drunk. The poor Saint chofe the laft, 
as the leaft of the three 5 but when drunk, com- 
mitted the other two. 

The baneful efFedts of this pernicious vice 
upon the body are defcribed by the ingenious 
Dr. Darwin, in his " Zoonomia," under an 
allegory which would not have difgraced the 
fplendid imagination of Lord Bacon himfelf. 

" Prometheus," fays the Dodor, " was 
painted as ftealing fire from Heaven, that 
might Tyeil reprefent the inflammable fpirit 
produced by fermentation, which may be 
** faid to animate or enliven the man of clay ; 
** whence the conquefts of Bacchus, as well as 
** the temporary mirth and noife of his devo- 
** tees. But the after-puniOiment of thofe 
^' who fteal this accurfed fire, is a vulture gnaw- 
" ing the liver, and well allegorizes the poor 

Q 2 " inebriate 


" inebriate lingering for jxars under palnfal 

" difeafes." 

And that the graces and energies of poetry 
may come in aid of the figure fo ftrongly de- 
pidled in profe, the fame great Phyfiologift, in 
his " Botanic Garden," in the mofl fublime 
imagery, and with the greatefl flrength of per- 
fonification, has compofed a pidure which 
fhould be painted and hung up in every cham- 
ber dedicated to BacchanaUan feftivity. 

Dr. Darwin perfonifies the Goddefs of Wine 
under the name ofVixis, who thus addrefies 
her votaries : 

<^ Drink deep, fweet Youths," fcduclive Vitis cries, 
■ The maudUn tear-drop gliftening in her eyes ; 
Green leaves and purple chifters crown her head. 
And the tali thyrfus ftays her tott'ring tread : 
" Drink deep,'* fhe carols, as fhe waves in air 
The mantling goblet, "and forget your care." 
O'er the dread feaft malignant Chymia fcowls, 
And mingles poifon in the ne<Si:ar'd bowls. 
Fell Gout peeps grinning thro' the flimfy fcene, 
And bloated Dropfy keeps behind unfeen. 
Wrapp'd in her robe, white Lepra hides her ftains. 
And filent Frenzy, writhing, bites his chains. 

[ 229 ] 


This great Poet was apt to be a little cauftic 
in converfation. Some one was talking before 
him of the nobility of his family : " Alas ! my 
" good friend,'* replied he, *' it is in the power 
*' of one woman to taint the blood of Charle- 
'' magne himfelf.'* Speaking one day of the 
wickednefs of mankind, he faid, " Why, when 
" there were only three or four perfons in the 
" world, one of them killed his brother." 

Malherbe, though perhaps the firfl good poet 
that France ever produced, thought fo flightly 
of the merit of his productions, that he ufed to 
fay, " a good poet was of no more ufe to a 
" State than a good player at quoits." He 
obferved, " that the tefl of good verfes was, 
*' when they were got by heart." Every one 
remembers his celebrated ftanza upon the cer- 
tainty of death : 

La pauvre en fa cabane^ 
Ou la chaume le couvre^ 

EJl fujet a fes loix* 
Et la garde que vielle aux barr'ieres de Louvre^ 

-^/V;2 defend pas ?ios Rois, 

« 3 

[ 230 ] 



ufed to fay, that to compofe, was an Author's 
Heaven; to corred his Works, an Author's 
Purgatory; but to correct the Prefs, an Author's 


This learned Frenchman was in England for 
a few months in 1606. He was prefented to 
King James, who often fent for him to converfe 
with him, and was particularly pleafed with the 
following incident, which Peyrefc related to 

Peyrefc was pre fent at a dinner given by fome 
perfon of confequence in London, who had in- 
yited many men of learning and of fcience to 
meet him. In the middle of the dinner, one of 
them, Dr.Torie, drank to Peyrefc out of an im- 
menie cup, hlled with ftrong wine, and pledged 
him to drink it after him. Peyrefc excufed 
himielf, no lefs on account of the fize of the 
cup, than on account of the liquor it contained; 
giving as reafons, the weaknefs of his ftomiach, 
* and 


and his not being at all ufed to drink wine. 
The excufe, however, was not allowed, and he 
confented to drink after Dr. Torie, provided he 
might afterwards be permitted to challenge him 
in any liquor that he pleafed. To this the 
company as well as the Doctor confented. Pey- 
refc then immediately taking the bowl in his 
hand, drank it off boldly, all at once, and fill- 
ing it again with water,. he drank to Dr. Torie. 
The Doctor, little ufed to fach potions, beheld 
him with aftonifliment and afTright ; yet, as he 
was not allowed to recede from his agreement, 
he puffed and blowed, put the cup often to his 
mouth, and as often took it away again, pour- 
ing out at the intervals fo many verfes from the 
Greek and Roman Poets, that the day was near 
expended before he could get all the water down 
his throat, fo little was he accuftomed to fo fri- 
gid a beverage. 

GalTendi, who wrote the Life of Peyrefc in 
very elegant Latin, mentions this ftory. Gaf- 
fendi's Life was tranflated into Englifh by Dr. 
Rand, who dedicated it to Mr. Evelyn, the 
Author of " Sylva,'' whom, from the general 
extent of his knowledge, and his love of learn- 
ing, he calls " the Englilh Peyrefc.'* 

Gaffendi, in his Life of Peyrefc, mentions a 
A'cry curious coincidence of an event after a 

Q 4 dream. 


dream, which, had it happened to a man of a 
lefs forcible mind than that of Peyrcfc, might 
have rendered him fuperftitious for tiie remain- 
der of his hfe. 

Peyrcfc and M. Rainier lodged together at 
an inn in the mid-way between Montpellier 
and Nifmes. They went to bed in the fame 
room, and in the midfi: of the night Rainier 
hearing his friend make a great noife in his fleep, 
awoke him, and afked him what was the matter 
with him that his fleep was fo difturbed. " Alas ! 
" my good friend," replied Peyrefc, " you have 
" fpoiled the mofl agreeable dream I ever had. 
" I dreamed that I was at Nifmes, and that a 
*' goldfmith of that city offered me a golden 
" coin of Julius C^far for four quart d'ccus, 
" and juft as I was giving him the money you 
^' awoke me.'* Peyrefc, thinking no more of 
his dream, went to Nifmes, and while his din- 
ner was getting ready he walked about the 
town, and went (as his cuftom was) into agold-* 
fmith's Ihop to aik if he had any thing curious 
to difpofe of The goldfmith told him that 
he had a coin of Jaiius C^far in gold. Pey? 
refc, taking the coin, afked him the price of it, 
and was told that it was four cjuart d'ecus. Pey- 
refc returned to the inn ot his friend, and told 
him with 9:reat rapture, that his dream, which 


his kindnefs had interrupted, was then realized 



[1643— I7I5„] 

From a converfation the great Prince of 
Conde had with this Prince when he w^as very- 
young, he faid of him to Cardinal Mazarin, 
*' There is fluff enough in him to make three 
*' Kings and one honefl man." The flattery 
.and fervihty of his fubjeds deflroyed in Louis 
the kingly part of his charaderj that of the 
honefl man remained, as Louis was fuppofed, 
during his very long reign, never to have broken 
any promife which he had made, nor ever to 
have betrayed a fecret confided to him. 

Louis, from very early life, appears to have 
been modeft and prudent. Segrais fays, that 
when this Monarch was about feventeen years 
of age, he followed him and his brother, the 
Duke of Orleans, out of the play-houfe, and 
that he heard the Duke afk the King, v4iat he 
thought of the play they had jufl then been 
feeing, and which had been well received by 



the audience. " Brother," repHed Louis, " do 
" not you know that I never pretend to give my 
" opinion on any thing that I do not perfedly 
'' underftand ?** 

In Peliilbn's Works there are fome notes of a 
Converfation that pafTed between Louis, three 
noblemen, and himlelf, at the fiege of Liile in 
1667. Louis, after mentioning the difficulties 
and dangers that had occurred during the fiege of 
this town, adds, " All thefe circumflances have 
** only fert' ed to render my courage flronger ; and 
** as they are in general known to my army, I 
" was afraid that they would intimidate my 
*' foldiers ; and feeing that our fuccefs would 
*' depend upon our extreme vigilance and ac- 
** tivity, and in our preventing the inhabitants 
*' of the place from becoming foldiers, which 
" they would do, if they were to gain the lead 
" advantage over us, I thought that there w^as 
" nothing but my example, and that of my 
" Officers, and of my Nobility, that could in- 
*' fpire my army with an extraordinary courage, 
*' that at firfl aflioniilied the enemy. On thefe 
*' accounts, I have been anxious that my pre- 
** fence fhould animate every a^lion of my fol- 
*' diers ; and that nothmg whatever might ef- 
" cape me, I have palTed every night with the 
" advanced guard, at the head of my fquadrons, 

^^ and 


" and I have fpent every day in the trenches, 
" fo that if the enemy wilhed to make any at- 
" tempt upon my hnes, or thought fit to make 
*' any fortie from the town, I might have been 
** prepared to charge upon them with all my 
^' Court. Thefe then are the true reafons that 
^' have made me appear perhaps a little more ac- 
tive at the head of my army than a King ought 
to be (who had not all thefe motives),^ and 
in my iltuation I am better pleafed with be- 
ing a little too rafh, when I fee the enemy, 
^' than with being a little too prudent. Yet 
" ftill you fee the enemy have fo far refpe6led 
*' my perfon hitherto, that they have not yet 
" fired at me, as they could eafily have done ; 
** and I hope that God will yet preferve my life 
a long time, for the good of my kingdom, 
and that I may live to acknowledge your 
fervices and your friendfhip. 

" I know well,'* added Louis, " that ca- 
lumny attacks the perfons of Kings as w^ell as 

" thofe of other m^en ; and though its arrows 
are more concealed, they do not fail to pene- 
trate the heart of every Sovereign, when they 
are only defended by the external marks of 
royalty. When a King is pleafed with hear- 
ing himfelf continually praifed, and when 

^^ his heart is as little nice as his ears, he is not 

" unufjally 




** unufually the only perfon in his kingdom 
" that is fatisfied with himfelf. Our facred per- 
" fon alone does not render our reputation 
" facred -, and though I know very well, that 
*' there ought to be a great deal of difference 
" between the courage of a King and that of a 
" private perfon, our good adions and our vir-. 
*' tues can alone infure us immortality. 

" Kings are more cruelly treated with re- 
" fped: to their condud: than other men, as 
" their hearts are not, like their actions, ex- 
" pofed to the eyes of their fubje(5ls. Subjeds 
" in general judge of the aft ions of Princes 
" from their own interefts and their own paf- 
" fions, and very rarely according to candour 
" and juftice. Thus it happens that Kings 
** are often blamed for what they ought to be 
praifed, and when perhaps, to perform their 
duty properly, they are forced to facrihce 
every thing to the good of their people. I 
have always thought, that the firil virtue 
in a Sovereign is that of firmnefs of mind, 
" and that he fhould never permit his refolu- 
" tion to be ihaken either by blame or by 
" praife ; and that to govern well the kingdom 
" entrufted to his care, the happinefs of his 
" fubjefts fhould be the pole to which his 
" actions (hould point, without taking the leafl 

'' aoticc 


" notice of the fliorms and the different tern- 
pefts that may agitate his iliip.'* 


Louis when he was thirty-three years of age, 
wrote feme diredions for his fon (le Grand 
Dauphin^ as he was called), which arc preferved 
in the King's Library at Paris. Pehlfon is 
fuppofed to have correded them. They begin 
thus ; 

You will find nothing, my fon, fo com- 
pletely laborious as great idlenefs, if you 
" have the misfortune to fall into that vice, 
" difgufled in the firfl place with bufinefs, 
" afterwards with your pleafures, and at laft 
*' with the idlenefs itfelf, and looking in vain 
" for that which you can never find, the fweets 
" of repofc and of leifure, without fome occu- 
" pation or fome fatigue that mufl always pre- 
*' cede that happy ftate. 

" The principal bufmefs of a King is to let 
" good fenfe have fair play in every thing. 
" Good fenfe acts naturally, and without any 
" great effort. What employs us properly is 
**■ very often attended with lefs fatigue than 
^ that which would merely amufe us, and the 
*^ utiUty of it is always evident, A King can 
" have no fatisfadion equal to that of being 

" abk 


" able to obferve every day how much he has 
" increafed the happinefs of his fubjeds, and 
" how thofe excellent projefts fucceed, of which 
" himfelf gave the plan and the defign. 

" Confider after all, my dear fon, that we not 
only are deficient in gratitude, and in juftice, 
but in prudence and in good fenfe, when we 
do not pay the proper degree of veneration to 
that Being whofe vicegerents (lietUenans) only 


** we are.'* 

In thefe obfervations the natural good fenfe 
and good intentions of the Monarch break out, 
in fpite of the wretched and confined education 
which Mazarin gave him, in order completely 
to govern him, and of which he and his people 
ever afterwards felt the ill efFedts. Abbe de 
Longuerue fays of Louis, " that he was natu- 
*' rally a great friend of juftice, and of good 
" intentions, but that he was extremely igno- 
" rant in matters of fcience and literature ;" 
or, as he puts it more ftrongly " // ne fgavoit 
" rien de ne?i. So,'* fays he "his Majefty was 
" continually deceived. He was really afraid 
" of mien of parts. // craignit les efprits, that 
"was his expreflion. A Foreign minifter," 
adds the Abbe, " ufed to fay, th^t there were 

" moft 


^^ moft afTuredly in Louis the Fourteenth's 
" time many men of merit in France, but 
" that really he never faw one of them in 


Louis had a violent paflion for building, and 
preferred, it feems, the marfliy and low iitu- 
ation of Verfailles to the dry and elevated lite 
of St. Germain, that he might not fee from 
his windows the fteeples of the Royal Abbey 
of St. Denis, in which his predeceiTors had 
been buried, and in which himfelf was to reft. 
How mortified would this Prince have been, 
had he known, that in all the public and pri- 
vate edifices taken together which he had caufed 
to be built, there are according to the calcula- 
tion of a celebrated Scotch Antiquary at Rome, 
fewer cubic feet of mafonry than in the fingle 
fabric ereded by a Roman Emperor, the Am- 
phitheatre of Vefpafian ! 

Louis had the merit of knowing his own ig- 
norance in literary matters ; for when once on 
his pafiage to the Army in Flanders, he had 
occahon to fpend fome time at a fmall Abbey 
of Benedidins, the Prior talked to his Majefly 
about the charters it contained. " Alas, Sir," 
Teplied Louis, " you are much too learned for 

" me! 


" me ! My coufin the Prince of Conde will btf 
" here in a few days : you may tell all this to 
" him y he is the Dodor of our family/' 

Louis one day afked Racine, who was the 
French writer that had done moft honour to 
his reign. Racine replied, '' Moliere, Sire." 
" 1 did not think fo,*' anfwered Louis, '' but 
" you are a better judge of thefe matters than 
« I am." 

As Louis's walk was different from that of his 
Courtiers, fo was his pronunciation. Francois, 
the name of his fubjedts, he always pronounced 
hke the name of the Saint. 

Louis, on hearing fome public Speaker make 
ufe of thefe words, " Z^ Roi et V Etat^'' ex- 
claimed loudly, ^' UEtat! c'eji moi." And 
well indeed might he make that exclamation 5 
for wdien, in the diftrefles of his kingdom, in 
the latter part of his life, he confulted the Doc- 
tors of the Sorbonne whether he might raife 
taxes by his ow'n authority, without the forma- 
hty of their being regifhered by the Parliaments 
of his kingdom, they anfwered in the afhrm- 



In an Infcription under his flatue he was 
thus ftiled : " The glory of Kings, the deHght 
" of the human race, the terror of his enemies, 
'* the idol of his fubjeds, and the admiration 
^' of all/* 

nihil efi^ quod credere de fe 
2sfon pojftt^ cum laudatur Dlis aqua poiejlas. 

Ye fhamelefs flatterers of a mortal's pride, 
Your iVIonarch's power with that of Jove divide : 
CruOi'd by this dire and arbitrary fway^ 
Yourfelves fhali cutfe th* idolatry ye pay. 

Segrais fays, " that fome young Noblemen, 
*' who were about the perfon of Louis the 
'' Fourteenth, were talking one day before him 
(when he was about eleven years old) of the 
defpotic power of the Emperors of Turkey, 
and what great things they did in confe- 
quence of it. Aye,'* faid the young Prince, 
this may be called reigning indeed." The 
Marfhal d'Eftrees, who happened to be prefent, 
faid, " Your Majefty perhaps does not know, 
" that even in the courfe of my life I have 
" known three or four of thefe Emperors put 
" to death by the bow-ftring." Marfhal de 
Villeroi, Governor to the young King, imme- 
diately arofe from his feat, went up to d'Ef- 
trees, and thanked him for the excellent leffon 
which he had given to his royal pupil. 

vol.. IV. R Louis 


Louis feenis to have had one part of an 
honeft and ingenuous mind : he was indined 
to take -advice, and to alter his condud: when 
he was convinced it was wrong. His perfon 
was very beautiful, and he was very fond of 
exhibiting it. He very often danced upon the 
flage of Verfailles in fome of Quinault's Operas. 
Racine, in the Tragedy of Britannicus, had the 
boldnefs and the kindnefs to fay of Nero, 

// excelle a conduire un char dan ^ fa carrier e-^ 
J difpiiter des prIx indignes defes mains, 
jife donncr lul meme enfpeSiacle au Romains* 

With fatile fkill and ill-dire6led grace, 

He pants to outftrip the chariots in the race. 

Gazed at by millions of plebeian eyes, 

From his own fubje£ls hands he feeks the prize ; 

A prize that but,"»roc]aims the vi6lor's fhame; 

How far below a Monarch's nobler aim ! 

The judicious Monarch took the hint, and 
never afterwards appeared upon the ftage. 

Louis, who had excellent natural fenfe, and 
w^io was by no means fanguinary, was moil 
probably led into the cruelties which he per- 
mitted to be exercifed againft his Proteftant 
fubje6Vs, by his fanatical Chancellor Le Tellier, 
and his Confeffor of the fame name ; for in the 
Inftruclions to his Son before mentioned in this 
Article, he tells liim, " It appears to me, my 

" fon>. 

Lours THE rouRTEENTH. 243 

*"' Ion, that thofe perlbns who with to employ 
** extreme and violent meaiures do not under- 
"'^ (land the nature of this evil, occafioned, hi 
" part, by the heat of the imagination ; which 
" fliould rather be fuffcred to die away, and 
'' to extinguiOi itfelf infenfibly, than to be in- 
*' flamed afrefli by ftrong oppofition ; more par- 
** ticularly when the corruption is not confined 
^' to a Imall number of perfons who are known, 
** but diffufed through all parts of the State. 
" And befides, thefe Reformers fpeak truth 
*^ upon many fubje<fts. The befh method, 
*' then, to reduce by degrees the number of 
** the Huguenots in my kingdom, was mofb 
" certainly not that of continually harafling 
" them with fome new and rigorous edid." 

" Opufcules Liter air es^^ Far is 1767. 

Louis, who affected to flvle himfelf " Lq 
*^ Doyen des Roisy^ the Father of the Kings of 
his time, on account of his age, and the number 
of years in which he had reigned, ufed oc- 
cafionally to make this very melancholy obfer- 
vation : " When I beftow a favour, I make one 
*' perfon ungrateful, and nineteen perfons dif- 
" contented." 

M. du Frefne took occafion one day to re- 
mark to this Prince, that he did not appear to 

R 2 be 


be fufficlently cautious in the liberty which he 
gave to every-one to approach his perfon, and 
more particularly when he was at war with a 
Nation * that were irritated againft him, and 
were capable of attempting any thing. " I have 
" received, Sir," laid Louis, " a great many 
" hints like this ; in Oiort, if I were capable of 
*' taking them, my life would not be worth 
" having: it is in the hands of God, he will 
'' diipofe of it as he pleafes, and therefore I do 
" not prefume to make the leaft alteration in 
*^' my condudl." 

Louis was once harangued by a very indif- 
ferent orator, to whom his Majefty paid a hand- 
fome compliment. A Lady who was prefent 
appeared much furprized at the civil things 
that Louis faid to him. " I think indeed. Mar 
" dam, as you do of the Ipeaker,'' faid the 
Monarch ; " but if a civil word or two will 
" render a man happy, he mufl: be a wretch in- 
" deed who will not give .them to him.'* 

This Prince had granted a pardon to a Noble- 
man who had committed fome very great crime. 
M. Voifm, the Chancellor, ran to him in his 
clofet, and exclaimed, " Sire, 5^ou cannot par- 

* The Dutch. 


" don a perfcn in the fituation of M. /' 

" I have promifed him," rephed the King, who 
was ever impatient of contradidion; "go and 

« fetch the Great Seal."— ^' But, Sire, ~" 

" — Pray Sir do as I order you." The Chan- 
cellor returns with the feals, Louis applies them 
himfelf to the inflrument containing the par- 
don, and gives them again to the Chancellor. 
" They are polluted now. Sire," exclaims this 
intrepid and excellent Magifhrate, pufning them 
from him on the table, " I cannot take them 
" again." — " What an impracticable man!" 
cries the Monarch, and throws the pardon into 
the fire. " I will now% Sire, take them again : 
" the fire, you know^, purifies ever}^ thing." 

One of this Monarch's favourite Valet-de- 
Chambres had a law iuit with his uncle, and re- 
quefled the King to take a part in it for him. 
^' Alas ! Sire," laid he, " it is no very great 
" difficulty ; you have only to fpeak one little 
" word." — " That, my friend," replied Louis, 
*' gives me the lead apprehenfion. But, were 
" you now in your uncle's fituation, {hould yon 
'* like that I iliouid fpeak that little word ?" 

In 1673 the Dauphin was affli&d with a 

diforder of no great confequence, which fome 

of the tatlers about the Court of Verfailles af- 

R 3 feclied 


fedcd to attribute to the feverity with which he 
was treated by his Governor, the excellent Due 
de Montaufier. Louis, however, foon fiienced 
this nonfenfe, by ia)^ing, " I have only one fon ; 
" vet I had much rather that he fliould die, 
" than that he fliould not know his duty, and 
" fo become a burden and a curfe to his 
" people." 

" I had once,*' fays Duclos, " the curiofity 
" to make out, from the papers of M. Col- 
bert, the amount of the fums of money 
" given away by Louis the Fourteenth, in 
" penf.ons to men of learning, of talents, and 
" of knowledge, as well in foreign countries 
" as in his own. It did not exceed 66,300 
" livTes; 52,300 livres to Frenchmen, and 
" 14,00c toflrangers; making, in the whole, 
" about three thoufand and four hundred 
" pounds flerling a year \' the expence of a 
few hours onlv of the deflrudive wars in which 
he engaged his country. 

Louis, on his death-bed, thus addrefled his 
infant grandfon, afterwards Louis XV. 

" My dear child, you will very fbon be- 
" come the King of a great country. What I 
" wifli particularly to recommend to you, is, 

" never 



" never to forget the obligations you have to 
" your Creator. Remember that by his power 
" alone you are every thing that you are. 

" Strive to preferve peace with your neigh- 
" bours. I have been too fond of w^ar. Do 
" not imitate me in that, nor in the great ex- 
" pences in which I have been involved. 

" Take advice in every thing ; and be care- 
** ful to inform yourfelf what advice is bed, 
" and always follow^ it. 

" Eafe your fubjedls from taxes as foon as 
^' you can, and you will then have the happi- 
" nefs of doing that which I had the misfor- 
" tune never to be able to do*." 


The term petit s maitres was firil applied to 
this great General and his followers, who, fiuOied 
wath the victories of Lens, &c. which they had 
gained, on their return from the army to Paris, 

* Thefe fentences were, till the beginning of the French 
Revolution, infcribed, in gold letters, over the head of the 
bed in which the Kings of France ufed to ficep. 

R 4 gave 


gave themfelves a great many airs, and were 
infuffcrably impertinent and troublefome. 

Richelieu, a very good judge of men, was 
much flruck with the precocity of talents that 
appeared in this Prince when he was very young. 
He told Chavigny, " I have been jufh now 
*' having a converfation of two hours with the 
young Duke d'Enghuein upon the art mili- 
tary, upon religion, and upon the interefts 
of Europe ; he will be the greateft General 
in Europe, and the firft man of his time, 
and perhaps of the times to come." 

Louis XIV. who could never forgive the 
part Conde took againfl: him in the Fronde, 
feems never to have entirely given him his con- 
fidence, or to have made that ufe of the talents 
of this Prince which he (hould have made. 

The Prince of Conde was a ftrikino; iliuftra- 
tion of the obfervation made by the acute Dr, 
Johnfon, that in public fjDeaking there was 
often more of knack and of habit than of real 
talent or knowledge : for whiifl Conde never 
rofe to fpeak in the Parliament of Paris but to 
difgrace himfelf, Gafton his coufm, with a mind 
very inferior to his in every refpedj, was very 
well heard iu that Affembly, 



His Sovereign Louis XIV. once paid Condc 
a very handibme compliment. The Prince, in 
the latter part of his life, was very lame with the 
gout, and was one day in that fituation apolo- 
gizing to him for making him wait for him 
at the top of the great ftair-cafe at Verfailles, 
which he was afcending very flowly, " Alas ! 
^' my coufin," replied he, " who that is fo 
^' loaded with laurels as yourfeif can walk 

The Prince was a man of fome learning him- 
lelf, and extremely fond of the converfation of 
learned and ingenious men. Moliere, Boileau, 
and the celebrated writers of their time, were 
frequently with him at Chantilly. He, how- 
ever, expected as much deference from thefe 
great m.en in literary matters, as he had been 
ufed to exacl from his Officers at a Council of 
War. Boileau, however, had once the fpirit to 
contradid: idm on fome fubjeft of literature, of 
which moft probably he knew more than the 
Prince. Conde foon fired, and darted his eyes 
upon him, fparkling with rage and indignation, 
*' Upon my word,'* laid the fatirift, " in fu- 
^' ture I will take particular care to be of the 
^' fame opinion with the Prince of Condc when 
** lie is in the wrong." 



Pains had been early taken by fome of the 
Prince's fuppofed friends to fliake his behef in 
Chriftianity ; he ahvays rephed, " You give 
yourfelves a great deal of unneceflary trou- 
ble : the difperfion of the Jews will always 
be an undeniable proof to me of the truth 
of our holy religion," 


Some writer fays, that the difpofition of a 
man is to be known by his hand-writing. This 
obferv^ation feems realized in this great Prince, 
who was a man of a very violent and hafty 
temper. Segrais fays of him, " The Prince 
*' of Conde ufed to write without taking his 
^ pen from the paper till he had finifhed a fen- 
*' tence, and without putting any points or 
" adjunds to his letters.'* 

** A good General," faid this great Prince, 
may be beaten, but he can never be fur- 

One of his maxims was, that, to enable a 
General not to be afraid of his enemies when 
they were near to him, he fhould have taken 
the precaution to have been afraid of them 
when they were at a diflance from him. 

Continually fuccefsful himfelf, he ftill made 

great allowances for the want of fuccefs in 

Q others j 


Others ; and when all the military men of his 
country were outrageous at M. de Crequi on 
the lofs of the battle of Confarbech, he nobly 
exclaimed, like a man who judged of men 
from themfeives, and not from what had hap- 
pened to them, " All that M. de Crequi 
" wanted to make him one of the bed Gene- 
" rals in the univerfe, was to have been de- 
« feated/* 

In 1679 he requefted his Sovereign to per- 
mit him to retire to his Chateau of Chant illy, 
on account of his ill health. Louis replied. 
It is with the greatefl: regret that I grant you 
the permifTion you deiire ; for, alas 1 my 
Coufin, I then Ihall be deprived of the ad- 
*^ vice of the greatefh man in my kingdom.'* 

In his retreat he amufed himfelf with the 
embellifhment of his domain, with his books, 
and with the converfation of a few friends, 
amongft whom w^ere Moliere, Boileau, and 
Father Bouhours. 

On his death-bed his ConfeiTor told him, 
that he could not adminifter to him the facra- 
nients, unlefs he pardoned every one who had 
offended him. " Alas ! my good Father," re- 
plied he, " how can you infill on that topic ; 

" you 


" you who know very well that I never enter- 
" tained the leaft refentment againil any per- 
*' fon during the whole courfe of my hfe ?'* 

When he took leave of his fon the Due 
d'Enghuein, he gave him his blefllng, and faid, 
fixing his eyes upon him in the moft affec- 
tionate manner, " In this worlds my fon, which 
I am about to quit, there is only one thing 
that is folid and deferves efleem -, that is, to 
have been throughout life an honeft man *." 




Posterity will not readily forgive this 
Prince for not exerting himfelf fufficiently to 
fave his friend, the illuftrious Montmorency, 
from the fcaffold ; the fame feeblenefs of mind 
infeding him in this, as on moft other occafions. 

• «* This life (fays the excellent Mr. Lcx;ke, in the 
" laft letter he wrote to his friend INIr. Anthony Collins) 
** is a fcene of vanity that foon pafles away, and affords no 
" folid fatisfaftion but in the confcioufiiefs of doing well, 
" and in the hopes of another life. This is what I can 
" fay upon experience, and what you will find to be true 
*' when you come to make up the account. Adieu, I 
*' leave my beft wiihes with you. 

" John Locke/* 



During the time of the Fronde, had his mind 
been fufEciently fleady and determined^ he 
might have been the arbiter of his divided and 
diilraded country. 

Antonio Priuli gives this melancholy account 
of the latter years of a Prince of the Blood, 
brother to one Monarch, and uncle to another : 

" Gaflion," fays he, " on the King's (Louis 
" the XlVth) triumphant return into Paris, 
" with his mother Anne of Auilria and the 
" Cardinal, fet out for his palace near Blois, 
without feeing or taking leave of his Sove- 
reign ; and having been in the former part of 
his life wholly managed by his fervants, he 
gave himfelf entirely up in the latter part 
of it to the management of his wife, Marga- 
*' ret of Lorraine. He became a great fportf- 
" man and a great botanift, and not only be- 
" came devout himfelf, but infpired the whole 
" city of Blois Vv'ith the fame fpirit. He died 
^ (as is fuppofed) of a lethargy, having had 
" antimony improperly adminiftered to him; 
" and after having figured away as a Leader 
" of a Party and a Prince, was buried in tlie 
*^ Ro3^al Abbey of St. Denis, with a private 
" funeral, the Heralds who attended the corpfe 
being barely paid their charges. Thus end- 

" ed," 



«* ed^' adds Piiuli, " Gafton Duke of Orleans, 
" who having been a hopeful cliild, paffcd his 
" youth in pleafure, always under the direction 
•' of his own fervants, and never at his own 


Gafton, who was a man of parts though not 
of underftanding, left behind him " Memoirs 
*' of French Hiftory from the Year 1608 to 
** 1635.'* They are printed. 



Abbe de Longuerue thus defcribes this 
Prince : 

'' He was continually talking, without ever 
*' faying any thing. He never had but one 
** book, his mafs-book, which his clerk of the 
" clofet ufed always to carry in his pocket for 

'' him." 

He was a Prince of greater bravery than his 
brother, and in engagements expoied his per- 
fon much more. This made Louis fay one day 
to him, after a battle, " Alon frere, vons voulez 

" done 


" done devenir fac-a-terrey The celebrated 
Mothe le Vayer was Preceptor to this Prince. 
His fon, the Abbe de Vayer, printed in 1670 a 
tranflation of Florus into French, made, as he 
faid, by this Prince. It was moil probably the 
work of the Preceptor. 

The Dake of Orleans married Henrietta- 
Maria, fifler of Charles the Second. His bro- 
ther, after the mod fhrid: inquiry that he was 
able to make into the death of that accom- 
pliihed Princefs, was perfectly convinced that 
the Duke of Orleans was not in the fmallefl 
degree implicated in it. 



This beautiful and gentle-minded woman 
Teems, differently from the other Miftreffes of 
that Prince, to have loved the man and not the 
Sovereign, in Louis the Fourteenth. When the 
death of the fon fhe had by that Monarch was 
announced to her, " Alas," faid fhe, " I have 
" greater reafon to be grieved for his birth 
" than for his death !" Many years before fhe 
died fhe retired into the Convent of the Car- 


melites at Paris, where flie endeavoured to 
expiate her faults by the mofl exemplary 
penitence. Not long before flie expired, 
(he exclaimed, after having refufed every confo* 
lation that was offered her, *' It is fit that fo 
•' great a fmner as myfelf fliould die in the 
" greateft torments." 

Whilii file was in the Convent flie wrote a 
fmall devotional Treatife, entitled, " Refiec- 
" tions upon the Mercy of God.*' The elo- 
quent BolTuet preached the fermon upon her 
taking the veil, at which were preient Louis the 
Fourteenth's Queen and all the Court. He 
took his text from the following paflage in the 
Apocalypfe : ^'' And he that fat upon the "Throne 
*' Jaid^ I will renew all things ^ 

The celebrated pidlure of the Magdalen> 
painted by Le Brun for the Convent in which 
Madame de La Valiere refided, has been falfely 
fuppofed to have been that of this beautiful 
and fincere penitent. The features are entirely 

[ 257 ] 


Abbe de Choisy dedicated his Tranflatiori 
of Thomas-a-Kempis to this celebrated lad^j 
with this motto from the Pfaims : 

<' Hear my Daughter, and fee, and incline thine ear, 
^' and the King fhall defire thy beauty/' 

The edition was foon fupprefTed* 

Madame de Maintenon ufed to fay of her- 
fclf) " I was naturally ambitious. I fought 
*' againft-. that pwaflion. I really thought that I 
" iliould be happy when the defires that I had 
^'' were gratified. That infatuation lafted only 
" three days.'' 

" Alas/* fays flie, in one bf her letters to her 
niece, " why cannot I give you my experience ? 
'*^^ why cannot I fliew you liow the great are' 
" devoured by en?ini, and with what difficulty 
*' they get through their day ? Do not you 
** fee that I die of mifery in a fituation ^o 
*' much beyond my moft extravagant wifhes ? 
^' I have been young and pretty, and was a 
*' general favourite. In a more advanced age^ 
" I fpent my time in cultivating my under- 
'* ftandlrtg by reading and by converfation, 

VOL. IV. s *' At 


" At laft I have procured the favour of my 
" Sovereign, and I can aiTure you that all thefe 
" different iituations leave a terrible void in the 
" mind." 

^ Could any thing," fays Voltaire, " unde- 
*' ceive mankind with refpecfl to ambition, this 
" letter would have that effect." 

Madame de Maintenon one day afked Louis 
the Fourteenth for fome money to difiribute 
In alms. " Alas, Madam," replied that Prince, 
" what I give in alms are merely frefn burthens 
" upon my people. The more money I gn^e 
" away, the more I take from them. " This," 
" Sire is true," replied Madame de Maintenon, 
" but it is rig-ht to eafe the wants of thofe w^iom 
*' your former taxes to fapply the expences 
^* of your wars and of your bjuildings have re- 
*^ duced to mifery. It is truly juft that thofe 
*' w^ho have been ruined by you iliould be fup- 
" ported by you." 

Madame de Maintenon w-as moll alTuredly 
married to Louis. She furvived him fome years, 
and the Regent Duke of Orleans took care that 
the penfion the King had left her fhould be re- 
g\ilarly paid. 



Peter the Great, when he came to Paris, was 
very anxious to fee Madame de Maintenon. 
She was very infirm, and in bed when he viiited 
her. He drew afide the curtains to look at that" 
face which had captivated her Sovereign. A 
bluih o'erfpread her pale cheeks for an inflant. 
The Czar retired. 


The following account of this celebrated per- 
fonage is given on the authority of M. Falconet, 
a learned and eloquent Counfellor of the lafl 
Parliament of Dauphine. 

" In the manufcript Memoirs of M. de la 
Reinterie, lately in the poiTeffion of the 
Marquis de Mefmon-Roman, at Paris, M. 
de la Reinterie fays, That when he com- 
manded in the fortrefs of Pignerol, a prifoner 
who was confined in the citadel of that place, 
one day fhut the door of his room with great 
violence upon the officer who waited upon 
him, and ran immediately down flairs, in 
order to efcape from his confinement : he 
was, however, flopped by the centinel at the 
bottom of the fhairs. The officer in the 
mean time cried out from the window, that 

s 2 " the 


*' the prifoner was making his efcape, and re- 

*• quelled the afliftance of the garriibn. The 

*^ oilicer upon guard immediately came up 

** and laid hold of the prifoner, who was fcuf- 

" iiing v;ith the centinel. The ofBcer drew 

" his fword, when the prifoner cried out in 

" a very commanding tone of voice, Songez 

** a ce que vous faites^ Alonfieur : Refpe5fez le 

^' fr^'-S ^^ '^^•^ Souverains — Take care what you 

" do, Sir : Refped: the blood of your Sove- 

*' reigns. In the mean time the officer who 

'' had been locked in came dow^n flairs, and, 

^' on hearing what the prifoner had faid, put 

^' his hand upon his mouth, and defircd all the 

^* perfons prefent never to mention what thef 

" had heard him fay ; who was immediately 

*' recondu<5led to his old apartment, and guard- 

*' ed with iTiore care than before. 

" M. de la Reinterie fays, that he told the 
fcory to a few confidential perfons about 
the Court, of Verfailles, whole names he 
mentioD-s in his Memoirs, and that, except 
to them, he always preferved the mofi; pro- 

" found fecrecy of this very extraordinary cir- 

" cumftance.*' 


In taq opinion-of one of the Minifters of the 

ii, the 

hit King of Fi'iince, Louis the Sixteenth, the 


fecret of this extraordinaiy pcrfonage died with 
Louis the Fifteenth and M. d'Argenfon^ Lieu- 
teiiant de Police. He was buried in the church 
next to the Baftile, at Paris, by the name of 



was the grand Ton of Henry Duke of Guife, 
fiirnamed La Balafre. He was intended iot 
the profeffion of the Church, and at a very 
^arly age was prefented to the ArchbiOiopric 
of Rheims, which he quitted, as well as the habit 
of a Prieil, on the 'death of his brother, to marry 
Anne, Princefs of Mantua. The Cardinal de 
Richelieu opppfing the m.atch, he fled with his 
miftrefs to Cologne, w4iere he quitted her for 
Madame de Bollut, whom he married, and 
whom he likewife quitted and returned to 
Paris. The difpoiition of his anceftors however 
foon after difcovering itfelf in him, he engaged 
in the ccnfpiracy of the Count de Soiilbns and 
the Court of Spain againfh Richelieu. After 
having fled fiom France to Rome on the dif- 
covery of the plot, he was condemned by the 
Parliament of Paris to Ibfe his head. He foon 
afterwards broke with the Spaniards, declared 

s 3 againft 


againft them, and in 1647 was defied by the 
Neapolitans, who had revolted againft Philip 
the Fourth, the General of their armies ; and 
the defender of their liberty. He accepted 
thefe honours with great willingnefs, and with 
a fingle felucca made his way through the Spa- 
nifh fleet to Naples, where he was received 
with the greatefl: acclamations of joy ; and from 
whence, after experiencing fome fuccefs, and 
having behaved with greater courage than con- 
dud", not being properly feconded by the Court 
of France, he was obliged to ily, and being 
taken prifoner by fome Spanifh troops, was 
carried to Spain, where he remained till 1652. 
After his return to Paris, he diffipated amongfh 
the pleafures of that Capital, the affli6tion which 
the lofs of a Crown fo near to him had occa- 
fioned. He m.ade a confpicuous figure with 
the Prince of Conde in the celebrated tourna- 
ment of 1660 in Paris. They were ftiled by 
the Parifians, *' Les Hcros de rUiJioire & de la 
« Fable* r 

During the revolution of Naples, one of the 
mob, accompanied by a troop of banditti, 

• The name of the Duke of Guife's Secretary was Ce- 
rifantes. 1 he Duke faid, on fetting out for Naples, *' Every 
*' thing in this expedition exhibits fomething of romance, 
^' even to the name of the Secretary." 



treated him with great Infolencc ; boafting, that 
as he had cut off the head of the Duke de 
Matalone, he would hkewiie cut off his head. 
The Duke, indignant at fuch brutahty, clapped 
fpurs to his horfe, pudied him down, and rode 
over him. Some one afking him if he was 
not afraid to do this, as he fhould rather have 
endeavoured to appeafe than irritate the po- 
pulace of Naples, he replied with a fmile, " I 
" am not afraid of the mob. When God 
" forms a man of quality, he always puts fome- 
" thing between his two eyes, which a common 
" man can never venture to look at Vv^ithout 
'* trembling." 

The Duke being one day purfued and fur- 
rounded by an immenfe number of the people 
of Naples, who threatened to kill him, he 
turned round ^ with great Jangfroid^ and laid 
hold of one of the principal rioters. This bold 
action produced fuch an effed upon the others, 
that they immediately difperfed. 

When the Duke headed the revolt of the 
Neapolitans againfb their Sovereign, Philip the 
Fourth of Spain, it was a time of revolutions : 
The Englifh had beheaded Charles the Firfl ; 
the Parifians had taken up arms againfl their 
infant Monarch, Louis the Fourteenth; the 

s 4 Portuguefe 


Portuguefe had regained their country from the 
Spaniards ; the Turks had maffiicred their Sul- 
tan Ibrahim; the Algerines had killed their Dey ; 
the kingdom of Indoflan was agitated by civil 
wars ; and the Chinefe had been conquered by 
the Tartars. 

The Marquis of Monte Sylvano was in.pri- 
fon at Naples, and was to have fuifered death. 
The Duke delivered him from confinement 
on the day that he made his entrance into 
Naples. Soon after the Marquis engaged in 
a confpiracy againfb the Duke, and gave arms 
to the confpirators. Being taken and brought 
to the Duke, the latter contented himfelf 
with telUng him, that the fhame arifing from 
his bafe action was the feverefh punifhm.ent 
that a man of quahty and courage hke him 
could fufFcr. 

This fpirited Nobleman, whofe v^hole lifq 
feem.s to have coniiflied merely of fo m.any 
fcenes of romance, and to have partaken equally 
of bad and of good fortune, fays of himfelf, 
" Neither in my exile at Rome, nor when I 
" was taken prifoner, nor during all the time 
" that I remained at Naples, could any perfon 
",,obferve the ieafh alteration or change in my 
" countenance. The diiferent events, as well 


6i r^^ 


*'* of my bad as good fortune, never gave me 
^' the leaft uneafmefs or inquietude ^ having 
^' always aded with the Came fang froiJ in every 
" thing in which I was concerned, <is if I had 
" not the lead interefb in it." 

The Duke died at Paris, in 1664, at the age 
of fifty. The Memoirs of his Life are ex^ 
tremely entertaining. They are faid to hav^ 
been compiled by St. Yon, his Secretary. 

—■—jaffifci.S^aaeaa *'" 


Renault applies the following pafTage m 
Tacitus to this celebrated Demagogue : " N'o?i 
^' tarn pramiis periadortim, quam ipfis periculls^ 
^' la^tiis pro cert is et olim partis ^ nova^ amhigna^ 
^^ ancipitia, mallebatr The fagacious Riche- 
lieu early difcovered the difpofition of De Retz, 
and, according to Segrais, though he w^as of an 
antient and illuftrious family, never intended to 
give him a benefice of any value or confe- 
quence. In very early life De Retz wrote the 
" Hifcory of the Confpiracy of Fiefqui againft 
" the Ariftocracy of Genoa," in which he took 
the part of the Confpirator. He feenis by 
jjature to have had all the qualities requilite to 



become a favourite with the people. Bravc% 
generous, eloquent, full of refourccs, and fet- 
tered by no principle, he dazzled the multitude 
of Paris, who feem ever to have been more 
taken with aftions of eclat and of enterprize, 
than with all the efforts of modefh and humble 
virtue. On feeing one day a carbine levelled at 
him by fome one he did not know, he had the 
prefence of mind to cry out, " If your Father^ 
" Sir, w^ere now feeing what you vvere nbout I" 
— This fpeech immediately difarmed the fury 
of the afTaflin. 

The Cardinal feems to have atoned for the 
follies and irregularities of his youth by the 
honefl confeiTion he made of them in his Me- 
moirs. He appears in them to have been a 
man of great talents, and of good natural difpo- 
fition, perverted by vanity, and the delire of that 
diflinclion, w4iich, if not acquired by honeft 
means, difgraces inftead of dignifying thofe who 
are fo unfortunate as to poflefs it. Had he 
directed his great powers of mind in endeavours 
to unite, inftead of efforts to divide his unhappy 
and diftrafted country, he would have endeared 
himfelf moft effedually to his countrymen, and 
would have deferved the praifes of pofterity, by 
exhibiting an example which too rarely occurs, 



of a Politician facrificing his refentment to the 
good of the State. 

The Memoirs of this celebrated Perfonage, 
written by himfelf, are extremely fcanty and 
imperfed: : they give no account either of the 
early or of the latter part of his life. He en- 
trufted the Manufcript to fome Nuns of a Con- 
vent near Comerci in Lorraine, who garbled 
them. James the Second, however, told the 
lafb Duke of Ormond, that he had feen a per- 
fect copy of them, which was lent to him by 
Madame Caumartin. 

Joli, his Secretary, defcribes his Mafher in his 
retreat at Comerci in no very favourable man- 
ner ; as idling away his time in hunting, going 
to puppet-fliows, now and then pretending to 
adminifler juftice amongft his tenants, writing 
a page or two of his own life in folio, and fet- 
tling fome points in the genealogy of his fa- 
mily — that of Gondi. The Cardinal's reply 
to Joli's remonfhrances to him on this fubje6t 
was a curious one : " I know all this as well as 
" you do, but 1 don't think you will get any 
" one elfe to believe what you fay of me.'* An 
opinion fo highly advantageous to the Cardi- 
nal's talents and chara(fter had gone out into 
the world, that the people of France could 



not bring themfelves to think ill of one who 
had been a very popular Demagogue amongli 

On the day in which he w^as permitted to 
have an audience of Louis the Fourteenth at 
Verfailles, the Court was extremely full, and the 
highefl expectations were formed of the manners 
and appearance of the Cardinal : w^hen how- 
ever they faw an hump-back'd, bow-legg'd, 
decrepit old man, who perhaps did not feel 
much elevated with his fituation, their expecta- 
tions w^ere fadly difappointed j and particularly 
fo, when his Sovereign merely faid to him, 
*' Your Eminence is grown ver}?" gray fince I laft 
^^ faw you/' To this the Cardinal replied, "Any 
" perfon. Sire, who has the misfortune to incur 
*' your Majefly's difpleafure, will very readily 
** become gray," 

St. Evremond has preferved an anecdote of^ 
the Cardinal's noblenefs of mind and liberality 
during his retreat at Comerci. As he was rid- 
ing out on horfcback, he w^as furrounded by 
fome Spanidi foldiers that were in the neigh- 
bourhood. The Officer however, on being:; told 
his name, ordered him to be releafed, and dif- 
mounting from his horfe, made an apology for 
the behaviour of his foldiers. The Cardinal^ 



taking a valuable diamond ring from his finger, 
prefented it to the Officer, faying, " Pray, Sir, 
^* at ieail permit me to render your little ex- 
*' curfion not entirely ufelefs to you." 

De Retz refigned the Archbifhopric of Paris, 
and procured in exchange for it the rich Abbey 
of St. Denis. He lived long enough to pay all 
his debts, and divided his time between Paris 
and St, Denis : at the latter place he died at a 
very advanced age, and in the ftrongeft fenti- 
ments of piety and devotion. He is occalion- 
ally mentioned in Madam.e de Sevigne's Let- 
ters, as a man of great talents for converfation, 
and much afHided with the head-ach. He had 
the honeily to fay of himfelf, " Mankind fup- 
^^ poied me extremely enterprhing and daunt» 
*^ lefs when I was young, and I was much more 
" Co than they could poilibly imagine :*' and 
this may be readily perceived, from an an- 
fwer which he made to fome one who reproached 
him, Vv^hen he w:is young, vv^ith owing a great 
deal of money. " Why, man," replied he, 
" C^fir, at my age, owed fix times as much as 
*' I do." 


No one knew better how to manage and cajole 

the multitude than Cardinal de Retz did, yet 
he complains tlat they left him at the Angeius' 

" bell 


bell to go to dinner. One of his maxims re- 
fpe6ting the aflembhng of that many -headed 
Monfher fliould be dihgently confidered both 
by the Leaders of Parties and by the Gover- 
nors of Kingdoms : " Q^idconque ajjemble le 
*' Peuple remetit. — Whoever brings the people 
" together, puts them in a ftate of cqmmo^ 
« tlon/* 


on his triumphant return to Paris, after the 
Peace of the Pyrenees, created a great number 
of Dukes j and on being aiked why he was fo 
profufe of that honour, replied, " I will make 
" fuch a number, that it fhall be difgraceful to 
''^ be a Duke and not to be a Duke." Though 
a very able, he was a very timid Minifter. 
His brother the Cardinal of Aix ufed to fay of 
him, " Only make a Httle buftle, and he will 
'^' defift." One of his favourite meafures was 
procraftination. '* Time and I againfl: r.ny other 
*' tvv'o perfonages," was his reply, when urged 
to briik and violent meafures. 

Mazarin was an extremely liandfome man, 
and had a very fine face : this he was fo anxious 
to preferve, that not many days before he 



died, he gave audience to the foreign Minifters 
with his face painted. This made the Spanilli 
Minifter fay, " Foila an portrait qui refemble a 
" M, le Cardinal'' As Tacitus fays of Tibe- 
rius, though now his fLrength and his confLitu- 
tion began to fail, yet his diffimulation conti- 
nued as perfed: as ever. He fent for the Prince 
of Cond^, and told him fomething confident 
tially, which the Prince was the more inclined 
to believe, as he faw the dying flate in which 
his Eminence was. A little tiine after his death, 
to his great aftonilhment, he found that even 
in that awful fituation the Cardinal had not 
told him one word of truth. 

Mazarin exhibited in himfelf a fmcrular in- 
fiance of the viciflitudes of fortune. He was 
of a very low extraflion, had been a gambler, 
became Prime Minifter of a great Country, was 
afterwards banilhed and a price {ct upon his 
head, and then returned triumphantly to his 
Adminiftration v»^ith greater power than ever. 
Madame de Baviere fays, that he was married to 
his Sovereign Anne of Auftria, and that he 
treated her extremely ill. 

The Cardinal was by no means a fanguinary 
Minifter. He let the People talk and write as 
they pleafed, and he afted as he pleafed. A col- 



ledion of the fatires written agalnft him wa? 
preferved in the Colbert Library at Paris: it 
confifted of forty-fix volumes in quarto. When 
he laid any new tax, he ufed to afk his confi- 
dants what the good people of Paris were do- 
ing, whether they were ridiculing him, and mak- 
ing fongs and epigrams upon him. When he 
was anfwered in the affirmative, he ufed to fay, 
" I can never have any reafon to fear a Nation 
*' which vents its fplcen fo very gaily; let them 
'' laugh on.*' 

When the Cardinal was obHged to quit Parisy 
Ills effeccs were fold at public aucVion > his very 
valuable library was bought for the Court of 
Brunfwick, and is at prefent in th^ capital of 
that Duchy. 

Mazarin appears once in his life to have been 
in a very enviable iituation. When the French 
and Spanifli armies were drawn up in order of 
battle near Cafal, in the fpring of the year 1 63 1, 
and were about to engage, Mazarin galloped 
between them with his hat in his hand, ex- 
claiming loudly, " P^/.v/ paix !'' The armies 
immediately halted, and in a few days afterwards 
peace was figned at Querafque, under the me- 
diation of Urban the Eighth, whofe nephew^ 
the Cardinal Leeate, Mazarin attended on that 



happy occafion. The talents difplayed by the 
latter in the negotiation, and the good offices 
he rendered the French Nation, recommended 
him to Louis the Thirteenth and the Cardinal 
cle Richeheu. Mazarin, when Minifter, caufed 
a Medal to be ftruck in commemoration of 
this event, in which he is reprefented galloping 
between the two armies. On the reverfe is this 
motto " 7V7/;/r orbi fervire labor ','^ and how in- 
deed can a man ferve the world better than by 
procuring it the bleffings of peace ^ by flopping 
the fighs of the widow, the tears of the orphan, 
and the anguifh of the parent , by checking the 
ravages of difeafe, of peflilence, and of famine ; 
and by preventing the devaftation of the uni- 
verfe, and the deftrudlion of the human race 1 
To any Prime Minifter may we not fay, " Ha 
" tibifint nrtesT 

Don Louis de Haro, the Spanlfli Minifter, 
faid of Mazarin, that he had one infuperable 
defed: as a Politician, that he always meant to 
deceive thofe with whom he was treating, and 
of courfe put every one upon their guard againfb 
his tricks and fineffes*. 

* The Spanifh Proverb fays acutely, " A man is a fool 
*' who does not confider, that whilil he is thinking, twenty 
" perfons are thinking likewife." 

VOL. IV. X Not 


Not many days before the Cardinal died, a 
comet appeared in France. Some of his fyco- 
phants, who were in his bed-chamber, told him, 
that as it was impofTible for a man of his rank 
and talents to go out of the world in an ordi- 
nary way, this awful phenomenon of the Hea- 
vens was to announce to the world the death of 
fo great a Statefman and fo confummate a Po- 
litician as himfelf. Mazarin coolly replied, 
*' En verit^y MeJJieurs, la comet e mz fait trcp 
" d'honneur'* 

Byway of fecuring his eftate to his heirs, and 
of quieting his confcience on his death-bed, he 
made a donation to his Sovereign Louis tL? 
Fourteenth of all his immenfe property. The 
King very nobly returned it to his heirs. 

Befide one Bifhopric, the Cardinal poffeiTed, 
as Commendatary Abbot, nine rich Abbeys in 

Two Latin lines well difcriminated the dif- 
ference between the government of this wily 
and temporizing Minifter, and that of Riche- 
lieu : 

Magnus uterque fuit, Seddignum vlmUce nodum 
Richelius fecuit^ yulius expUcuit. 

Two men arlfe and bear a fplendid name, 
Richelieu and Maziiirin, of doubtful fame; 


One cuts the Gordian knot with ardour dread, 
The other patiently evolves each thread. 

When a General was prefented to Mazarin 
for any particular expedition, his firil queftion 
in his bad French was, " Eft il houroux (hen- 
*^ reux) f — Is he a fortunate General ?" Cicero, 
when he recommended Pompey to the Roman 
people, to command againfi the Pirates, calls 
him, " Semper felix ,* fuccefs in general attend- 
ing upon thofc perfons whofe talents and whofe 
diligence entitle them to it. 


Soon after this great Miniller came Into the 
management of the finances of France, he fent 
for the principal merchants of that kingdom^ 
and, to ingratiate himfelf with them, and to 
acquire their confidence, afked them what he 
could do for them. They unanimoufiy replied, 
*' Pray, Sir, do nothing! Laifez-nom faire-^ 
*' Only let us do for ourfelves.'* 

M. D'Argenfon fays, that a perfon unknown 
to M. Colbert requefted an audience of him, as 
having fomething of great importance to com- 
municate to him. Being admitted to fee M. 

T z Colbert, 


Colbert, he with great gravity advifed him to 
encourage the trade and manufa6tures of his 
own country, which was large enough to fupply 
itfelf and the other countries bf Europe with 
what they wanted, and to give up all the French 
colonies in the Eail and Weft Indies to the 
Dutch and the Englilli, who had very little 
territory of their own. Colbert did not deign 
to make any reply, but turned his extraordinary 
counfellor out of the room. 

Colbert ordered Chapelain, the Author of 
the Epic Poem of the " Fucelle^' to make him 
out a lift of the men of learning and talents in 
France who either wanted or deferved penfions 
from the Sovereign, and at the end of each name 
to append the charadier of their merit. Mo- 
liere was thus defcribed : — " He is acquainted- 
" with the true charader of comedy, and he 
" executes it naturally. The ftories of his beft 
'^ pieces are in general imitated from others, 
but imitated wath judgment. His plots 
are good, and he has only to avoid buf- 

Of that elegant, voluminous, and inaccurate 
hiftorian Varillas, Chapelain fays : " He is full 
" of knowledge, particularly that of theology 
*' and hiftory. He has written an Account of 

" the 


** the Rife of the Houfe of Auilria that is very 
" curious, and has been ver)^ much read. His 
" Ityle is neither poUflied nor ornamented, but 
" it is found.'' 

Louis the Fourteenth, at the inftigation of 
Colbert, penfioned feveral men of learning and 
of fcience in the different Courts of Europe. 
Colbert, by his orders, wrote the following letter 
to the younger Voflius : 

" Sir, 

" Although the King is not your fove- 
" reign, he is fhill very defirous to become your 
" benefador, and has ordered me to fend you 
" the inclofed bill of exchange as a mark of 
" his efteem, and as a pledge of his protedion. 
" Every one knows how v/orthily you follow 
*' the example of your father, the celebrated 
*' Ifaac Voffius, and that having received from 
" him a name which he rendered illuflrious 
" by his writings, you ftill m.alntain the glory 
" of it by your own. This being known to 
^^ his Majefhy, he has great pleafare in reward- 
'' ing your merit ; and I have the more fatif- 
" faction in being ordered by his Majefliy 
** to make you that recompence, as at the 

T 3 " flune 


*' fame time I can aflure you how much | 
" am, Sir, 

*' Your very humble and affedllonate fervant, 

** Colbert," 

^ Paris, June 2, 1663," 

It has been computed, that Louis's welk 
judged hberality did not amount to more than 
eight thoufand pounds a-year. Fifty or a 
hundred pounds a-year was the ufual amount 
of each pennon. Chapeiain got fomething more 
for himfelf, and that, amongft other reafons, pro- 
cured him the hatred and envy of his contem- 
poraries and countrymen, 

A few days before this great Financier died, 
Louis XIV. wTotQ to him with his own hand,, 
to defire him to manage himfelf, and to take 
fome fufienance. Thev brou2;ht him a bafon 
of broth, which he refufed. His wife faid to, 
him, " Will you return an anfwer to the King ?" 
Fie replied, " There is time enough for that. 
*' 1 now am about to anfwer to the King of 
'' Kings." 

On nearly the fame occafion he faid to his^ 
wife, " Madam, when I was in this clofet 
*' buiied in his Majefty's bufinefs, neither you 
^^^ nor any one elfe darecl to attempt tq 

*^ come 


" come in to diflurb me -, and now that I 
" am employed in bufinefs relative to my 
" falvatioh, you are continually interrupting 
'' me." 

Colbert honeftly told Louis XIV. that he 
would ruin his fubjeds, if he continued to go 
on with thofe great buildings which he had 
begun. This fpeech made Louis tell Manfard, 
his Archite6V, " On me donne trap de degoiit. 
^' Je ne veux plus finger a bdtirr It was, indeed, 
•high time to fay fomething to Louis on the fub- 
ject, as in one year, according to Racine's 
*' Fragmeyis Hifcoriques,^^ he fpent fixteen mil- 
lions of livres in building. 

The Minifter of Colbert's parlfli, that of St. 
Eufliache at Paris, came to him on his death-bed 
to tell him, that he had ordered prayers to be 
put up in his church to the Almighty for the 
recovery of his health. " I hope not," replied 
Colbert : " let them be addreiled to the Throng 
*»^ of Grace that I may find mercy." 


publifhed the very curious " Memoires du Due 
''■ de NeverSy^ in two volumes. They begin 
at 1 5 74 and go down to 1595, 

X 4 He 


He was a quiet inoifenfive man of letters, 
and refided chiefly with the illuftrious hermits 
of Port Royal. He made this fmiple and ele- 
gant Epitaph for himfelf : 

Les graJids chargent leur fepulture 

De cent eloges fuperjius; 
Ma naijfance fut fort ohjcure^ 

Et ma mort encore plus. 

Whilft pompous epitaphs in trophled flate 
The tombs embellifh of the rich and great. 
Few words my humble lot may tefHfy, 
Obfcure I liv'd and more obfcurely die. 


" The Author of the celebrated Maxims 
' which bear his name, was not a man ©f 
•^ learning," fays Segrals, *^ but he was a man 
' of great good ienfe, and had a perfect know- 
' ledge of the world. This put him upon mak- 
' ing relied ions, and upon reducing into apho- 
' rifms what he had been able to difcover in the. 
' heart of man, with which he was moft inti^ 
^ mately acquainted." 

M. de la Rochefoucault was fo accurate in 
the compofition of his little book, that as he 
finilhed a Maxim, he ufcd to fend it to bis 



friends for their opinion upon it. Segrais af- 
ferts, that fome of his Maxims were altered 
thirty times. The Maxim, " that it iTiews a 
" wretched poverty of mind to have but one 
" fort of underftanding," took its rife from 
Boileau and Racine, who were extremely ig- 
norant of every thing except poetry and lite- 

" M. de la Rochefoucault," adds Segrais, 
" would have made a better Governor for 
*^ the Dauphin, Louis the Fourteenth's only 
" fon, than the Duke of Montaufierj" being 
a man of great fweetnefs of temper, extremely 
infmuating in his addrefs, and exceedingly 
agreeable in converfation. M. de la Roche^ 
foucault could never belong to the French Aca- 
demy, as he could never mufter up courage 
enough to deliver to the Academy the fpeech 
which it was necelTary to make in order to ba 
admitted into that body. 

This acute Nobleman was an Inftance of tljc 
truth of one of his own Maxims : 

There are certain perfons who would never 
have been in love, had they not been told 
^' that fuch a pafTion really exifted :" 

fox he ufed to fay, that he knew nothing of 



love but from Romances ; and that he had 
never felt that pafiion in his own perfon. 

Dr. Johnfon ufed to fay of Rochefoucault's 
Maxims^ that it was almoft the only Book writ- 
ten by a Gentleman which Authors by profeflion 
liad any rcafon to be afraid of, 

" The Duke very wifely never c|ifputed iri- 
^ company. If any perfon differed from him 
** in opinion, he merely faid. Sir, you are thea 
*^ of that opinion ? I am of mine ; and fo thq 
^ matter re (led/* fays Segrajs *, 


according to Aubrey, always wrote his Atha\ 
Jaria or Gammon- Places on one fide only of a 
llieet of paper, fo that, as occafion required, he 
only tore his papers, and iixed^ them together,, 
.i^nd v\roi4<i fo fend them to the prefs without; 

* Sir Ifacic Newton would never difpute in, company. 
Wht:n be had delivered an opinion which any-one chofc 
to controvert, he never was at the pains to defend it, bif^ 
contented himfelf with faying, *' I believe. Sir, if you wiU 
«* be at the trouble of examining my opinioUj you will 
^ §iid I have very good reafons. for it." 


nny more tranfcribing. This faved him a gre^t 
deal of trouble. 

According to the Authors of the Journal de 
Trevoux, no two men of learning ever differed 
more than Gerard Voffius and his Ton Ifaac in 
the difpofition of their minds. '^ The father," 
fay they, " formed his opinions upon what he 
*' read ^ the fon took up an opinion, and read 
^' only to eftablifh it. The father was anxious 
** to get at the true meaning of an author whom 
" he confulted — to add to him no opinions of 
" his own ; the fon took all poffible pains to 
" make the authors whom he confulted think; 
" as he thought, and never piqued himfelf upon 
*' making exadt quotations from their writings, 
^* The father looked upon the authors whom 
^' he read as his mafters ; the fon looked upori 
*' them as his flaves, whom he could by torture 
^' force to fay whatever he pleafed. The father 
^' was anxious to iuflrudt, the fon to aftoniili 
^^ mankind.'* 

The fon, Ifaac Voffius, affeded to believe i^ 
the pretended antiquity of the Chinefe nation, 
which he extended infinitely beyond the anti-» 
quity of the Hebrews. He eafily gave credit 
to the exaggerated accounts of travellers, and 
(cemed to have a paffion fox believing in the 



marvellous and ^ the incredible. This made 
Charles the Second fay of him, " This M. VolTius 
*' is indeed a very extraordinary man ! he be- 
*'' lieves in every thing except in his Bible." 

The lovers of literature muft much regret 


that M. Lantin, who had converfed a good 
deal with this great fcholar, and man of ge- 
neral knowledge, did not make, as he had 
once thought of doing, a *' Salmafiana,*'* Sal- 
mafius ufed to read and write in the midfl of 
his menage, in company with his wife and chil- 
dren, completely unaffeded by their noife. By 
way of faving himfelf the trouble of turning the 
paper, he ufed to write upon rolls of paper ; 
and when he was aiked how near he was to 
iinifiiing any work, he ufed to lay, not that 
he haxL^ib many Iheets, but that he had fo 
many rolls of paper to finifli. Voffius tells an 
anecdote of Salmafius, which fhews how hio^h 
an opinion he entertained of his own talents and 

^' M. Gaulmin and Mauflac meeting Sal- 
" mafius one day in the King's Library at 
^' Paris, M. Gaulmin faid^ I think that we three 


** are a match for all the learned men in Eu- 

" rope taken together. Add to them all, re* 

" plied Salmalius, yourfelf and M. de MaulTac, 

*' and I could be a match for you all.'* 

" The lafl time," fays M. Lantin, " that 
" Salmafius was at Dijon, I had fome conver- 
" fation with him refpe6ting the troubles and 
" the civil war of England between Charles tlie 
" FirR and his Parliament. He feemed to be 
" of the opinion of the High Prefbyteriaa 
" party, who feemed to w^lih that the King 
" fliould be neither depofed nor brought to 
" the fcaffold, but that his power fliould be m 
" fome refpe^ls curtailed and reduced. Sal- 
" mafius thought an union of the Catholic and 
" of the Proteftant Church impoflible, and 
" that the plan of Grotius on that fubjed 
" would never facceed.*' 

Salmalius v/as born at Saumur in France, in 
the town and on the day on which the Duke 
and Cardinal of Guife were maiTacred by order 
of Henry the Third, On being ailced when 
he was born, he replied, in ailuiion to thefe 

Cum cscldlt faio Conful utfrque pan, 



Salmafius ufed to fay, he had once feeti tlic 
journai of Meyric Cafaubon, which he kept 
in Latin ; and that amongfh other entries was 
the following : " Dens boney ho die catelliis ?neu5 
" pe5ime meo pexus eji'' Salmafius had made 
colledions for the hiftory of the European fur- 
names, which he faid were in general derived 
either from baptifmal names, from the names 
of provinces and towns, from the names of 
trades and profeffions, or from peculiarities of 

At the time of the death of Cardinal Riche- 
lieu, a friend of Salmafius was foliciting a 
penfion for him from that Minifter, in order 
to keep in France a perfon of his (Salmafius's) 
talents. Salmafius faid, " that he believed he 
*' fhould with difficulty be prevailed upon to 
receive a penfion from the Court of France, 
as fo much time and pains were employed 
in procuring the payment of it." He faid, 
however, " he would very willingly receive the 
" profits of fome landed property, if the King 
*' would have the kindnefs to grant it him ;" 
and having afterwards underflood that this offer 
was made him on the condition that he fhould 
write the hiflory of the adminiftration of Riche- 
lieu, he faid, " that he perhaps fhould not de- 

" ferve 


^'^ Ferve it, as he was not a man to facriiice bh 
•^ pen to flattery." 

Madame de Saumaife was a great fhrew, and 
led her hufband a weary life ; flie however ufed 
to fay of hirn, " that he was the beft gentle-- 
" man amongft the fcholars, and the beft. fchokr 
" amongft the gentlemen of his time." 

Salmafius, after having quitted France Qi\ 

account of his religion, being a Proteilant, 

refided in Holland. Sorbiere, In a letter to M. 

>de Marre, thus defcribes his manner of receiv- 

ing his literary friends : 

^■^ Ever}^ Sunday night he had a circle of 
** fifteen or twenty perfons of note; iuch as 
" M. L'Empereur, De Laet, Grotius, he. 
" whofe converfation afforded both inftrudtion 
*' and am.ufement. The chief part of the time 
" that we were with him we fat round a great 
'^ fire, one corner of which he kept to himfelf^ 
** and Madame de Saumiaife had the other. 
" She occafionally mixed in the converfatioDj 
" and took efpecial care that not one of the 
*^ company fliould go away without having 
" received a fharp word or two from her- 
" Salmafius was not naturally inclined to talk, 
" but ^4ien once he began he difplayed a 
6 " wonder- 


" wonderful fertility of mind, and an immenfe 
" erudition. I remember once, that I took to 
" Salmafius' circle a French gentleman who 
*' had never feen him ; and as we were going 
*' thither, we agreed to make him talk about 
*' the amufements of the field. We put him 
upon that fubje6c, and my friend told me 
. on his return, that himfelf, who was an old 
fportfman, could not have talked more per- 
tinently upon the matter. He was aftonifhed 
that a mian of letters, who had fpent io much 
time in his ftudy, and who was befides fo bad 
a horfeman, had been able to pick up fuch 
variety of information upon a fubjed not 
peculiarly interefting to him, for he told us 
not only what he had been able to get from 
thofe who had exprefsly written upon the 
fubjed, but what he could not know, unlefs 
" he had really been upon the ground, and 
" had himfelf killed a great quantity of game. 
" Our converfation was often infefted," fays 
Sor^iere, " if I may fo ufc the word to exprefs 
" more flrongly our indignation, by a Scotch 
" ProfeiTor, by name David Stuart, a Regent 
of a College, who in the dullcfl and mofl 
infipid manner contradicted every thing that 
was advanced -, and this tirefome fellow made 
" us lofe much of the converfation of Sal- 
" mafius, to whom indeed we afterwards com- 

^' plained. 



^^ plained, that he, who was in general pretty 
apt to be violent on fuch occafions, did not 
reprefs the pedantry of the Scotch Profeffor ; 
repeating to him, " Oro qui reges lonfiievh 
toller e^ air nmi hunc regem pgidas f Operum 

" hoc mihi crede Uiorum ejir 

Salmafius, not contented with attacking 
Milton's arguments in defence of the execu- 
tion of Charles the Firft^ attacked the Lati- 
riity of his verfes. He begins his Apology for 
Charles the Firft in this fmgular manner : 

" O ye Englifh, who tofs about the heads 
" of Kings as if they were tennis-balls, and 
" play at bowls with crowns, and treat fcepters 
" with no more regard than if they were 

*' toys 


exhibits one of the mofl: ftrikins; inftances of 
the precocity of the human intelledl. *^ At 
" the age of four years/' fays Bernier, " he 
•^^ ufed to declaim his little fermons; at the 
*' age of feven he ufed to fteal away from his 
" parents, and fpend a great part of the night 
** in obferving the ftars. This made his friends 
VOL. IV, U « fay, 

290 GAS5ENDT. 

*' fay, that he was born an Aftronomer. At 
*' this age he had a difpute with the boys of 
" his village, whether the moon or the clouds 
" moved : to convince them that the moon 
** did not move, he took them behind a tree, 
" and made them take notice that the moon 
" kept its fituation between the fame leaves, 
" whiift the clouds paffed on. This early dif- 
" pofition to obfervation induced his parents 
" to cultivate his talents, and the clergyman 
" cf his village gave him the hrfh elements of 
" learning. His ardor for ftudy became then 
" extreme ; the day was not long enough for 
** him, and he often read a good part of the 
" night by the light of the lamp that was 
" burning in the church of his village, his 
" family being too poor to allow him candles 
*' for his no6turnal ftudies. He often,'* adds 
Bernier, " took only four hours fleep in the 
" night. At the age of ten, he harangued 
" his Bilhop in Latin (wlio pafled through 
" GafTendi's village on bis Vifitation) with fuch 
** eafe and fpirit, that the Prelate exclaimed, 
*' That lad will one day or other be the wonder 
" of his age!'* 

*' i had the curiofity," fays St. Evremond, 
•' to vifit Gairendi. After a very long convcr- 
** fation, in which he difculfed fome very feri- 

" ous 


*' ous fubjedts, he compiained that Nature had 
*^ given fuch a degree of extent to our cu- 
" riofity, and fuch very narrow limits to our 
" knowledge. This, he affured me, he did not 
" fay to mortify the prefumption of any per- 
" fon, or from an affeded humility, which is a 
" kind of hypocrify. He did not pretend to 
" deny but that he knew what might be 
" thought on m.any fubjedls, but he dared 
" not venture to affirm that he completely 
" underfhood any one. His manner in conver- 
" fation was extremely agreeable; he had a 
very polifhed and elegant underftanding ; he 
had a great deal of delicate repartee ; he was 
in general filent, never oftentatioufly ob- 
truding upon other people either the acute- 
nefs of his underftanding or the eloquence of 
" his converfation j he was never in a hurry to 
" give his opinion, before he knew that of the 
" perfons who were converfing with him. When 
" men of learning introduced themifelves to 
*' him, he was contented with behaving to 
*' them with great civility, and was not anxious 
" to furprize their admiration by letting him- 
" felf out before them. The entire tendency 
" of his ftudies was to m^ake himfelf wifer and 
*' better ; and to have this intention more con- 
" fhantly before his eyes, he had infcribed all his 
-' books with thefe words, Saperc aude'^ 

u 2 This, 


This great Philoibpher was perhaps one of 
the hardefl fludents that ever exifled. In gene- 
ral he rofe at three o'clock in the morning, and 
read or wrote till eleven, when he received the 
vifits of his friends. He afterward at twelve 
made a vtry flender dinner, at which he drank 
nothing biU water, and fat down to his books 
again at three. There he remained till eight 
o'clock, when, after having eaten a very light 
lupper, he retired to bed at ten. His means 
of life were very fmall -, but, as M. Bernicr 
in his Epitaph upon him fays, 

Vh it fine querela^ fcrte fua conientus 

hiferioris notcc^ amicU jucundtjfimut„ 

Vir'is^ hnperlo^ auSforitate^ do^lrtna^ 

Sapientid^ pneflantijftmusy 

Accept'iJjiinuSy charijjlmusm 

N^on apud exteros jolurriy 

Sed In patrld fud 

AmoreyU'i veneratloneniy 

Meritus^ con Je cuius* 

Gaffendi appears to have died of his phy- 
ficlans. They bled him fourteen times in ii 
dyfentery, which he had at the age of fixty-onc 
years. During the courfe of his illnefs, he hint- 
ed to them that as he was not young, and was 
extremely debilitated, he thought they might as 
well, perhaps, difcontinue the bleedings. In 
fpite of this remonftrance, they purfued their 
8 cruel 


cruel operations till they reduced him to the 
greateft extremity of weaknefs. Gui Patin told 
him of the danger he was in, and recommend- 
ed to him to fettle his worldly affairs. The 
patient, lifting up his head from his pillow, faid 
ilnilingly to him. 

Omnia pracepi'^ atque anlmo mecum ante psregu 

As he was dying he defired his Secretary to 
put his hand gently upon his heart, and faid to 
him, " Mon ami, voila ce qiie c'ejl que la vie de 
** rhomnie — My friend, fee what the life of man 
*' is,"- — Gaffendi had, long before he faid this, 
received the Sacraments according to the rites 
of the Church of Rome. 

Like our Dr. Johnfon, GafTendl was a great 
repeater of verfes in the feveral languages witl^ 
which he was converfant. He made it a rule 
every day to repeat fix hundred. He could 
repeat fix thoufand Latin verfes, befide all Lu^ 
cretius, which he had by heart. He ufed to 
fay, " that it is with the memory as with all 
♦■ other habits. Do you wifh to ftrengthen it, 
•' or to prevent its being enfeebled, as it gene-? 
** rally happens when a man is growing old, 
" exercife it continually, and in very early life 
" get as many fine verfes by heart as you can ; 
^^ they amufe the mind, and keep it in a cer- 

u 5 ^* t^ii> 


" tain degree of elevation which infpires dignity 
" and grandeur of fentiment.'* 

GafTendi^s adverfavies accufed him of want of 
religion. This imputation feems ill-founded, 
as every Sunday and holiday he faid mafs as a 
prieft: and, according to Gui Patin, the dif- 
order of which he died was owing to his keep- 
ing Lent too ftridly, contrary to the advice of 
that learned phyfician. 

The principles of moral condu(5t which he 
laid down for the diredtion of his life were, — To 
know and fear God. — Not to be afraid of death ; 
and to fubmit quietly to it whenever it iliould 
happen. — To avoid idle hopes, as well as idle 
fears. — Not to defer till to-morrow any inno- 
.cent amufemxnt that may take place to-day. — 
To defire nothing but what is neceiTary. — To 
govern the pafTions by reafon and good [cnfe. 

Gaflendi was a moll excellent afhronomer, 
and had a mind fo fraught with knowledge, and 
at the fame time fo divefced of prejudice, that 
he wrote againfh Ariflotle (a bold attempt in 
the times in which he lived), and offered to 
prove, that many things which that great ge- 
nius had advanced ia philofophy were wrong. 



Yet kow vain are the fpeculations of the moil 
comprehenfive minds, when unafTifted by know^ 
ledge and experience ! Gaflendi, who was a 
dabbler in anatomy and medicine, wrote a trea- 
tife to prove that man was intended by nature 
to live only on vegetables. 

In one of the letters of this celebri-fed philo- 
fopher he fays, that he was confulted by his 
friend and patron the Count d'Alais, Governor 
of Provence, on a phsenomenon that haunted 
his bed-chamber while he was at Marfeilles on 
fome bufinefs relative to his office. The Count 
tells GaiTendi, that for feveral fucceffive nights, 
as foon as the candle was taken away, he and 
his Countefs faw a luminous fpedlre, fometimeS 
of an oval, fometimes of a triangular, form ; 
that it always difappeared when light came into 
the room ; that he had often ftruck at it, but 
could difcover jiothing folid. GaiTendi, as a 
natural philofopher, endeavoured to account 
for it ', fometimes attributing it to fom.e de- 
fect of viiion, or to fome dampnefs of the 
room ; iniinuating that perhaps it might be fent 
from Heaven to him, to give him a warning in 
due time of fomething that fliould happen. 
The fpedre continued its vifits all the time 
that he ftaid at Marfeilles -, and fome years af- 
terwards, op their return to Aix, th? Count.efs 

x; 4 d'Alais 


d'Alais confeffed to her hufband, that fht 
played him this trick, by means of one of her 
women placed under the bed with a phial of 
phofphorus, with an intention to frighten him 
away from Marfeilles, a place in which (he very 
niuch difliked to live. 

Gui Pgitin, who attended Gaflendi as his 
phyfician in his lafl illnefs, writes thus to M, 
Spon : " I have juft now left GaiTendi between 
*^ two Priefts. Sk itur ad qftra, where, great 
^' Aflronomer and Philofopher as he is, he 
" will know more in a quarter of an hour 
"'' than he ever could know here in the courfa 
'^^ of his whole life." 


Louis the Fourteenth was defirous to fee this 
celebrated Benedidin. Le Tellier, Archbifhop 
of Rheims, prefented him to his Majefty in thefe 
words : '* Sire, I have the honour to prefent to 
" you the moft learned man in your domi- 
^' nions." BoiTuet, who was prefent, addedj 
'^^ Sire, and the mofh modeft/* 

An Enghfh Gentleman, wifhing to confult 
M. Du Cange on fome fubjed of antiquit}^ 


patheh mabillon. 297 

was referred by him to Mabillon. On applying 
to Mabillon, he defired him to confult M. Du 
Cange. Why, my good Father, he told me to 
^^ addrefs myfelf to you/' — ** He is my Maf-r 
^' ter, I afliire you, Sir," replied the Benedidlin, 
" If, however, you continue to honour me 
^' with your vifits, I will communicate to you 
^' the little that I know/* 

Clement XI. on hearing of Mabillon*s death, 
wrote to the illuftrious Congregation of St, 
Maur, to defire that they would bury their de- 
ceafed colleague in a place of diftinguifhed fe- 
pulture ; *' for," added he, " all the men of 
** learning who come to Paris will not fail to 
«* inquire where you have placed him — ubi p' 
** fuiftis eumJ* 

Dom' Rouffel made an infcription for him. 
The eulogium it contains may be recommended 
to the notice of many perfons who feem to makq 
Vp in arrogance their inferiority of knowledge 
to this modeft: Benedidin, 

Omnium homlnum fibi conciliavit animos 

Hominum mitiffimusj 

In ipfis etiam literariis difcrepationibus 

Nemini afper. 

Nemini Isfit, etiam laefus. 

§cribentem incitabat Veritas, 



Certantem modcrabatur lenkas, 
y inccntem coronabat veritasj 

Coronatum ornabat humilitas. 

* * * 

Cceleftis gloriae cupidus> 

Mundanam fpreviU 

Reipexit mereedcm 

Quam, dare iblent honiincji 

Varri^ vanum. 

Null am in clauftro tenuit dignitateissj. 

Onunes mcruiu 

Cum literarum ftudiis 

Virtutum fludia conjunxit, 

Vt alterno federe* 

Sclentia pietatem 

Fietas fcisntiam adjuvarei^* 


Princes and great men arc but too apt to 
degrade their own dignity, and to render the 
fituation of dependence more ungrateful and 
unpalatable than it is of neceffity, by playing 
pradical jokes upon thofe perfons who are about 
them. The celebrated Latin Poet Santeuil 
died of one of thefe princely gambols. Some 
Spanifh fnuff was put into a glafs of wine, by 
order of the Duchefs of Bourbon, which he 
was obliged to drink^ and he died a few days 



afterwards in the mod horrid tortures, in con- 
fequence of it. 

Santeuil, who was a quibbler, and un homme 
mix hons mots^ died as he Hved ; for, on her High- 
nciVs (jon AlteJJe) fending one day to know 
how he did when he was in the ap-onies of 


death, on hearing the word Altejfe^ he turned 
his eyes up to Heaven, repeating " Tu Joins 
*' Jltijjhniis,'' and died immediately. 

Santeuil wrote fome excellent Hymns * for 
the fervice of the Catholick Church, which are 
flill in ufe. He ufed frequently to fay, that 
though every one was expeded to go to church, 

• The conclufion of his Hymn to Holy Women is ex- 
quifite. He thus concludes his defcription of the Virtuous 

Non ilia luxu veflium, 
Non crine torto fpleaduit. 
Cuitu nitens fed fimpHci 
Purib placebat moribus. 

Se fub ferenh vultibus 
Auflera virtus occulit. 
Timet videri, ne fuum 
Dum prodit, amittat decus, 

Pafcenda coelefli cibo, 
Sacris ftudebat literis, 
Tempio frequens, fed fedula 
Redib^t acj ^ur^m domus. 


he fliould be excepted, as he could not prevent 
himfelt from hearing his own hymns fung there, 
perhaps with too much fatisfadion for a pious 

Santeuil, who had never taken Prieft's orders, 
feated himfelf one day in a Confellional Chair 
that belonged to his Convent, and leaned over 
the elbow of it, as if in expe(5lation of receiving 
a Penitent,^ A handfome woman approached, 
knelt down, and began to enumerate her frail- 
ties. Santeuil, who was pleafed with it at firfl, 
foon became tired of it, and by way of putting 
a flop to his Penitent, cried out, " Why, you 
" fimpleton, I am no Prieft ! why do you trou^ 
<« ble me with all this detail ?"— ^" Oh, Sir," re- 
plied the woman^ " I fhall go immediately and 
*' tell your Superior of your improper and fcan- 
** dalous conduct." — " Shall you fo,my charm- 
^* ing Penitent ?" replied Santeuil : " then J 
^^ iliall go and tell your hufband of your's," 


exhibits a fLriking inftance of the earlieft defig-. 
nation of the human mind to a particular pur-^ 
fuit, and the futility of an attempt to thwart 
aad reprefs it. PafcaFs father was a man of 


!>ASCAt. 301 

Icknce, and was occafionally vifitcd by the great 
mathematicians of his country. Pafcal, who 
was then quite a child, was prefent at their vi- 
fits, and heard their converfation, which chiefly 
turned upon fcience, and more particularly 
upon that which they profelTed. He was very 
attentive to what they faid, and conceived fuch 
a paffion for mathematics, that he prelTed his 
father very much to permit him to fludy them* 
This the father refufed, as thinking it better" 
that his fon's early years Ihould be given to the 
knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages } 
and put out of his way all the books he might 
happen to have that treated of mathematics. 
Pafcal (then eleven years of age), at his leifure 
hours, ufed to retire to an upper chamber in 
his father's houfe, where he employed himfelf 
in tracing, with fand upon the floor, the figures 
of triangles, of parallelograms, of circles, Scd 
without knowing the names of them. " There 
*' ^he compared,*' fays his Biographer (Madame 
du Perrier, who was his filler), " their feverai 
*' relations and proportions; and by degrees^ 
<^ without the lead afliftance of any kind what- 
*' ever, came to conclude, that the exterior 
'•^ angle of every triangle is equal to the two 
" interior and oppofitc angles, and that the 
" three interior angles of every triangle are 
[^ equal to tv/o right-angles, which is the 3 2d 

" Propofition 

302 PASCAL. 



Propofitloii of the Firft Book of Euclid. 
This and the feveral intermediately neceffary 
Propofitions he was able clearly to demon- 
ilrate, making ufe of the terms rond and 
barre, &c. inilead of circle and line (for as yet 
" he was ignorant of the common appellations 
" of tliofe lines), and grounding his reafoning 
" on definitions and axioms which himfelf had 
*' verified. He was thus employed when his 
" father burfl in upon him., who difcovering 
" what he was about, and the progrefs and 
*' refult of his exertions, remained for fome 
" time quite infenfible, equally furprized and 
" pleafed, and ran to one of his intimate friends 
" to tell him what he had feen. He after- 
*^ wards encouraged his fon in the purfuit of 
*' his favourite ftudy with fuch fuccefs, that at 
*' the age of lixteen young Pafcal had com- 
*' pofed his celebrated Treatife upon Conic 
" Sedions;* 

Pafcal was perhaps one of the bed men that 
tvQV lived ; his time was beftowed on works of 
piety and utility, and his money was expended 
on thofe who had occafion for his affiflance. 
His Provincial Letters will immortalize him as 
one of the fined writers that the French have 
ever pofTefTed. One knows not which to ad- 
mire mod in them, his depth of learning, his 


PASCAL. 30^ 

{Irength of reafoning) the delicacy of his fath'c, 
or ,the purity of his intention. In his " Pe)ifeeSy* 
with an honefty perhaps only pardonabk in a 
man of his known virtue and limplicity, he fays, 
*^ lamaiked. If I do not repent that I have 
*' svrilten the Lettres Provindales / I anfwer, 
** that fo far from repenting that I have writ- 
** ten theiiij I would, if I were to write them 
*^' over again, make them ilill Wronger, I am, 
^* -then a(ked, Whj ^ --ve mentioned the 
*^ names cf the Authors from whom I have 
*^* taken all the abominable pofitions which I 
** have quoted in them ? I an{\ver. That if I were 
*•' in a town where tliere were twelve fprings 
*^ of water, and I was certain that one of them 
^ h-ad been poifonedj I (liould think myfelf 
*^ obliged to advife the inhabitants not to get 
*^ tlieir v\^t-er at that fpring; and as w^hat i faid 
might be taken for a matter of mere imagi- 
nation, I fliould think myfelf obliged to tell 
the Tiame of the perfon who poifoned the 
^* fpring, rather than fulfer the inhabitants of 
^ the town to be poifoned.*' 

In fpeaking of Epigrams, with what goodnefe 
cf heart, and with wlmt bonhom-mie, he fays, 

" The Epigram of Martial on fliort-fighted 
^^ perfons is good for nothing. It does not c©n- 

*^ fole 



304 PASCAL. 

" fole tliem, and it Ihews only the wit of the* 
" writer. All that makes only for the writer is 

" good for nothing anibitiofa rccidet orna- 

" menta, — One iliould endeavour to pleafe only 
" thofe that polTefs fentiments of humanity 
" and kindnefs, and not perfons of a cruel and 
^' barbarous difpofition^'* 

Pafcal> ih the latter part of his life^ retired to 
that illuftrious feminary of fcienccj learning, 
and piety, Port Royal* Many of the perfons 
that compofed it were men of learning and - of 
rank, who thought it right to follow fome trade 
or manufadure, and perform fome manual ope* 
ration for the good of their fouls, as well as for 
that of their bodies j thinking with the cele^ 
brated Abbe du Ranee, the difciplinarian re-* 
former of the famous Abbey of La Trappe, that 
manual labour was the firfl punilhment inflicted 
upon fm, a proper exercife for the condition of 
a penitent, and a moft powerful means of fane- 

FafcaFs employment was that of a maker of 
wooden fhoes 3 this gave rife to the following 
witticifm of Bolleau : A Jefuit having one day 
alked Boileau with a ineer, whether his good 
friend Pafcal was making fhoes at Port Royal : 
** Jene fgais pas s'ilfait aprejent des foulierSy mais 


'^ je fqah hien qu^il vous a ponjje un honne hotte^* 
was the fatiriil's reply. 

Pafcal had, in common with man}^ other 
learned men, feme weakneifes^ upon which hu- 
manity will ever drop a tear. A book has been 
written upon the quackery of learned men, and 
in the opinion of the prefent learned and excel- 
lent Father of Medicine in this country (a Cha- 
racter as fuperior to frailty as to vice), an en- 
tertaining book might be made of the follies of 
learned men. His name moil affuredly would 
never enter into the compolition of it : but the 
work would at leafl confole the ignorant and 
the foolifli. 

Pafcal, like many excellent and ftudious men, 
feems to have had a horror of politics. " In a 
" Republican Government, as that of Venicej 
" it would be a great crime," fays he, " to at- 
** tempt to introduce a King *, or to opprefs 

" the 

* Gui du Four de Pibrac, the celebrated Author of the 
Quatrainsj feems to be of the fame opinion; 

Aine lilat tel que tu h -jois etre : 
S^il eji Royal^ aime la Rcyaute; 
S^il ne I eji pointy s'il eft Communauti^ 
Alme-h aujji^ quand Dieu fy a fait naitre. 

Whatever its Government, thy Country love : 
Thy lawful Monarch willingly obey ; 
^oL, IV. X And 

306 PASCAL. 

the liberty of any people to whom God has 
given it. In a Monarchical Government, it 
is not poflible to violate the refpedl that is 
owing to the Sovereign, without a fpccies of 
facrilege. Befides,'' adds this great man, 
a civil war, which is the general confequence 
of the alteration of a form of government, 
being one of the greatefl: crimes that can be 
committed againfi: the happinefs of mankind, 
it is impoffible to fpeak againfb it with too 
much indignation,'* Pafcal fubjoins in a 
note with great fimplicity, " I have as great a 

And let the State thy ready homage prove. 
Should Few or Many bear the fovereign fway ; 
Convinced that God*s paternal care 
Has thought it fit to place thee there. 

No one can fufpeft this great man of fervility and paflive 
obedience, when the following Quatrain, written by him, 
prevented his being made Chancellor of France under 
Henrv the Third : 

Je Jia'is ces ?nots de puijjance ahfolue^ 
De ple'in pouvoir, de propre mouvemeni ; 
Aux faints decrets^ ih ont premier ement 
Puis a nos Loix la puijfance tollue. 

Thefe words of '* power fupreme" and " fovereign will/* 

My mind with honeft indignation fill ; 

For words like thefe have hurt Religion's caufe, 

Deftroy'd .ail reverence for her facred laws; 

Have irijur'd Gallia's Monarch's temperate fway, 

And made his fybjefts as his flaves obey. 

" dread 

PASCAL. 507 

** dread of this crime as of murder and of rob- 
*' bing on the highway. There is nothing, I 
" am fure, that is more contrary to my nature 
*' than this crime, and to commit which I 
'^^ fhould be lefs tempted. 

" Thofe perfons," fays Segrais, " who write 
*' books for the public, fhould let their friends 
" fee them who are men of judgment, and are 
*' capable of corre6ling them before they ap- 
" pear at that redoubtable tribunal. M. de 
*^ Menage did fo, and that accounts for the 
" corrednefs of his works. M-. de la Roche- 
*' foucault adled in the fame w-ay by his Me- 
" moirs and Maxims. AVhy are PafcaFs Pro- 
" vincial Letters fo perfect ? It is becaufe they 
*^ were feen and reviewed by at leafl: a dozen 
" of the gentlemen of Port Royal, who were 
" men of talents, aPid who had an exquifite 
^ tafle in difcovering what would pleafe the 
*' public." 

Thofe perfons who from folly or from care- 
lefTnefs tell one friend what another friend fays 
of him, would do well to confider this obferva- 
tion of the acute and amiable Pafcal : 

" All men naturally hate each other. I am 
*' certain, that if they v/ere to know accurately 

X 2 *' what 

308 PASCAL. 

" what they occafionally had faid of one another, 

" there would not be four perfons in the world 

*' w^ho could long preferve their friendfliip for 

^'^ each other.** 

This great man obferves acutely, " that the 
" longer we live in the world, the more diifimi- 
" litude of character we find in mankind, and 
" are convinced that no two men are precifely 
" alike.'* This reflection fliould indeed render 
"US more indulgent to each other than we are, to 
the virtues as well as the vices of others that 
are unlike our own, and not fuppofe ourfelves 
the models to which we are to refer every 

** See," fays Pafcal, " the abfurdity of man- 
" kind. Manv men have believed in the Mi- 
*' racles of Vefpafian, who have appeared to 
**' give no credit to thofe of Jefus Chrift.** \ 

In his Provincial Letters, he fays : " This 
" letter is longer than any of the reft; but in- 
" deed and in good truth I had not leifurc 
^' to make it ihorter.'* 

[ 3^9 




This intellig-ent and inflexible Mag;iilrate 
having, in a fpeech which he made in the Par- 
liament of Paris to Anne of Auftria, during the 
minority of Louis the Fourteenth, touched 
gently upon the diftreifes of the common people 
of the kingdom of France, found himfelf treated 
with flight and coolnefs by her Majefty at the 
next audience he had of her. " This,*' fays 
he, " was owing to the mifreprefentation of the 
•' Minifters, and fome of the vermin who fre- 
quent palaces." 


Talon having on fome occalion taken a part 
which pleafcd the Queen and the Court, Car- 
dinal Mazarin fent for him, and, after paying 
him fome compliments on his behaviour, of- 
fered him an Abbey for his brother. Talon 
very politely refufed it, adding, that as his late 
condudl had nothing in view but the fervice 
of the King and the fatisfadion of his own 
confcience, he Ihould be extremely unhappy, 
if there was the leaft fufpicion afforded to the 
world at large that he had a6led from other 
motives. " I love," added this honeft French- 

X 3 man. 


man, " both the King and the Parliament, 
" without being under any apprehenfion that 
" tliis apparent contradidion fhould do me any 
" prejudice with mankind.*' 

Mazarin fent for him another time, to 
requell: him to fpeak in the ParHament of Paris 
in favour of fome Edids of the King, which 
were to be prefented by himfelf in perfon to 
be regiflered by that AiTembly. Talon replied, 
that he fhould do his duty — that the prefence 
of the Sovereign on iuch occafions caufed always 
trouble and difcontent — -that it was therefore 
the more necclTary that he (nould exercife pro- 
perly the fundions of his office without fear ancj 
without partiaiityt 

M. ,Talon*s reafons for quitting public affairs 
were thofe which but too often have infpirecj 
men as honefl and as well-intentioned as himfelf. 
" All refiftance and contradidion,'* fays he, 
**' to the Governing Powers was ineffedual and 
" ufelefs, v;ho carried every point they wilhed 
to gain by violence and conftraint. I v,'as 
however," he adds, '' very much aftoniiliecj 
that many honeft men, vsrho wilhed well to 
the public peace, ftill attended the Par- 
liament, in v/hich they were certain that 
every thing muft be carried as it pleafed the 

-* Princes* 



^* Princes ; fo that in the fituation in which 
" matters were, it would have been more for 
*' their honour, that what was done ihould 
" have been done by the voices of a few per- 
" fons only, whofe partiality might well have 
" been fufpedled, than by the majority of the 
*^' Parliament, who had not the power either 
to do the good, or to prevent the evil, as 
they wifhed. Neverthelefs, the general ti- 
midity was fo great, that many perfons were 
afraid of being furpe61:ed, if they did not 
attend that Alfembly ; and the majority of 
" thofe who went there did not confider fo 
" much what opinion they (hould give, as 
" how their perfons fhould be fecure, even 
" when they had betrayed their confciences, 
" and had voted on the fame fide with the 
" Princes," 

David Hum.e fays, in his ElTay upon Elo- 
quence, that during the difputes of the Parlia- 
ment of Paris in the time of the Fronde, there 
appeared many fymptoms of antient eloquence. 
" The Avocat- General Talon,'' adds he, from 
De Retz, " in an oration, invoked on his knees 
" the Spirit of St. Louis to look down with 
" compaflion on his divided and unhappy peo- 
" pie, and to infpire them from Heaven with 
*' the love of concord and unanimity.*' 

X 4 

[ 31^ ] 


De Retz fays, that no ancient Roman ever 
poireffed the virtues of courage and of public 
ipirit in a degree fuperior to this great Magi- 
flrate. In the time of the Fronde at Paris, 
a man prefented a dagger to his breaft, threat^ 
ening him with inflant death if he v^ould not 
confent to forne decree propofed in the Parlia- 
ment, which M. Mole thought prejudicial to 
his country. " Know, my friend," faid he. 
looking ilernly at him, " that the diftance is 
*' infinite from the dagger of an ^ffaffin to the 
*' heart of an honeft man." 



For the honour of letters, pelifTon and the 
good La Fontaine remained faithful to the 
Surintendant durinp; his difgrace. Peliffon fent 
petitions to Louis XIV. in his favour, and 1a 
Fontaine wrote verfes in commiferation of his 
hard fate, in a ftyle of the highefl pathos, a flyle 
totally difiimilar from his yfual manner. Ma- 

* dernoifellc 


d^moifelle Dellioulieres, the celebrated Poetefs, 
whom he had patronifed, contrived to fend him 
inteUigence even into that inacceflible fortrefs 
the Baftille. The Great, who had condefcended 
to partake of hib favours whilft he was in power, 
completely forfook him when he had no longer 
any thing to give them ; and this after he had fo 
far attended even to their vices, as at all the 
entertainments he gave to put money under 
their plates to enable them to pay their lofTes at 

Foucquet was confined many years in the 
fortrefs of Pignerol, where he compofed fome 
devotional Treatifes. It is not known whether 
he was ever permitted to return to Paris. St. 
Simon, in his Memoirs, gives a very curious 
account of the meeting between him and his 
fellow-prifoner the Duke of Laufun at Pig^ 


This elegant Writer contrived to be fent 
to the Baflilie, to give his patron M. Foucquet 
intelligence of what had been done refpedting 
his trial. Whilft he was confined there, 
he wrote a Poem galled^ Ettrymedony " per- 

'' fuaded," 


" fuadcd," fays his Biographer, " that b}- a 
"" great effort of application of mind to a par- 
" ticular fubjeft, he (hould alone be able to 
" foften the rigours of confinement.** He 
wrote the following lines on the walls of his 
cell : 

Doubles grilles a gros cloux^ 

Triples partes^ f.rts verroux^ 

Aux ames vrairnent mechantes 

Vous reprefentez V enfer^ 

Mais aux aims innocentes 

Vous n'etes (^ue du hoisy des pierres^ et dufer, 

Voltaire fays, there are no compofitions in the 
French language, which in flyle and manner 
more refemble the orations of Tully; than the 
remonftrances of Peliffon to Louis XIV. in fa- 
vour of M. Foucquet. 


" I LEAVE behind me,'* fays this excellent 
Phyfician on his death-bed, " two moil power- 
" ful rernedies, diet and exercife.** 

Dry den has faid, 

God never made his work for man to mend. 

This may be true of man as he came out of 
the hands of his great Creator \ but he has 



fince, by his vices and his follies, debafed his 
frame, and made it neceflary for him often to 
apply for the affiftance of thofe who have made 
the difeafes of the body their particular ftudy. 
Yet with what caution he fliould apply, the 
learned Frederic Hoffman will warn him, who 
wrote a book entitled " Medici Morbomm 
" Cauja s" Phyfictans the Caufes of Difeafes *. 

M. Dumoulin had this infcription engraved 
over the Fountain of the Mineral Waters of 
Bourbon : 

Aur'iferas dives jaSfet Pa^olus arenas^ 
Ditlor hiec vohit mortal'ibus unda faint em* 

Unenvied now, Paclolus, roll along 
Thy golden fands, immortaliz'd in fong ; 
Our favour'd ftreams in richer torrents flow. 
And health's great bleiling on mankind beftow. 

• " The lives of many hyfterical and hypochondriacal 
" patients,*' fays the ingenious Dr. Ferriar, of Manchefter, 
in his excellent Treat ife on the Converlion of Difeafes, 
*• have been at once fliortened and embittered by the 
" thoughtlefs encouragement given by fome pra6litioners 
*' to the ufe of fpirituous liquors. I have feenmo ft melan- 
*^ choly inftances in which habits of dram-drinking have 
" been thus acquired, under the fan6lion of the medical 
" attendant, by perfons not only temperate but delicate in 
*' their moral habits. In this manner hyfterical difeafes of 
" no great moment are converted to fchirrus of the liver 
" and dropfy, to apoplexy, palfy, and other difeafes ; fed 
^^ manum de tatulu.''* 



The three Greek words lately infcribed b^ 
the learned and excellent Dr. Harrington on 
the Pump-room at Bath have a peculiar and 
fpecific propriety. They are fimple and ele- 
gant in themfeives, are taken from a great lyric 
Poet, and allude to the celebrated lyfliem of 
an ancient Philofopher, that water is the prin^ 
ciple of all things ^ and they bear a fpecific allu* 
fion to the properties of the Bath waters, which 
are extremely falutary to thofe who have in-^ 
dulged in wine and fermented liquors. 


The life of this celebrated French Comic 
Poet appears to have been a life of real ro- 
mance. He was born at Paris in 1647. His 
great paffion throughout life was that of tra- 
velling. In returning from Italy to France 
by an Englilh merchant fhip, he was taken pri- 
foner by an Algerine velTel, and carried with 
the refl of the crew to Algiers, where he was 
fold f:)r a Have to one of the principal perfons 
of that city. Regnard, being a very good 
cook, was in confequence of his knowledge in 
that very ufeful art taken notice of by his maf- 
ter, and treated with great lenity. He was 



however detedled in an intrigue* with one 
of the women of his mafter's feraglio, and was 
fentenced either to be impaled, or to turn Ma- 
hometan. The French Conful at Algiers, who 
had juft received a very conliderable fum of 
money to purchafe Regnard's hberty, made ufe 
of it to procure him both that and his Hfe. 
Regnard, again a free man, returned to France : 
having however the gout de la vie vagabonds 
(as he calls it) he travelled into Flanders and 
Holland, and from thence to Denmark ; the 
Sovereign of which country advlfmg him to 
vifit Lapland, he and two other Frenchmen 
(whom he chanced to meet at Copenhagen) 
went together into Lapland as far as the extre- 
mity of the Gulph of Borneo, and extended 
their travels even to the Frozen Sea. Stopping 
here, as they could not poflibly go any farther, 
Regnard had thefe Unes engraved upon a ilone 
on a mountain near that immenfe repolitory 
of ice : 

Gallia nos gemi'it^ vidit nos Africa^ Gangem 
Hauftmust Europamque oculls lujiravimus omnivu 
Caftbus et variis a^i terrdqtie marique 
Sijiimtis Jnc tandem qua nobis defuit orbis. 

In Gallia born, by feorching Afric viewed. 
And bath'd in Ganges' confecrated flood, 

• The principal circumflances of this intrigue Kegnard 
has worked up into a Novel called " La Proven^ak,'* 


5lS REGNA!10. 

We've feen whate'cr of natiu'e and of art, 
To wond'ring eyes, all Europe can impart; 
By Fate's kind pov/er enabled to withll:and 
The various perils of the fea and land. 
Here then ,vve flop, here fix our laft retreat ; 
Where the world clofcs on our wandering feet. 

No ofie feems to have felt more fenfibly, or 
to have defcribed more forcibly, the mileries 
of an idle and undefignated hfe than M. Reg- 
nard. In fome port in which he v/as becalmed, 
he thus exprefTes his fenfations on the fubjedt : 
— " The whole time in which w^e were be- 
" calmed/' fays he, " w^as not entirely loft to 
" me. Every day I w^ent to the top of fome 
" high and pointed rock, from which the view 
of the fea, and of the precipices that fur- 
rounded it, correfponded perfediiy well with 
my meditations. In tl^s^fe converfations with 
" myfelf, I laid open my own felf to myfelf. 
*' I endeavoured to difcover, in the very inmoft 
" receffes of my heart, the fentiments that had 
" been before concealed from me ; and I faw 
'' them as they were In reality, and without 
" dilguife. I threw my eyes back upon the 
" agitations of my paft life, where I faw defigns 
" without execution, and enterpriz^s w^ithout 
" fuccefs. I confidered my prefent ftate of 
" life, my continual change of place, my con- 
*^ ftant though ufelefs travels, and the continual 

" emotions 



REGN-ARD. 319 

*^ emotions with which I was harafled. I 
^^ recognized my felf but too well under every one 
" of thefe fituations, into which mere caprice, 
" mere fickienefs had direded me, without 
^' being able to allow even my vanity and felf- 
" love to tell me any thing in my favour. I 
" then began to make a jufl: efiiimate of what 
" I had been doing -, I became but too fenfibic 
" how contrary all that I had ever done w^as 
" to the proper bufinefs of life, which confifts 
^^ in quiet and in tranquillity ; and that that 
*' happy ftate of mind is only to be found in 
" fome agreeable profeffion or bufmefs, which 
*^ arrefls the human mind in the fame manner 
" as an anchor flops a veiTel in the midfb of a 
*' fiorm. 

*' There is perhaps," adds M. Regnard, 
" nothing more difficult in human life than 
" the choice of a profeflion. Hence it hap- 
" pens, that there are fo many perfons who 
live without any profeffion, and who exifh 
in a perpetual and difgraceful indolence, not 
fpending their time in the way in which they 
would wiQi to fpend it, but as they have been 
accuflomed to fpend it, whether from their 
apprehenfion of difficulty, from their love 
" of idlenefs, or their diflike to labour. The 
" hfe of thefe miferable perfons is a flate of 
^^ perpetual agitation ; and if, at an advanced 

" period 

3^0 REGNARt), 

•' J eriod of life, they feemcd to be fixed to afty 
" thing, it is not the diflike to motion, but their 
inabilit)^ to move, that is the caufe of it* 
Thefe perfons are continually accufing For- 
tune of having treated them ill ; they are 
continually complaining of the badnefs of 
the times, and the wickednefs of the age. 
They are continually flying from one place 
to another, and are never pleafed Vvith any. 
In winter they are too cold, in fummer they 
** are too hot. If they make a voyage by fea, 
" they are foon tired of the inconveniences 
*' of being on (hip-board ; if they travel by 
" land, they are incommoded by duf!:, by bad 
*^ horfes, by bad inns. If they go to any 
*' place, they are foon tired of it, and go to 
fome other place. Thus flying ever from 
themfelves, they always carry with them 
their own inconftancy of mind, yet appear 
" to forget that the caufe of their wretchednefs 
*' is within them.felves, and do not remember 
** what Horace h^as long ago told them, 

Patria quh exul 
Se quoquejugk ? 

thus exquiiitely tranflated by Mr. Haftings, 

"What vagrant from his native Uiid 
E*cr left himrdf behind \ 




One of the moft ftriking pidures that was 
ever made of the wretchednefs and mlfery of 
an idle and unappropriated life is to be met with 
in Lord Clarendon's Dialogue ch the Want of 
Refped: due to Old Age, in the volume of his 
Tracts, where he gives the folio Vv'ing melancholy 
account of one of his country neighbours : 

'* When I vifited this Gentleman in the 
*' morning I always found him in his bed, and 
" when I came in the afternoon he was alleep, 
and to mofl men beficles myfelf was denied, 
but was v^ery willing to be called when I 
cam.e, and alwavs received me with cheerful- 
nefs. Once walking with him, 1 doubted 
he was melancholy, and by fpending hi* 
time fo much in his bed, and fo much alone, 
that there was fom.ething which troubled 
**' him, otherwife that it could not be that a; 
'*' man upon whom God had poured down fo 
*' many ble flings, in the comfort of fo excellent 
*' a wife, who had brouglit him fo many hope- 
" ful children, and in the poiTeilion of fo 
" ample an eftate, fliould appear in the courfe 
" of his life, and in the fpending of his time, 
" to be fo little contented as he appeared to 
'*'^ be. To which, with a countenance a little 
" more erecb and cheerful, he anfwered, that 
*' he thought himfelf the moft happy man 
VOL. IV, r " alive 



*' alive in a \rife, who was all the comfort he ' 
" could have in this world -, that he was at lb 
" much eafe in his fortune, that he could not 
" wifh it greater. But he faid, he would deal 
" freel}^ with me, and tell me, if he were me- 
" lancholy (which he fufpedled himfelf of), 
**'• what was the true caufe of it : that he had 
" fomev/hat he knew not what to do with ; his 
*' time he knew not how to fpend, which was 
" the reafon he loved his bed fo much, and 
" ilept at other times, which, he faid, he found 
" did already do him no good in his health; 
^ I told him, that I had obferved in his clofet 
*' many books finely bound, which I prefumed 
" he might find good divertifement in reading, 
" To which he replied, that they were all 
" French romances, which he had read enough, 
*' and never found himfelf the better, for want 
" of feme kind of learning, which was necef- 
'' fary to make thofe obfervations which might 
" arlfe even from thefe books ufeful -, and he 
confefied that he could not read any book 
for half an hour together without fleeping. 
All which, he faid with a deep figh, was to 
" be imputed to the ill-education he had had, 
" which made him fpend that time in which 
" he ought to have laid up a flock of know- 
" ledge, which v/ould have made his age de- 
" leftable to him, in dancing and fuch other 

<^ trifles. 



llEGNARD. 323 

*' trifles, the fkill and perfedlion wlierein men 
grow weary of as foon as they are grown pef- 
fe6t men, and yet when it is too late to 
" cultivate their minds with nobler fludies^ 
*^ which they are unapt then to enter uponj, 
" becaufe they fee what progrefs much younger 
*' men have made in thofe fludies before they 
** begin, and fo chufe Tather to flatter them- 
" felves in their ignorance." In the courfe of 
•the narration, it appears that the father of this 
unhappy man had, from a foolifn notion that 
his {on might learn fome vices at the Englilh 
Univerfities, lent him to one of the French 
Academies, where, as himfelf told Lord Claren- 
don, " Trufh me, neighbour," faid he, " all 
■*^ that is learned in thcfe Academies is riding, 
fencing, and dancing, behdes fome v/icked- 
neiTes they do not profefs to teach, and yet 
are too eafily learnt, and with difficulty 
avoided, fuch as I hope our Univerfities are 
*' not infecbed with. It is true," added he, 
they have men there who teach Arithmetic, 
which they call phi-lofophy ; and the art of 
fortification, which they call mathematics ;• — 
"^^ but what learning they have there I might 
■*' eafily imagine, when he affured me, that in 
*' three years which he fpent in the Academy, 
** he never faw a Latin book, nor any Mafter 
■^* that taught any thing there, wbo would not 

y^ z l[ have 


'' have taken it very ill to have been fufpecl:- 
" ed to Ipeak or underfland Latin. Oh, neigh- 
bour/* continued he, " I do promife you, 
" that none of my children (liall have that 
*' breeding, left when they come to my age, 
" they know not better to fpend their time 
" than I do." Lord Clarendon adds, " that 
" this unhappy Gentleman's melancholy daily 
" increafcd with the agony of his thoughts, 
" till he contraded thofe difeafes which car- 
" rled him off at the age of thirty-fix years." 



This celebrated French Epigrammatift was 
valet-de-chambre to Maria Therefa, the Queen 
of Louis XIV. In early life he had been long 
wavering with refped to the choice of the pro- 
feffion he was to follow ; he however, at laft, 
very dutifully, and very wifely, deferred to the 
opinion of his Father *, who chofe for him the 


* On the fubjea: of the choice of a profeflion, Dr. John- 
fon, with his ufual fagacity of remark, fays, *' I have ever 
" tho\ight thofe happy that have been fixed from the firft 
" dawn of thought to fome ilate of life, by the choice of 
•' one whofe authority may preclude caprice, and vvhofe 
" W^uence may prejudice them in favour of his opinion. 

" Th« 


profeffion of the Law. Whilft he remained in 
his flate of uncertainty he wrote the following 
lines ', to which, from the peculiar neatnefs and 
felicity of expreffion contained in them, it 
would be difficult to do juflice in a tranf- 


Pendant que Luc delibere 
Sur ce qu'il doit devcfiir^ 
Et C'llejl bon defefaire^ 
Homme d^eglife on d^ajfalrey 
Avocat oil moujqueiaire. 
Plus vite qii^unfoiivenir^ 
Le temps a /' aile legere 
Part^ pour ne plus reveriir, 
Ses beaux jours vont s^ embrumr-^ 
Et la vieillejfe s*avat2ce. 

^f The general precept of confultlng the genius is of little 
" ufe, unlefs we can tell how that genius is to be known. 
" If it is only to be difcovered by experiment, life will be 
" loit before the refolution can be fixed. If any other in- 
" dications are to be found, they may, perhaps, be eafily 
" difcerned. At leaf!, if to mifcarry in an attempt be a 
" proof of having miftaken the direaion of the genius, 
*■ men appear not lefs frequently mlilaken with regard to 
" themfelves than to others; and therefore no one has 
*' much reafon to complain, that his life was planned out 
*' by his friends, or to be confident that he fliould have 
*^ had either more honour or more happinefs, by being 
*' abandoned to the choice of his own fancy." 

y 2 Juparavant 

326 LAINEZ. 

yfuparavant qu'il convmncs- 

11 feroit temps de finlr, -- 

Flottant dans Vinccrtitudey 

Luc rejle iufenfiblemcnty 

Inutile egalemeyit 

Pour la guerre^ pour I'etudey 

Le monde iff lajol'uude, 

^lant a mo'i-^ je p revets bien 

^i" cher chant trop afe connoUrey 

Ce qu'il pent ce qu*il veut itrcy 

Enfin Luc nc Jera rien, 

Senegal ufed to call clieerfulnefs of temper 
" /a beaiime de la vie^ He wrote fome Me- 
moirs of Cardinal de Retz, which are now pro- 
cured with difficulty, and which differ in 
fome refpeds from thofe publiflied by liis 


was an excellent Scholar and an elegant Poet, 
He divided his time between the plealures of 
the table and his fludies. Some one having 
exprefled his furp/ize at feeing him in the 
King's Library at Paris early one morning,, 
^fter he had fpcnt the preceding night jovially 
6 ^^:i.tI:^ 


lAINEZ. 327 

with him, he replied, in imitation of two w^ell- 
Iteiown lines of Martial. 

Regnat m5lc cal'ix^ volvimtur hlhlta mane. 
Cum Phcebo Bacchus dtv'idit imperium. 

All night I drink, and ftudy hard all day, 
Bacchus with Phosbus holds divided fway. 

He faid of thofe elegant little French vo- 
lumes called the " Ana^'y^ that they were the 
vhnc mcmger of Literature. 


Voltaire ufed to fay, that nothing could 
be fo eafy as to make a commentary upon thi^ 
writings of this elegant writer, for that the au- 
thor would have nothing to do but to put 
under every palfage, " fine, admirable, excel- 
" lent, charming, &c." The French fcholars 
univerfally prefer his verfes to thofe of any 
Foet in their unmufical language. Racine was 
by no means a man of good temper, and was 
extremely rough and im.petuous in converfa- 

* A fele^tion has been lately made from thefe little 
volumes by a Fellow of New College, Oxford, whofe tafle 
in making it fliews him to be the worthy eleve of Dr. Jofcph 
Warton. See *' Sele(5lions from the French Anas, 2 vols. 
*^ i2mo. '.' 

Y 4 tion. 


tion. He had once a long and violent dll^ 
pute with his friend Boil^au ; — when it waf 
over, Boileau, with g\'(t:ii fang froid, laid to. him, 
" Had you any real intention jufl now of mak- 
*' ing me uneafy ?"— " God forbid, my good old 
" friend," replied Rucine. — " WeU then/' faid 
Boileau, " you have done what you did not 
" intend to do, for indeed you have made mc 
" uneafy." 

Yet Racine had fo great an attachment to 
Boileau, that when the fatyrift vifited him ou 
his death-bed, he laid, throwing his arms around 
him, " I look upon it as a great happinefs that 
** I die before you." 

Racine read extremely w^ell. Louis the 
Fourteenth fent to him one day wdien he was. 
indifpofed, to read fomething to him. Racing 
propofcd the celebrated Tranflation of Plu- 
tarch's Lives by Amyot. " The language is 
<.' antiquated," faid the King.—" Well, then,. 
" Sir," replied Racine, " I can corred: that 
*•' dtitCi y I will put him into modern French." 
This Racine did, and pleafed his Sovereign ex-- 

Racine, foon after hus appointm-cnt to the 
oiace of Hiiloriographer to Louis the Four-., 


RACINE. 329 

teen til, requcfted an audience — " Sire,*' faid he, 
" an Hiflorian ought not to flatter; he is bound 
'' to reprefent his hero exadlly as he is. He 
" ought indeed to pafs over nothing. In what 
" way does your Majefty choofe that I fhould 
" fpeak of your galkntries?" — " Pafs them 
" over,'' replied the King, coolly. ^^ But, alas I 
" Sire," replied Racine, with great manlinefs, 
" what I omit, the reader will fupply." Louis 
replied, " Pafs them over, I tell you." — Racine 
added, " As there are many incredible things, 
" Sire, in the life of your Majefty, the fincerity 
" with which I fliouid avow the weaknefTes of 
" my Hero to my reader, will perfuade him 
" that I regard the truth, and this regard to 
" truth will, in his mind, be a paiTport for my 
^* hiftory." Louis replied, "I am not yet de- 
*' cided in my opinion what you ought to do: 
*' All that I can tell you at prefent is, to pafs 
" over my intrigues.'' 

Racine ufed to fay of Lucan, that he wa? 
Virgil drunk, " Virgile ivre.'" There are ftill, 
kowever, m.uch fire and fpirit in his inebriety — 
particular paiTages are exquifite. Corneille pre- 
ferred Lucan to Virsiil. 

Racine wrote feveral notes on the margin of 
bis editions of the Greek Dramatic Poets, 



They are prefcrved in the King's Libraiy at 


The Charpentieriana feems to have very good 
realbns for fuppofing the author of that formerly 
much read book " l^he "TurkiJIi Spy,'' to have 
been an ItaUan of the name of Marana, who re^ 
jGded at Paris, 


One of the moft fingular dedications, per- 
haps, in the world, is that of this learned Monk*s 
<* Parterre Hiftoriqiie'' to tlie Virgin Marj^, 
\\hom he thus addreiTes : 


^* To the Mother of God and the Queen dF 
" the ¥/orId. 

*' After fueh augufl: titles, O great Queen,, 
^* I am ainiofb aihamed to offer to you fuch a 
'^ trifle as this book is ; but I have fo ftrong a 
*' defire to let mankind know that I owe you 
^ every thing, that I am tempted to do it, 
* without paying that refped which I ought 

'' t^ 


^^ to do to your gfeatnefs ; though indeed, to 
** fpeak truly, I dimlnifh not a tittle of your 
*' greatnefs, when 1 have recourfe to your 
•' kindnefs. Permit me then, O great Queen, 
again to renew the olferiLg which I make tq 
you in confecrating to you the hrft-fruits of 
my ftudies, hoping that this work of mine 
(however inconiiderable hi itfelf) will be in 
** fome degree efheemed by the world on ac* 
" count of your adorable name, which it bears 
^' infcribed on the firfh page of it, and that the 
*' Author chofe exprefsiy to procure for it fafety 
*^ and protection." 

" La Parterre Hiftori(iiiey' Lyoii^ 1672, 


the Author of ihe celebrated Rorriance of 
" Zaide," who lived in the reign of Louis the 
Thirteenth of France, and in the early part of 
that of Louis the Fourteenth, fays, " I find 
" myfelf much more happy in France under its 
" prefent Government, than a Dutchman is 
" with all his pretended liberty, He pays fo 
-' m^any taxes, that fuppofmg he had fix thou- 
''^ fand livres a-year, he mufl pay two thoufand 
^' out of them ^ whiiR I, by paying fometimes 
^} for the regifter of my coat of arms, and occa^ 

^* fionally 

532- SEGRAIS. 

"' fionally fome other fniall fum for the necef- 
** iities of the St.ite, live in peace and fecurity. 
*"' A Dutchman has no idea how any man can 
*' bear a Government fo defpotic as that of 
"* France. But with us, at prefent, individuals 
*^ are more happy than they were before, when 
^^ the leafl; bit of a Gentleman would play the 
"■ petty tyrant upon his eftate. In our whole 
^^ Province of Normandy we had only two or 
" three Noblemen who behaved themfelves 
^^ like brave aiid honefl Gentlemen. The refl 
** of them, who ufed to tyrannize over their 
** Farmers, and beat them, are all gone to the 
*S Devil, Was it not a fliameful and a fcan- 
^- dalous thing, that a milerable Counfellor of 
*' Parliament had it in his power to make 
*^ every-body within twelve miles afraid of 
« him i" 

*^ Cardinal de Retz,'* fays Segrais, " told as 
•^ a truth fomething of which I knew pofitively 
*' the contrary. To avoid mentioning that his 
*•• Eminence had told a lie, I obferved to him, 
" that he ought to do as the late Madame de 
*^ Montpenfier did, who ufed to fay, that ihe 
" never told an untruth, but that fhe made ufe 
^^ of her imagination to fupply the defed of 
^- her memory," 

^* WhcA 


** When I was young/* fays Segrais m hh 
Memoirs, ** I was fond of making verfes, and 
** of reading them indifferently to all forts of 
" perfons. But I perceived, that when M, 
" Scarron, who was however my intimate friend^ 
" took out his portefeuille, and read me fome 
" of his verfes, he bored me exceilively, al- 
" though his verfes were very good. I then 
*' began to reflect, that as my verfes v/ere nor 
" near fo good as his^ I muft in a greater degree 
*' bore my friends (who mod probably did not: 
like poetry as well as I did) ; and I then laid 
myfelf down a refolution, never to read my 
verfes except to thofe who afked me, and 
" even then to take care that I did not mve 



them too many of them," 

Segrais, fpeaking of the difturbances at Paris 
in his time called La Fronde, fays, " The partv 
*' that oppofed the Court had no real reafon 
" for doing fo. It \vas to them an agreeable 
" amufement, in which there was a good deal 
" of laughing, and in which every thing was 
** made fun of in doggerel verfes." Would 
to Heaven that the late Frondeurs in that 
Country had been as harmiefs and as plea- 
fint I 

[ 334 ] 


^This great Muficlan was one day reproached 
with fetting nothing to mufic but the languid 
verfes of Quinault. He ran immediately to 
his harpfichord, and after having for a few mi- 
nutes run over the kevs in a moll violent man- 
' ner, and with great violence of gefture, fang 
from Racine's tragedy of " Iphigenie" the fol- 
lowing terrific lines : 

Un P ret re environne d'une fcule cruelle 
Porter a fur ma jille^ une main crimlnelle 
Dechirera fonfeiny et (Tun cell curieux 
JD arts fin tcetir palpitant confultera les Dieux* 

What, fhall a Priefl with facred fury wild 
Extend his ruthlefs hands upon my child ! 
And whilft with ftupid cruelty profound 
The lovely vlftim the vile herd furround. 
Pierce her foft bofom, and Vr'ith curious eye 
The future in her quivering heart defcry I 

Lulli, thinking himfelf dying, fent for his 
ConfeiTor, who would not give him abfolution 
unlefs he burnt the lad Opera he had compofed, 
and which was in manufcript. Lulli dilputed 
for fome time, but ail in vain ; at laft he threw 
it into the fire before the Priefh's face, and 
received abfolution. On his Rettino; better, the 
Prince of Conde came to fee him, and told him 


tVLlt, 35c 

What a fimpleton he had been to deftroy one of 
his fineil compofitions. " Do not condemn 
" me. Sir, unheard," replied the Mufician to 
the Prince, " I knew very well what I was 
"^ about : I have another copy.'* Lulli died at 
lad of a wound which he had given himfelf in 
his foot, by beating time with too much vio- 
lence wdth his cane. Agitated by the extremefb 
remorfe for the free hfe which he had led, he 
ordered himfelf to be placed upon allies, and 
a rope to be put about his neck, and v^ith tears 
in his eyes expired, chanting from the " P'rofa 
Ecclefiafticci* of the Romifli Church, " Oil 
" wretched fmner, you mufl die!" 

When Cardinal d'Eilrees was at Rome, he 
praifed Corelli's Sonatas very much before that 
exquifite Author. " Sir," replied Corelli, " if 
•"^ they have any merit, it is becaufe I have fl:u- 
" died Lulli." Handel himfelf has imitated 
Lulli in many of his Overtures. 


This learned and pious head of the llluflri- 
ous family that bears his name, was intended 
by Anne of Auftria for a very conliderable em- 

^xG M. Arnauld d and illy. 

ployment at her Court, which lie refufed, anci 
retired to the celebrated feminary of learning 
and of piety near Paris, fo well known by the 
name of Port Royal dcs Champs. As by the 
rules of that venerable Society every member 
of it was obliged to have fome manual employ- 
ment^ Arnauld purfued that of gardening. He 
fent every year a prefent of fruits which he had 
cultivated himfelf to Anne of Auftria : Cardi- 
nal Mazarin ufed to call them " les fruits be- 
fiiisr He died at Port Royal at the age of 
eighty-four years. He is thus defcribed by a 
perfon who knew him at the latter part of hift 
life : 

" His fparkling eyes^ his firm and quick 

" flep, his voice of thunder, his body upright 

* and vigorous, his gray hairs that fo w^ell con- 

*' trafted with the ruddinefs of his cheeks, his 

grace in mounting and in fitting his horfe, 

his ftrength of memory, the readinefs of his 

wit, the force of his hand both to hold his 

pen and to pn...,- \.\i. trees, infure him a kind 

of immortality amongfi: the Society to which 

"' he belong;s*" 

M. Arnauld tranflated the HifLory of the 
Jews from the Greek of Jofephus^ the Lives 
of the Saints and Fathers of the Defert, com- 


piietTirom the Fathers of the Church ; fortue 
books upon Gardening, and fome facre^ Poems, 
which he calls " (Euvres Ckreticnnes,'^'' Thele 
Poems were lately prefented to a Lady, between 
whom and this virtuous Nobleman a parallel 
might be very fairly drawn. The foUov/ing 
lines accompanied them : 

What ! " CEuvres Chretiennes^' to B-— «—- fend ? 
What, teach ev'n pious excellence to mend ? 
No> but to fhew her how in Arnauld's lines 
Her faint-like life in his reBedted fhines. S. 

" M. Arnauld D'Andiily is a man," (kys 
Ealzac, "who, pofleffing the moral as well as the 
*' Chriftian virtues, was neither vain of the firftj 
*' nor albamed of the lafl." 

It was one day obferved to M. Arnauld, how 
wonderful it w^as that his brother's book, the 
celebrated " Livre de la Frequejiie Communion, ^^ 
though written by a young man who had juft 
finiflied his ftudies, and who had not lived in 
the great world, (hould have been written with 
fuch elegance and politenefs. He replied, " that 
" there was no ground for aftonifliment, for 
" that his brother merely fpoke the language 
** of his family.^' 

M. D' Arnauld wxnt to Verfailles to return 

Louis XIV. his thank? for appointing his fon 

VOT.. IV, z M. de 


M. de Pomponne Secretary of State. Louis 
very obligingly told him, "that he was well. 
" rewarded for what he had done for NL de 
•"' Pomponne, by the applaufes that were uni- 
" yerfally given to the choice he had made of 
"him for that employment;" and after hav- 
ing paid M. Arnauld fome compliments upon 
his virtues and his learning, he faid to him with 
a fmile, " Yet, Sir, I cannot help thinkihg but 
" that you have a fm upon your confcience of 
" which you have not repented." 

" Your Majefty," replied M. Arnauld, " wiU^ 
I hope, tell me what it is, that I may attempt 
to divcfl myfelf of it, either by correcting it 
or by doing penance for it."- — ** That, Sir," 

added the polite Monarch, " is to have told 
the world in your fine Preface to Jofephus, 
that you tranflated that author at the age of 
eighty. For furely you muft be a Httle proud 
to fee ycurfelf at that age fkiil capable of pro- 
ducing a work fo excellent and fo highly 

f' efteemed." 

M. Arnauld wrote likewife the Memoirs oi' 
his own Life^j which are excellent. 

r 339 ] 


. It feems as if all who bore this illuftrious 
name were defigned to be eminent for fome 
•excellent quality or other; for learning, for 
bravery, for virtue, or for piety. The Bifhop 
of Angers, as his Nephew tells as in his Memoirs, 
was never once out of his diocefe* after the care 
x)f it was committed to his charge. His deli- 
cacy about his epifcopal duties was fo great, that 
being one day at Saumur within his diocefe, 
where Louis the Fourteenth was with his Court, 
and as he was walking with fome other Bilhops, 
hearing a foldier fay, " What^ fliall we never fee 
^' any thing but Bilhops here ?" he felt himfelf 
much mortified, as if it could pofhbly have 
regarded himfelf. The Bllhop was fo unnecefr 
farily fcrupulous, that pafiing a river in a boat, 
where one of the boatmen fell into the water 
through drunkennefs, and was drowned, after 
having fent fome money to the widow, he often 
made a pilgrimage on foot to an hermitage a.t 
fome diftance from his place of residence to^ 
pray for the foul of the boatman. 

^ This may be very commendable in a Catholic 
Bifliop. In England, our Prelates being Peers as well tis 
Biiliops, theif attendance in Parliament becomes a part of 
their dijty. 

C 340 ] 


was the fon of M. Arnauld D^Andilly, and 

wrote fome very entertaining Memoirs of his 

Life. " My mother," fays he, in one part 

of them, " was brought up in England, whilft 

" her father, M. de la Boderie, was Ambaf- 

" fador from the Court of France to James 

** the Firfl. She has often told me, that at 

*' one of the combats between bull-dogs and 

" lions, in London (a fight very common at 

" that time in England) at which the King 

and his Court were prefent, one of the Maids 

of Honour to the Queen was attended by 

a young man of fafhion who was much 

*' attached to her, and to whom (lie (hewed 

" very little kindnefs. The Lady, either to 

" prove the flrcngth of his paflion, or perhaps, 

" as the Abbe fays, to get rid of him,, dropped 

*^ one of her gloves upon the ft age, and turning 

" to the Gentleman, affeded to appear ex- 

** tremely concerned at her lofs. He well 

*' knew what this meant, and coming down 

*^ very coolly from his feat, walked upon the 

^* ftage with his fword drawn, and his left arm 

^* wrapped up in his cloak. He then picked 

" up the glove, which had expofed him to 

" fuch imminent danger. By good luck the 

"= lion 


** lion was too much engaged on the oppofite 

" fide of the ftage with the bull-dogs to take 

" notice of him. He next retired to his feat 

" with the fame coolnefs with which he had 

" quitted it, when turning to the Lady, and 

*^ giving her a very gentle tap on the cheek 

" with the glove, Here, Madam, is your glove ! 

'^ Indeed you do not deferve to have a man 

*^ like myfelf attached to you. From that 

*' time he took no further notice of her. His 

" behaviour was the admiration of the whole 

*' Court j her*s was the fli^me and the cpn- 




BoiLEAU calls him . 

Les pius/favant mortel que ait jamais ecrit^ 

the moft learned man that ever wrote ; and, 
indeed^ when one confiders the number and 
quality of his writings, we (hall have lefs fcruple 
to admit the Satirift's eulogy upon him *. 

• His works confift of upwards of one hundred vo» 
lunies, on Logic, Crammajr, Metaphyfics, and Controverfial 

z 3 Madame 


. Madame de Guimene had written to him? 
on the education of her only fon with great 
nfiaternal folicitude. After anfvvering her letter 
with fome detail, he adds, " Permit me to 
" alTure you, Madam, that it is merely from^ 
" the fuggeftion of the Devil that you ?&&: 
" to fear, that in the attempt to render your 
*' fon a man of piety, his mind may become 
" confined and prejudiced, and that being 
^* well with God he may be ill with the world. 
^ " On the contrary, I can affbre you, that if 
" he is placed under the diredlion of proper 
" mailers, his underftanding and his courage 
'* will be confiderably enlarged by his piety,, 
" becaufe there is nothing in the world fo 
** truly grand as the Chriftian phiiofophy, nor 
" any perfon (6 noble-minded as a true Ghrif- 
** tian*. Particular care will be taken to 
*^ render him polifhed, civil, and well-bred,,- 
•' at the fame time that he is taught the proper 
** ufeofall thefe qualities j and to employ them- 
*^ rather for the fervice of God than for the 
*■* vanity of the world -}-." 

• ** A Chriftian Is the nobleft ftyle of man." 

' ' Dr. YouNCi 

f <* Every virtue enjoined by Ghriftianity as a virtue, 

.-•Ms recommended by polirenels as an accomplifliment. 

' ** Gentlenefs, humility, deference, affability, aiid a rea- 

*• dipefs to affifl and ferve on all occafions, are as ne- 

- • .« -" " cellar^ 

[ 343 ] 


At the battle of Senef the Prince of Condi 
fen t word to M. de NavalUes to be ready to. 
engage the enemy. The melTenger found him 
hearingr mafs : at which the Prince, being en- 
ragged, muttered fomethins; in abufe of over- 
pious perfons. But M. de Navailles, having 
performed vvonders during .the engagement, 
faid after it to the Prince, " Your Kighnefs, 
'' I fancy, fees now that thofe who pray to 
*' God behave as well in a battle as their neigh-^ 
'' bours." 


Was Captain of the Guards to the great Prince 
of Conde. That Prince had the malignant 
humour of amufing himfelf with the foibles of 

** ceiTary in the comporition of a true Chridian, as in tha^ 

*' of a well-bred man. Pallion, morofenefs, peevifhnerSj 

■' and fuperciiidus felf-rufiiclency, are equally repugnant 

*' to the charafters of bothj who differ in this only, — that 

*' the true Chriftian really is what the well-bred man ore^ 

< i 

*' tends to be, and would ftiil tJe better bred if he was.''—* 
Mr. Soame Jenyns's Works, vol. iv. p. 198. 

z 4 perfons 


perfons of his acquaintance. St. Evrcmond 
wrote a Comedy, in which there was a charader 
fo much like that of the Prince, that he faw 
his own foible depicflcd in it, and was fo much 
difpleafed with the author, that he took his 
regiment from him. A model of perfe<5V nar- 
ration is to be found in the Hiftor}' of La Buf- 
fiere in the St. Evremoxiiana. 


** In the difpute between this magnificent 
" Prince of the Roman Church and the Ami- 
" rante of Cafliie, Viceroy of Naples, on the 
** lattcr's refuling to pay a certain mark of 
" refpect to the Cardinal in the ftreets of 
" Rome y the Italians of the bravery 
*' which the French that were at Rome ex- 
** hibited in a fklrmifh between them and the 
** Spaniards upon this trifling occafion, Do we 
" not fee that the French go to death as if 
** they were certain of rihng again the next 
" day?'* 

Memoires D^Arnau ld- 

[ 345 ] 


This Carthufian Monk, of Gallion in Nor- 
mandy, feems the only one of his venerable 
fraternity who has ever written upon fubjecfrs 
of Belles Lettres. The firft two volumes of 
that learned and agreeable Mifcellany " Les 
** Mdanges de la Literature^' which go under 
the name of Vigneuil de Merville, were com- 
piled by him. The third volume was put 
together by the Abbe Banier, perhaps from th^. 
papers of the elegant Carthufian, who appears to 
have lived very much in the world. He occa- 
fionally fpeaks of his travels to Rome ; and his 
obfervations feem replete with that knowledge 
and difciimination of charader which a feciudcci 
life can never ajS^jrd. 

" The Painters," fays he, in the iecond vo- 
lumes of his Melanges, " who are enraptured 
with their art, take every opportunity of 
iketching any fine heads they happen so 
meet with, particularly when they have fome- 
thing extraordinary about them. An hum- 
" ble imitator of thofe Artifls, I make pidlure$ 
** of tho(e perfons in whom I perceive any 
** thing remarkable. Mr. M. N. is now under 
my pencil. He is a maa of quality, fenfibie, 

•* handibrne. 


34!5 DOM' NOEL ]>'ARGONNii, 

" handiome, and genteel. He is extremthj 
pleafant in focicty, but knows not what it 
is to love, or to have a real regard for any 
one. He is of opinion, that the heart is 
given us merely to purify the blood, to fet it 
in niotioi], andi to render it perfedl, and not 
*' to receive any impreffions of tendernefs oi* 
^"' of attachment to n:iankind. He looks upoil 
*' this principal part of ourfelves as a limple 
^^ machine, and nearly as the principal pump 
*' of Paris, which ferves merely to raife the 
" water of the Seine^ and to difhribute it 
*' through tiie city. Mr. M. N. pays vifits, 
*' and is vifited in his turn : he is polite to 
" every one. Every perfon who meets him 
** is always glad to fee him, and when he quits 
*' him, it is always with fome degree of regret. 
" His underftanding turns itfelf as he pleafes, 
*' and he accommodates himfelf to the talents^ 
" and the turn of mind, and the capacity of 
*^ every one who comes near him. He is a 
*' Divine with Divines, a Philofopher with 
*' Philofophers, a Politician with Politicians, 
^' a man of froiick with thofe who have that 
" turn of mind. In fliort, prepared for any 
*' thing, he is the man of every perfon, and 
" flill the man of no one. He forgets you as 
*' foon as your back is turned, and never thinks 
" but of plealing thofe who are immediately 

" befors 

** before him. He palTes imperceptibly from 
^' one fcene to anotiier, and from one charader 
*' to another. He is always himfelfj and jQt 
** he is never himfeif. He takes time as it 
" comes. The day of yeilerday remains not 
^' in his memory, and he never by care and 
^^ by forefight anticipates that of to-morrow." 

Dom' Noel wrote upon '* Education," cry 
the '^ Pliflory of M. de Mon^ade," accom- 
panied with fome Maxims and Refledions, 
Rouifeau appears to have read this work^ 
and to have made fome uie of it in his 
'' Emikr Dom'Noers Treatife " Sur la 
*^ LeEture Jes Peres de V Eglijer or on thcs 
manner in wnich the Fathers fhould be read, was 
a book much elleemed in the Catholic Ghurcb 
of France,' 


franilated Hobbes's famous polttical WorL 
*' Leviathan'' into French. In his Preface he 
draws a parallel between his Author and Ma- 
chiavel. *' The reafonings of Machiavel,'* fays' 
he, " proceed from a cruel and a favage mJnd ;. 
" thofe of Hobbes flow from a difpofition good,- 
^ tender, aiid benevolent. Yet after .all,*'adds' 


he, " who will become a ikilful politician by 
•♦ reading Hobbes ? All that he fays, to fpeak 
•* after the Italians, is merely an impofliblc 
" chimera, a wild invention, a chaos of confu- 
*• fion. Bufinefs and not declamation, and 
^* ftill lefs the empty imaginations of a learned 
man in his ftudy, make politicians. Pin vale, 
fays Boccalini, un' oncia da fatto che milk di 
" ragiom, Lafciamo difcorji, pnwmo il negozto 
•* iiip'attica'^ 


This learned and acute writer was no 
Mathematician. According to Le Clerc, he 
feid, that he never could be brought to under- 
lland the demonftration of the firil propofition 
of Euclid*. The fame defed of mind feems 
to have followed him in every thing which he 
did. He doubts and does not prove any thing, 
and deferves well what was once faid of him, 

* Dr. Free ufed to fay, that the proper definuion of man 
was, a being who could prove the three angles of a triangle 
50 be equal to two right ones. 

Quintilian fays of Geometry, " Cum Geometria dlvifa Jit 
^ in numerc: Cs"' formas numnorum quiJem* JS^otitia no?: 
** eratori mtdo fed cukunque j^rimis faltcin lite/ris erudite 
*• necejjfaria efi^^ 


BAVLE, 349 

that he was the Attorney-General of the Philo- 
fophers, that he merely ftated their different iir- 
guments, but gave no opinion on them^ 

He faid once to Father Tournemine, " I 
*' am only * cloud-compelling Jove/ My ta- 
*' lent coniifls in forming doubts ; but to my- 
" felf they are only doubts/* It is unfortu« 
nate for the generality of his readers that they 
arc really doubts to them ; they do not fee fo 
clear as himfelf, who 

Sub pedibus vldit nithes et Jidara, 

Bayle cjiecj, as he lived, in obfcurity, an(j 
with great tranquillity of mind. His will was 
difputed in France (from which country he had 
fled to avoid perfecution), and the Parliament 
pf Thouloufe determined it to be valid ; giving 
as a reafon, that a man who had enlightened 
mankind as Bayle had done, (liould be conlider- 
ed as belonging to no particular country, but 
as a Citizen of the Univerfe *. 

* In the qncien regime of Fraqce, the ftate of a man of 
letters was more confidered than in any other countr)'-. 
The Parliament of Paris decreed, in the cafe of the profits 
arifing from Catilina, a Tragedy of Crebiijon, that in no 
cafe whatever the manufcripts of an author were feizablc, 
nor the profits accruing to him from any of his literary 
performances liable to be taken in execution for any debt5 
that he rp>£ht I;ave contra<5ted. 


r 35^ ] 


This fen^ant of the Jeiults College at Paris 
called that of Clermont, having ftolen fome 
pewter plates belonging to that Society, was 
raken up for the robbery, and examined by the 
Parliament of Paris. He faid in his defence, 
that he moft ailuredly had taken the plates 
from the College, but that he had not Jolen 
them, having acted merely in conformity to a 
maxim of a. Father of their Order, Father 
Bauny, and who^ in his *^ Cafes of Confcience," 
article " Servants/' fays, " That fervants who 
" are not contented with their v/ao^es, may 
*'' augment them by getting into their hands as 
'^ much property belonging to their r:vjifl:crs, as 
" they in their conlciences think adequate to 
.'* proportion their wages to their fervices ; and 
'* that it is even permitted them to ad in this 
^'^ manner, if they are fo diftreffed in their cir- 
*' cumflances, when they offer themfelves to a 
f^ mailer, that they are obliged to accept of the 
5- wages offered to them by him^ whilil other 
*' fervants, not m.ore capable than themfelves^ 
f* p-aiii ereater wasres *." 


■f This accoiint is taken froipthe Provincial Letters of 
f afcal ; a vvcrk in which this great an4 good man Ihews 


JEAN d'alea, 35'I 

. The Parliament of Paris very wifely and very 
jjaftly paid no regard to this wretched fophiflry^ 
and condemned Jean d' Alba to be whipped be^ 
fore the door o£ the College of Clermont by the ' 
common hangman, who was at the fame time 
to burn the book in which this deteftable and. 
pernicious maxim was contained. 

The Jefuits were at this time in great favour 
Sii the Court of Louis the Fourteenth. The 
matter was huflied up; and Jean d'Alba was no 
more heard of. 

It has been obferved, that the teachers of 
mifchievous and deftrudive dodirines appear ii^ 
general to expe(5t that their fatal confequences 
will never reach themfelves. The " poifoned 
" chalice, however, fometimes returns to their 
" ov/n lips.'* 

Thofe who inflame the people to tumult 
and to fedition, are often the hrft to perifh in- 
the conflagration which they have occafioned ; 
and the propagators of immoral and irreligious 

himfelf as much fuperior to ordinary mortals, as in fome 
parts of his " Peti/ees^' he fhews himfelf inferior to them. 
A feleftion from the " Fen/ees,'' made with care, and 
tranfiated into Enghfli, would prove a valuable acquifitiou' 
to the literature of this country. - ^ 

? Cipinicns 

352. JEAN d'ALBA. 

opinions have many times, in their own fami- 
lies and connections, fuffered from their too 
fuccefsful efforts to (hake off the falutar)' r^:- 
ftraints impofed upon mankind *.- 


the Reformer of the Convent of La Trappe 
in Normandy, had in early Hfe been a, man of 
elegance and of pleafure. At the age of foui*- 
teen, he puWiflied an edition of Anacreon ; 
axid at a very early age was appointed coadju- 
tor to his uncle the Archbilliop of Tours. 
Having narrowly efcaped being fliot by the 
burfting of a gun on his fhoulder, he became 
a penitent, bade adieu to the world and its vota- 
ries, gave up his pretenlions to fucceed his uncle> 
and retired to the Convent of La Trappe : there 
he planned that very flricl reform in its difci- 
pline, to which it has rigidly adher^^ for above 

* A fervant of a Gentleman but too apt to blazon his 
infidel opinions robbed hlb mader, who reproached him rery 
feverely with the crime which he had committed. The 
fervant replied, that as his mailer had in his converfations 
taken away the fiiperior confideration of a life to come t€> 
reOrain his condu(5l, he ought not to be furprized if his fre- 
4jucnt auditor rifl^?d the inferior confideration of piinifliment 
in this life, 

■ a cea-. 

ABBE r>E RANCE. 553 

a century, and which has rendered it fo de- 
fervedly famous throughout Europe. It was 
faid of him, as of an ancient Philofopher, 

" Ejurire docet^ et invenlt difclpulos." 

Some of his res^ulations are as follow: 

" A perpetual filence is to be obferved in 

" the Cloyfters. If a ftranger has occafion for 

" any thing in the Convent, he muft addrefs 

*' himfelf to the Porter, or to him that receives 

" the ftrangers ; becaufe the Monks, being 

" obliged to keep a mofh ftrid: lilence, never 

*' give any anfwer to thofe who fpeak to them. 

" For the diet of the Monks, vegetables, 
" roots, herbs, bread, and milk, alone fhall be 
" ferved up in the Refedory. They fhall 
*' never be permitted to tafte there either fifli 


or eegs, 


" The firfl Monks of the Order (that of St. 
*' Benedid) ever looked upon working with 
*' their hands as one of their principal obliga- 
*' tions. The Monks fliall proceed to the 
" different labours that are aliigned to them in 
" a manner that has nothing light, nor hafty, 
" nor indolent in it. They fhall not permit 
" their fenfes to be interefted in the mofi: in- 

voL. IV. A A " different 


^* different objeds, nor Ihall they iife any vio- 
" lent exertion even in the very works about 
*' which they are employed ; ronfidering that 
" manual labour is the hrit punifhment an- 
" nexed to fin, and an exercife extremely well 
fuitcd to the flate of the poor and of tlie 
penitent, and that it is a very powerful 
means to fandify them in their profeffion. 

" They fhall never mention any ftory re- 
lating to common lite, under pretence of 
drawing inftrudt ion from it; and they lliall 
banifli from their converfation any news 
from the public papers, as well as thofe of the 
times, and of the world, and of the Court, 
and of the College : thofe having a tendency 
to indifpofe the minds of the Monks to 
their prefent fituation, and lead them into 
diffipation, and into the remembrance of 
things that they ought to have forgotten.'* 

The Monks, except at bed-time, are gene- 
rally together. The Reformer, like that acute 
obferver of human life, Dr. Johnfon, knew but 
too well how much more dangerous folitary 
vices are than fecial ones ; and that many per- 
fons are retrained from vice by the eyes of their 
fellow-creatures, who would not pay the fame 



refpe6l to the vigilant eye of Omnipotence and 
Omnifcience itfelf. 


The remains of this venerable Community 
are, by the pious kindnefs of Mr. Weld, of 
LuLWORTH Castle, fettled in his extenfive 
and beautiful domain, where every thing is fur- 
nifhed to them for which their abfhinence and 
felf- denial can pofiibly have occafion. 

During the late prophanation of all things 
human and divine in France, thefe illuftrious 
Afcetics made a vow, that if they ever found 
a permanent afylum in Europe, they would 
drink nothing but water in future. To this 
they have conformed with the fame fcrupulo- 
iity that has ever dlftinguiflied the Monks of 
La Trappe. 

Their Convent In Normandy is, as if in de- 
rifion of its ancient defignatlon, converted by 
the prefent ruhng powers of France into a foun- 
dry for cannon^ in which the former folltude 
and fiience that prevailed tliere, the whifpered 
prayers of the afflided, and the fuppreffed fighs 
of the penitent, are ill exchanged for the hor- 
rid din of thofe 

■mortal engines, whcjfe rude throats 

Th' immortiil love's dread thunders counterfeit. 

^ A 2 

r 356 ] 


who tranilated Ariflotle's '' Poetics" into French 
with great fidelity, ^'as a man of very vio- 
lent temper and of very imprudent condu6t^ 
and lived in great want. He is thus defcribed 
by Boileau : 

*' Jc fuls rujfique ^ fier^ & j'ai l^ame groffwe.^^ 

His difcontented turn of mind followed him 
to the grave ; for as he was dying, extended on a 
miferable pallet bed, his ConfeiTor exhorted him 
to return his thanks to the Deity for all the 
blefiings he had received from him. " Yes, to 
" be fure," exclaimed Caflandre^ " he has 
" fuffered me to play a very pitiful part here 
" indeed. You know how he has permitted 
" me to live, and you now fee how he lets- 
" me die/* 

From the prefent imperfedion of things, 
every flate of life is obnoxious to difcontent 
and complaint. They however fliould indulge 
them with great caution whofe mifery is pro- 
cured by folly and by vice, and who have no 
teafon to expect the interference of Omnipo- 
tence in thofe diftreffes of which themfelves 
are the authors. 

[ 357 ] 


Th I s learned phyiiciaii was a great hater of 
the Englifli nation on two accounts: the firil, 
for having put their King, Charles the Firft, to 
deaths the fecond, for giving antimony in 
fevers. In one of his letters to M. Spon, of 
Lyons, he fays, 

** Paris, 6 Mars 1654^ 

*' Notre accord eft fait avec Cromwell. 
" Nous reconnoiflbns la nouvelle Republic 
" d'Angleterre, et nous aurons pour cet effet 
*' un Embafladeur a Londres. Celui qui y 
^' eft, fera continue 3 c'eft M. Bordaux, Maitre 
" des Requetes. J'ai oui dire quatre vers 
** Latins a un honnete homme, qui Ton dit 

avoir ete envoyez d'Angleterre. Les voici : 

*' Cromwello furgente^ jacet domus aha Stuarii 
" Et domus Auriaci MartiafraSfa jacet^ 

^' ^od jacet baud miror^ miror quod G alius Iberque 
*' Et Danus^ et regum quicquid uhique jacet ^ 

«' At Cromweirs rifing fun, in glory bright, 
f' NafTau and Stuart's ftars fet deep in night. 
-^' This is no wonder — but I much admire 
?' That Europe's Sovereigns do not all confpir^ 
^ To crufti th' Ufurper's ill-acquired ftate^ 
ff And injur'd Royalty to vindicate,** 

^ A3 



Patin's Sovereign Louis XIV. having re- 
covered from a fever after having taken anti- 
mony, he mentions with raptures the Latin 
lines that were made upon the occafion : 

Fivis ab epoto^ cur Rex Lodovlce veneno 
^lid m'lrum ? Jlihio plus valuer e preces, 
Jd cceliy non art is opus^ftne lege jnedentU77i 
Nee datus ante Deo^ fic potes inde ?nori, 
Civlbus ilia quidem fuerit medicina feralis-^ 
Nil ladunt un£ios viva venena Deos, 

Great Louis, after poifon you furvive ! 

No vi^onder, for our prayers have made you live ! 

More povi^erful than the metal's pointed fting, 

Up to the throne of grace their v/ay they v^^ing. 

This is the work of Heav*n and not of art, 

Sacred to Qod, his care thou ever art ! 

The drug, thy fubje6ls fure and deadly bane. 

The Lord's anointed's life afTails in vain. 


This Frenchman was afTuredly no great 
Poet. He was fond of books, yet could not 
afford to buy them. He therefore made ufe 
of this expedient : He addrefled a fonnet tp 
every author of note who publifhed at Paris. 
This procured him a copy of the book ex dono 



Public Libraries fhould contain (if it were 
pofTible) every book that has been printed 
upon every fubjed:. Their funds are in general 
not very large. This defed was very well fup- 
plied under the ancien regime of France. Every 
author who had acquired permiflion to print 
his book at Paris, forfeited that permiflion un- 
lefs he printed it on good paper and excellent 
t3^pe5 and depofited a copy in the Royal Li- 
brary at Paris. By thefe means the King's 
Library was fupplied with every new book at 
no expence. This regulation might, in fome 
degree, take place in this kingdom. By an Adt 
of the Legiflature, every author might be 
obliged to fend a copy of his book to the Li- 
brary of the Britifli Mufeum in London, and 
to the Public Libraries of the two Univerfities 
of England. This would occafion little or no 
defalcation of the profits of the work to the au- 
thor, and would eminently promote the diffufion 
of J^earning and of knowledge. 


This great General was a man of letters: 
he was intended for the Church, and was known 
at the Court of France by the name of the 
Abbe de la Savoie, Having made too free ia 

A A 4 a letter 


a letter with fome of Louis the Fourteenth's 
gallantries, he fled out of France, and ferved 
as a volunteer in the Emperor's fervice in Hun- 
gary againft the Turks, where he foon diftin* 
guilhed himfelf by his talents for the military 
art. He was prefented by the Emperor with a 
regiment, and a few years afterwards made 
Commander in Chief of his armies. Louvois, 
the infolent War Minifher of the i.nfolent 
Louis XIV. had written to him* to tell him 
that he muft never think of returning to his 
country : his reply was, " Eugene entrera nn 
" jour en France en depit de Louvois et de 
"^ Louis'-' In all his military expeditions he 
carried with him TJwmas a Kempis de hnitatione. 
He feemed to be of the opinion of the great 
Guilavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, " that a 
" good Chriftian always miade a good foldier." 
Being confhantly bufy, he held the paffion of 
love, very cheap, as a mere amufement, that 
ferved only to enlarge the power of women, and 
abridge that of men. He ufed to fay, " Les 
" amour eux font dans la foci He que ce les fana- 
" t i que s font en religion'^ 

The Prince was ob ferved to be one day 
very peniive, and on being afked by his favour- 
ite Aid-de-Camp on what he was meditating 
fo deeply, " My good friend,'* replied he, " I 
8 « am 


^^ am thinking, if Alexander the Great had 
*^ been obliged to wait for the approbation 
" of the Deputies of Holland before he at- 
" tacked the enemy, how impofTibie it would 
" have been for him to have made hajf the 
^' conquefts that he did.'* 

This great General lived to a good old age, 
and being tarn Msrcurio quhm Marti^ ^^ as much 
^: a Scholar as a Soldier,'* amufed himfelf with 
making a fine collection of books, pidures, 
and prints, which are now in the Emperor's coi- 
ledtion at Vienna. The celebrated Cardinal 
Pafiionei, then Nuncio at Vienna, preached his 
funeral fermon, from this grand and well-appro- 
priated text of Scripture : 

" Alexander, fon of Philip the Macedonian, 
^' made many wars, took many ftrong holds, 
^' went through the ends of the earth, took 
*' fpoils of many nations : the earth was quiet 
" before him. After thefe things he fell 
" fick, and perceived that he ihould die."~ 


Otho Venius, Rubens' mailer, publidied 
a book on the refemblance of the countenances 



of men to thofe of animals. Turenne's was 
ever likened to that of a Lion 3 the bravery^ 
the magnanimity, and the humanity of which 
animal he poflelied in an eminent degree. The 
Etching of Turenne prefixed to this Article, 
is taken from a Drawing of Mr. Richard fon, 
after a Terra Cotta made by the celebrated 

Who will exculpate Turenne from the ravages 
and horrors which ftie troops under his com- 
mand committed in the Palatinate : His ad- 
mirer and pupil, M. de St. Hilaire, fays, " The 
" violence of the foldiers at no time whatever 
** knew lefs bounds *. They fer fire to every 
** thing, and pretended to authorize their vio- 
** lences by thofe which had been pra^lifed 
'* upon their comrades in the fame country 
" by the peafants, who came down from the 
" hills upon them, to which they afterwards 
" betook thenifelves, after they had cut their 
** throats. But,** adds St. Hilaire, " as if tQ 
^* refine upon the cruelty of our foldiers, they 
*" cut off the hands of thole poor wretches 
** whom they met with, and killed them after- 
** wards." 

* ** hafureur dtsfoldats nt unnut jamais Tnoins da homes,** 

Me-moires de St, Hilaire. 




The Eledor Palatine was fo indignant at 
the cruelties committed in his country by our 
fbldiers, that his firft emotion was to make it a 
private matter between himfelf and the General, 
and to fend to him a trumpet, with a cartel 
cf defiance. 

In his letter he reproached him with his 
change of religion, and with the afylum which 
his (the Eledor's) father had given in his Elec- 
torate to the Duke of Bouillon, Turenne's fa- 
ther. He taxed him with ingratitude in hav- 
ing dellroyed and burnt that very country. It 
finifhed by defiring fatisfadion of him in fmgle 
combat, either on foot or on horfeback, as he 

Turenne made no reply to the firft two ar- 
ticles. With refpedl to the third, he took great 
pains to perfuade the Ele(5lor, that his own fub- 
je6ts were the aggrelTors, and that they pro- 
voked thefe exceffes by the unheard-of cruel- 
ties they had exercifed againft the French army ; 
and that he could not be furprized that fuch 
condud: had excited his foldiers to that degree 
of fury, of which himfelf was the firft to lament 
the excefs. That with relpe(5l to the fmgle 
combat to which he defied him, he was not at 
liberty to accept of it, as he was not in a iitua- 

, tion 


lion to difpofe of his own perfon as he pleafed ; 
but that he iliould prefent himfclf at the head 
of the army which he commanded, againfl any 
that his Eledoral Highnefs fliould think fit to 
oppofe to him. 

Turenne never forg:ave himfeif for difclolina: 
a fecret of ftate to the beautifiil Madame 
Coetquen. He ukd to fay ever afterwards with 
Ibme fpleen, " that it was never worth while 
*^ for a man of honour to lofe anv of his time 
*' with a pretty woman." Many years after 
his difcioiing the fecret with which Louis the 
Fourteenth had entrufted him, he faid, " We 
" w^ill talk of this matter by and by, if yoi^ 
•' pleafe, but let us firll put out the can^ 
*' dies/' 

The following account of the death of this 
great General is taken from the Memoirs of 
M. de St. Hilaire, a Brigadier- General in the 
fervice of Louis XIV. and who ferved under 
Marfnal Turenne in Germany, 

" M. de Boze had twice fent to Marflial 
^' Turenne to deiire him to come to a parti- 
" cular poft. Turenne replied to his feconc} 
** meifage, as if he had forefeen what was to 
?< happen, that he was determined to fl:ay 

^* whero. 


** where he was, unlefs fomething very extra- 
** ordinary fliould take place. Le Boze fent 
** a third time by Count Hamilton, to repre- 
** fent to him the abibiute neceffity there was 
** that he Oiould come in perfon to give his 
*' orders. Turenne directly mounted his horfe, 
** and in a gentle gallop reached a fuiall valley, 
" through which they took him^ that he might 
** be -out of the reach of two fmali cannons 
** that were continually firing. In his way, he 
*^ perceived my father upon a height, to whom, 
^-^ as he had the honour of his confidence, he 
** made up- The Marlhai, when he had joined 
*^ him, Hopped ihort, and aiked where was that 
^^ column of the enemy's troops, tor which they 
** had made him come thither. My father 
*^ was iliewing it to him, when unfortunately 
*^ both thefe fmall cannons fired. The ball of 
** one of them pafling over the croupier of my 
*' fathers horfe, ihot off his left arm, took off 
*^ part of the neck oi my father's horfe, and 
** ftrack M. de Turenne in his right fide, who 
*^ rode on a few paces, and then fell dead 
*^ from his horfe- 

** Thus died that great man, who never had 
** his equal, and I am confident tiiat all the 
" particulars relating to his death are flri6lly 
^* true. All thofe who have written about it 

" had 


*' had not the opportunity of being acquainted 
" with all the circumftances which I had. So 
" fliocklng a fight affcded me with fuch vio- 
" lent grief, that even at this day I find it 
" more eafy to renew my fenfations than to 
" defcrlbe them. I knew not to which to fly 
*' firft, whether to my General or my Father. 
•' Nature, however, decided me. I threw my- 
" felf on the neck of my father : on whom as 
•' I was anxioufly looking after thofe remains of 
" life which I nearly defpaired to find, he faid 
*' thefe words to me, words which the whole 
•' French Nation thought fo noble, that it 
*' compared the heart which had didated them, 
** to any heart that had ever animated the 
*' breafls of the old and of the true Romans, 
" and I think they will not foon be forgotten : 
" Alas 1 my fon 1'* exclaimed he, " it is not 
" for me that you fliould weep, it is for the 
*' death of that great man," pointing to the 
dead body of M. de Turenne. " In all proba- 
" bility you are about to lofe a father, but your 
*' Country and yourfelf will never again find 
*' a General like to him whom you have jufL 
" loft." Having faid thefe words, the tears fell 
from his eyes : he then added, " Alas ! poor 
*' army 1 what will become of you ?" Then 
recovering himfelf, he faid to me, " Go, my 
** dear, leave me, God will difpofe of me as he 

" pleafes. 



pieafes. Mount your horfe again, I infift on 
your doing ib. Go, do your duty, and I de- 
fire to live only long enough to be affured 
that yau have done it well/* 

" My father reiifled all the entreaties I 
" made to him to permit me to flay with 
" him till a furgeon came, and he could be 
" taken off the ground. I was under the ne- 
*' ceffity of obeying him, and of leaving him in 
" the arms of my brother. I galloped away to 
*' our batteries, to make them fire, in hope of 
" avenging the lols which my Country and 
" mvfeif had fuflained. 

" Some OfHcers of the army whom I faw 
*' afterwards, alfured me, that the perfon who 
had fired that cannon fo fatal to our army, 
had been killed the fame day by one of our 
field-pieces. We indeed, foon after the 
death of M. de Turenne, heard a great cry 
on the height where was the left wing of the 
enemy, and we faw an Officer fall, apparently 
flruck by one of our field -pieces. He was 
immediately furrounded by a number of 
perfons who took him up j but he was not 
" hurt, the head of his horfe only was taken 
" off. We were informed that it was M. de 
*^ Montecuculi himfclf (the General of the army 

" of 





" of the enemy) who had efcaped fuch immi- 
"■ nent dan2;er. 

" It is impoflible to imap;me the alarm and 

i. o 

" the conllernation with which an army is af- 
" feded, who loles' ip the very fight of the 
'' enemy a General on whom it has the moft 
*' reliance, and whom it has as much reafon ta 
*' love as to rcfped. The firfl emotion which 
" every foldier in our army felt on hearing of 
" the death of INI. de Turenne, was an impe- 
" tuous dehre to avenge it by immediately at- 
*' tacking the enemy. Whatever danger there, 
•' might be in doing this, it ceafed to be dread- 
*' ed : W'hatever difficulties might arife, they 
" were imm.ediately furmounted. In the midll 
*^ of all this ardour, which animated every hearty- 
terror and indignation were fbill imprefled 
upon every countenance j and that grief 
which weighed down the foul, unnerved 
every arm, and rendered the body motion- 
lefs. I could not pafs near fix or feven fol- 
diers or officers together without feeing that 
they were Ihedding tears. The two Lieute- 
nant-Generals, not agreeing well together, 
*' were in a ftate of uncertainty and perplexity. 
" One of them wdflied to give the enemy 
" battle ; the other, more prudent, kept him 
" back J and it was not till after a very violent 

** difpute 


** dirpufe, that they agreed to attempt nothing 
" that day at leaft. The enemy were informed 
"^^ of the death of M. de Turenne by one of our 
" dragoons, who deferted to them on piirpofe 
^' to acquaint them with it. It is well known 
•^ that M. de Montecuculi could not conceal the 
" joy he felt at being delivered from fo formi- 
*' dable an enemy; and that he could not help 
** giving on the fpot too public and too vifible 
" figns of that joy^ at which he afterwards was 
" obliged to blulli, when he wrote to his Sove- 
" reign the Emperor on the death of this great 
" Commander : for, after having congratulated 
** him on that event, he added, that he was ftill 
*' obliged to regret a man like M. de Turenne, 
'*' who had done fo much honour to human 
*' nature*." 

Memoires de St. Hilaire, 1766. 

No greater teftimony was ever given of the 
military merit of Turenne than that afforded by 
the great Conde himfelf. Previous to fome 
battle in which he was about to be engaged, a 
difficulty occurred not eaiily fettled even by his 
great powers of refource and of combination. 

* " Etant ferviteur de VEmpereur, je tie peux /«' empechr 
*' cle ?ne en rejouir ; tnais je regrette^ ^ j^ ne fanrois aj/ez re- 
** gretter, un /wmme au dc/pis I'homine, id qui faifoit Ihnneur 
** a rhumanitej^ 

VOL. IV. B B *' What 


*' What now/' faid he to his favourite Aid du 
Camp, who was waiting for orders, " what now 
" would I give for a quarter of an hour's con- 
" verfation with the Ghoft of Turenne 1" 

Louis the Fourteenth, on hearing of Tu- 
renne's death, faid, " We have loft every thing. 
" M. de Turenne is dead!" He foon after- 
wards promoted many General Officers to the 
rank of Marflials of France. Madame de Cor- 
nuel, the famous dijeiije de bons -mots of her time, 
faid, '' Q^ue c^etoit la monnoie de M, Turenne — 
" That they were change for M. de Tu- 
*^ renne.'* 

When Louis made him Commander in Chief 
of his camps and armies, he faid, " I wifh that 
" you had permitted me to have done fome- 
" thing more for you/* giving him to under- 
ftand, that if he had not remained a Proteftant, 
he would have given him the fword of Conftablc 
of France. 

" Convidion alone,'* fays Brotier, " efFecled 
the change of religion in M. de Turenne. 
His frequent converfations upon the contro- 
verted points of religion with his nephew, 
the Cardinal de Bouillon, whom he loved 
very much, and who liad great influence 
* " ovetf 


^ over his mind, daggered and fatisfied him. 
His converfion was finifhed by reading the 
works of BofTuet, and by perfonal difcuffions 
with him. He fpent three years in confider- 
ing the fubjed ; and when in 1668 he had 
taken his final refolution, and had told his 
Sovereign of it, the King faid to him, I look 
upon your converfion. Sir, as one of the 
moft honourable things that can happen to 
the Church, and as one of the moft ufeful to 
my kingdom,'* 

By a letter in MS. in tne Hotel de Bouillon 
at Paris, it appears that the Pope offered Turenne 
a Cardinal's Hat on this occafion^ which he re- 

It is faid, that this great General was origi- 
nally intended by his parents for the church, in 
fpite of his very early difpofition to a military 
life. The reafon that was afCgned for thus 
thwarting his natural genius, was the fuppofed 
feeblenefs of his conftitution. Turenne, to (hew 
them how completely they were miftaken in 
that refped:, at the age of fourteen ftole away one 
night from his tutor, and was found the next 
morning aileep upon a cannon, on the ramparts 
of Sedan, the feat of the Court of his father the 
Duke of Bouillon. He was then permitted to 

B B 2 follow 


Tgllow his inclination, and ierved as a volunfcer 
under his uncle the Prince of Orange, with 
great diftindion; and by the ufual gradations 
rofe to the honour of being a Marflial of France, 
and a Commander of the Armies of that Nation. 
To the greateft prudence and courage, Turennc 
added the mod perfed integrity and' fimplicity of 
charatfler, fo that 'Madame de Sevigne,'in one 
of her letters, does not hvperbolically defcribe 
him as one of thofe men who are to be with 
only in Plutarch's Lives. 

Turenne was eafily diftinguiflied from the reft 
of his , army by ^' pyed horfe, ' of which he w^as 
very fond, and on which he confliantly rode. 
One of the Officers in the army of the enemy, 
•knowing this, procured a Swifs Officer in their 
fervice, a celebrated Engineer, tb' level a can- 
non particularfv at Turennc. 

Turenne's foldiers, on feeing their General 
dead, furrounded his body, which they covered 
with a cloak, and watched over it the whole 
night. It v/as afterwards carried in great pomp 
to the Royal Abbey of St. "Denis, near Paris, 
and interred with thofe of the Kings of France. 
Jn the late general wreck and ravage in that 
country, of every thing that has hitherto been 
deemed dlfiinguifhed and facred among man- 


kind, it was torn from its peaceful and honour- 
able fepulture, and was found entire and 


This celebrated Coniniander ufed to fay, that 
a great number of Generals is as pernicious to an 
army, as a great number of Phyficians is to a 
fick man. He entertained no very high opi- 
nion of the efforts of allied armies in generah 
" They come together," faid he, " without 
*' properly underftanding what each other 
" means ; they have ditlerent interefls to pur- 
*' fue, which they will not fufficiently explain 
" to each other; their language is different, 
" their manners not the fame, and their difci- 
" pline diflimilar. Defenfive war,'' adds he, in 
his Commentaries, " requires more knowledge 
" and precaution than offcnfive war. The leaft: 
" failure is mortal, and the want of fucceis is 
" exaggerated by fear, which a6ts always as a 
" microfcope to calamities," 

Montecuculi was called by fome of his raflTi and 
unexperienced officers, the Temporizer ; for, 
knov/ing but too well the uncertainty and the 

B B 3 niifery 


milery of war, he was never in a hurry to rifle 
a battle, unlefs he was well afTured of its fuccefs. 
He however told thofe who were diflatisfied with 
his condu6lj " I glory in a name which was that 
" given to the Roman General who faved his 
*' country, 

" ^i cunSianda rejiituei rem.^^ 

MontecucuH wrote '' Commentaries on the 
" Art of War," in Italian. They have beea 
tranflated into French. 


This excellent Nobleman was the original 
of the celebrated Mifanthrope ofMoliere. He 
was a man of learning, of honour, and of virtue. 
His difpofition was a little cauftic and fevere, 
which made Madame de Choify compare him 
to a bundle of nettles, which, in whatever way 
it is turned, always ftings. 

Montaufier was the only one of the Courtiers 
of Louis the Fourteenth, who had the honefly 
and the fpirit to remonftrate with him on the 
fubjed of his ruinous and oppreflive wars, 



Louis, on thefe occafions, ufed merely to iay 
to thofe about him, " I cannot be dilplealed at 
" any thing the Due de Montaufier fays to me, 
" for I know he always wiflies me well." 

Louis, however, ftill perhfted in his fatal fyf- 
tem ; yet fuch attractions does integrity poiiefs, 
even for the mind of a defpotic and a flattered 
Sovereign, that Louis entrufted the care of the 
education of his only fon f/e Grand Dauphin^ as he 
was called) to M. de Montauiier, and appointed 
him his Governor. The Duke difcharged the 
high truft confided to him with equal ability 
and honefty ; and in this lituation his memory 
will ever be held dear by fcholars, as he pro- 
cured the celebrated Delphin Editions of the 
Latin Claflics to be made for the ufe of his 
Royal Pupil ; in which defign he was ably fe- 
conded by the learned Huet, who was one of the 
Preceptors to the Dauphin. 

Montaufier very often gave practical lef- 
fons of virtue to his pupil. He took him one 
day into the miferable cottage of a peafant 
near the fuperb palace of Verfailles. *' See, 
*' Sir," faid he, " it is under this ftraw roof, 
*' and in this wretched hovel, that a father, 
*' a mother, and their children exift, who 
" are inceifantly labouring to procure that gold 

B B 4 " with 


*' with which your palace; is decorated, and who 
" are nearly perifhing with hunger to fupj% 
" your table with dainties." 

On the day in which M. de Montaufier re- 
figned his fituation of. Governor to the Dauphin, 
on his coming of age, he faid to him, " If your 
*' Royal Highnefs is a man of honour, you 
'' will efteem me : if you are not, you will hate 
" me ; and I fliall but too well know the rea- 
*' fon of your diflike.'* 

Louis the Fourteenth told M. de Montaufier 
one day, that he had at lafl: given up to public 
juftice a man of rank who had killed nineteen 
perfons. " Sire," replied he, " he only killed 
^' one perfon, your Majefty killed the other 
" eighteen. My anceflors. Sire," added he> 
*' were always faithful fervants to their Sove- 
*' reigns your predecelTors, but they never w^ere 
^' their flatterers. Your Majefty fees, there- 
^' fore, that the honeft liberty of fentiment 
" which I polTefs is a right inherent in my fa- 
" mily, a kind of entailed eftate, and that truth 
** defcends from father to fon, as a part of my 
" inheritance." 

Montaufier was Governor of the extenfive 
Province of Normandy, and was fetting out for. 



the capital of it, when he was irxformed that 
the plague had begun to make its appearance 
in it. His family endeavouring to prevail upon 
him to delifh from his intention, as his health 
might be endangered by his refidence in an in- 
fected city, he nobly replied, " I have always 
** been firmly convinced in my mind, that 
*' Governors of Provinces, like Bifliops, are 
*' obliged to refidence. Jf, however, the obli- 
" gation is not quite fo flrid: on all occaiions, 
" it is at leavt equal in all times of public cah- 
« mity." 

Montaufier reprefented one day to his Sove- 
reign Louis the Fourteenth, the poverty of the 
learned Madame Dacier, and requeued a pen- 
fion for her. Louis told him that (lie wa^ a 
Proteftant, and that on that account he did not 
like to diftinguifh her. " Well then. Sire,'* 
r-ephed the Duke, " I will mayfelf give her three 
*' hundred louis d'ors in your Majefty's name, 
" and when you think fit you fliall return mc 
" the money.-' 

Louis, who was not fond of books, aiked Mon- 
tauiier why he was always reading, and what good 
it did him. *' Sire," replied he, " books have 
f the fame eifecl upon ni'/minJ., that the par- 
f* tridges your Majefty is lo good as occafionally 

'-'' to 


" to fend me, have upon my body, they fup- 
" port and nouriih it." 

" M. de Montaufier/' fays his Biographer, 
" died in 1691, at the age of fourfcore, regret - 
" ted by his virtuous countrymen, to whom he 
** was the model ; and by the men of letters, of 
*' whom he was the protedor." 


This celebrated fcholar and negotiator is 
thus defcribed by Madame de Sevigne : — " Car- 
" dinal de Polignac is a man of the moft agree- 
" able underflanding that I have ever known. 
*' He knows every thing, he talks upon every 
*' thing; and he has all the loftnefs, all the 
*' vivacity, and all the poiitenefs, that one can 
" wifh to find in the converfation of any 

*' man." 

Louis the Fourteenth faid of M, de Polignac 
w^hen he was very young, " I have juft been 
*' talking with a man, and a very young one 
*' too, who has never once been of the fame 
*' opinion with myfelf, yet he has never once 
" offended me by his difference of opinion." 

** I d^ 


** I do not know how it is," laid Pope Alex- 
ander the Eighth to Polignac, " you ahvays ap- 
*' pear to be of my way of thinking, and yet your 
" opinion at lafl: gets the better." 

At the Conferences of Gertuydenberg, fb 
mortifying to the pride of Louis the Four- 
teenth, Buys, the head of the Dutch Deputa- 
tion, interrupted the reading of the preHmina- 
ries that were to be fettled between his nation 
and that of France, by faying in barbarous 
Latin (alluding to the towns taken by Louis in 
Flanders), " Non dimittetiir peccatum niji tolletur 
" ablatiimy Polignac w^ith great indignation 
replied, " Gentlemen, you talk too much like 
*' perfons who have not been accuflomed to 
" be vidorious." However, at the negotia- 
tions previous to the Treaty of Utrecht, when 
the Dutch, at the inftance of their Allies, were 
obliged to confent to a peace, Polignac took 
ample revenge on them, and told them, " Gen- 
" tlemen, we (hall not llir from this place ; we 
" fhall negotiate in the very heart of your Pro- 
^' vinces : we fliall negotiate refpeding you ; 
*' and we fhall negotiate without you." The 
fuccefs of this negotiation procured Polignac a 
CardinaFs hat. Soon afterwards, being con- 
cerned in fome intrigues againil the Regent 
Duke of Orleans, he was baniflied to one of his 



Abbe3^s, where, verifying the fentimcnt of An- 
ftotle, "that a good education enables a man 
*' well to employ his leifure," he compofed his 
celebrated Latin Poem againfl the fyftem of 
Epicurus, called " Anti-Lucretius." The na- 
tural philofophy it contains is that of Defcartes, 
\yhich wp,s at that time in vogue in France, that 
of Newton not being then fufficiently knowa in 
that kingdom *. 

Cardinal de Polignac remained at Rome many 
yeai-s, Ambailador from the King of France to 
the Pope. While he was in that city, the capi- 
tal of the fine arts, he had a project for turn- 
ing the courfe of the Tiber for a fhort time^ 
2nd to dig in the bed of that river for the re- 
mains of antiquity which he fuppofed had been 
tliTOwn into it, " In ail the civil wars of the 
" Roman Republic," faid he, " the party that 
*^ prevailed threw into the Tiber the ftatues of 
" the oppofite party. They mufl flill remain 
" there," added he: " I have never heard that 
^' any of them have been taken out, and they. 
^^ are of too heavy materials to have been car- 
'* ried away by the ftream of the river." Po- 
lignac ufed to complain, that he was not rich 

* Benedi6l Stay, a German, has fince put the fyftem 
of Sir Ifaac Newton into Latin verfe. 



enough to put his project in execution, even if 
the Pope, by whom he was much beloved, 
would have given him all the neceflar}^ powers. 

The Cardinal was no lefs a man of dignity of 
mind than of wit ; he was the protedor of the 
Engliili at Rome; and when one day, at his 
table, an Englifh Gentleman was very witty at 
the expence of the Houfe of Stuart, the Car- 
dinal put an end, to, his improper and ill- timed 
converfation by telling him, "Sir^ I have or- 
** ders to pro te<5l your perfon, but not your 
" difcourfe/' 

The Cardinal ufed to .fay, that as he paffed 
through Rotterdam in his v/ay to Poland, he 
paid a vifit to the celebrated Bayle, and on aik* 
ing him of what religion he thei> was (Bayle 
having; chano;ed his. religion three . before 
he was five-and-tw^nty),, that ingenious and 
celebrated writer told him, that hewasaPro- 
teftant. " You know. Sir,'' added he, " that 
" I proteft againft evtry thing that is faid^ and 
*^ ever)/ thing U^at is done/* 

[ 3S2 ] 


A noble Venetian, followed the fortunes of 
the great Duke of Rolian, and became after- 
wards Secretary to the Duke of Longueville at 
the Treaty of Munftcr. Pie wrote a little vo- 
lume, " de Rebus GalUcis^'' relating to what paf- 
fed in France in his own Times, in which he 
reprefents himfelf as a man perfecuted by for- 
tune, and writing that hiflory to drive away 
the melancholy that hung over him, without 
any reference to the honour that was to be ac- 
quired by fuch an undertaking. " Non fama 
" Jed requies mihi quaftta^ fallendis inniwteris ta" 
*' diis^ ipfe me damnavi in hnnc arenamT He 
thus defcribes the French Wits of his time: 
" They haunt great men's table?, frequent 
" their own academies, and trick and trim 
*' their native tongue without end. They run 
** about this way and that way to make vifits, 
" but do not delight in fecret folitude, the only 
** ferment of ftudies *.'* 

• From the Tranflatlon of Chrlftopher Wafe, London 
1671, oc^vo, 

[ 3B3 ] 


When this hlgh-mindecl Nobleman was one 
day teized by fome of his fycophants, to profe- 
cute fome neighbouring Gentlemen who hadfliot 
upon his manor, he replied, " I fhall not follow 
" your advice : 1 had much rather have friends 
'* tlian hares, I alTure you.** 

The Duke, from friend fhip to the Prince of 
Conde, engaged with him in the intrigues againft 
Mazarin, and prevented him from calling in the 
afiiftance of England againfl his countr}' and his 


feems completely to have anfwered the dc- 
Icription given of the French Ladies of his 
time by Antonio Priolo, in his " Hiftory of 
" the Troubles of France during the Minority 
« of Louis the Fourteenth." — " The Ladies," 
fays he, " following fcholars, would make 
" ufe of detradiion, in their ruelles, and in 
" their circles, curioufly unravelling the myf- 
** teries of Government, and catching at the 
" words and adions of the Cardinal (Maz;arin). 

'' Some 


*' Some of them proflituting themfelves to ge^ 
" at the fecrets of the State, and making rebels 
" of their hufbands (thus doing more hurt 
*' by their Uves than good by their exertions), 
*' fet all France in a combufcion. Afterwards, 
*' when their defigns failed, they pre-condemncd 
*' themfelves, and becamie nuns by a falie ferti- 
*' blance of religion, and a gi-ofs fuperflition, 
*' the door being fhut to their vices, now" 
" grown out of feafon, and when fickly old 
•' age, condemned by the looking-giafs, and 
" by its peremptory fentencc, death, doth dredd 
« itfelf." 

Madame de Longueville took a Very decided 
part in the troubles of the Fronde againfl Car- 
dinal Mazarin, and by the power of her charms 
brought over the celebrated Due de Roche- 
foucault to take part with the Princes, and had 
even prevailed upon the god -like Turenne to 
make the army revolt which he commanded. 
La Rochefoucauk faid indeed in the words of 

Pour fatisfaire fon cceur^ pcur plaire a Jcs hcaux yeuxy 
J^aifait le guerre aux Rois^je f aurols faite aux Dieux, 

After the death of the Duke of Lon9"uevillei 
and when the troubles of France ceafed, fl:ie 



i'elired to a Convent, where fhe ended her davs 
in penitence and auilerity. 

In the zenith of her charms and of her con- 
fequence, Madame de Longueville was taken 
to pafs fome days at a nobleman's houfe in 
the country. She was afked, as ufual, how 
HiQ intended to entertain herfelf there, whether 
in walking, in reading, or in any of the amufe- 
ments of the field. She put the negative 
on thefe, and frankly anfvveredj " Je v'aime 
" point les amufemens Jionnetesy Her brother 
the Prince of Conde was one day reading to 
her part of an epic Poem, and afked her what 
fhe thought of it. " // eft tres beaux ^ en veriie^ 
^^ mais tres ennuyeux — It is very fine, to be fure, 
" but it is very tirefome." 

Madame de Longueville became quite ano- 
ther perfonage when flie became religious. For 
her firfh advances to that difpofition of mind 
fhe was indebted to her aunt the Duchefs of 
Montmorency (widow of the Duke of that 
name who was beheaded by the fanguinary 
Richelieu), who had taken the -veil, and was 
made the Abbefs of a Convent at Mou- 
lins *, to confecrate the remainder of her life 


* At the Convent of the UrfuUns of that Town, in 

the Church of which Convent fhe ere^ed a n>pfl mag- 

VOL. IV, c c jiificent 



to lament the lofs and to pray for the foul of 
her accompli fned and beloved hufband. Ma- 
dame de Longuevjlle was obferved one day, 
at the Convent of Port Royal, fitting and con- 
verfing with a gentleman who belonged to that 
celebrated feminary of learning and of piety, 
and who was the gardener of the place. The 
gentleman fald to her, " What would the world 
" fay of your Highnefs, if they fiw a gardener 
" converfing familiarly with you, and feated 
•^^ in your prefence ?'* — " The world," replied 
Madame de Longueville, *' Vv'ould fay that I 
** am. much altered.'* 

At the conference between Cardinal Mazarln 
snd Don Louis de Haro, which took place 
previous to the celebrated Treaty of the Py- 
renees, whilft the latter negotiator was telling 
the Cardinal that one woman, meaning Madame 
de Longueville, could not poflibiy difturb the 
tranquillity of a great kingdom like that of 
France: *' Alas, Sir,'* replied Mazarin, " your 
" Excellence talks much at your eafe upon 
" thefe matters. Your women in Spain med- 
^' die with no intrigues but thoie of gallantry, 
" but it is not fo in France ; we have there 
" three women that are capable either of go- 

jiificent Maufoleum to the memory of this illuftrious No- 

" verning 


*^ verning or of deftroying three great king- 

^' doms — Madame de Longueville, the Prin- 

" cefs Palatine, and the Duchefs of Chev^ 

" reufe." 


" During my refidence at Rome/' fays 
the ingenious Author of " Les Melanges de 
^' Literatures^ which go under the name of 
Vigneuil Mcrveille, " I often faw Pouffin, both 
" at his own houfe, and at that of the Chevaner 
'' ^€i Pofo, one of the molt accompliihed Gen- 
^' tlemen of Italy of his time, 

" I have often beheld with aflonifhment , 
" the great zeal that this excellent painter had 
" to become perfect in his art. I have often 
" met him> at a very advanced age, amongil 
" the ruins of antient Rome, and often in the 
*' Campagna, and often on the banks of the 
" Tiber, obferving and drawing what he found 
" there mofh to his tafte. I have often {^.tu. 
** him bringing home in his handkerchief flints, 
" mofs, flowers, and fuch like fubflances, which 
" he was anxious to paint after the objeds 
^* themfelves. 

c c 2 *' I re- 


'' I remember to have alked him one day> 
** by what means he had arrived to that great 
" degree of eminence in his art, which had 
" placed him fo very high amongd the great 
" ItaUan painter. He modeflly replied, ** Je 
" nai rien neglige^'' I have negle6i:ed nothing 
" t'hat in any way related to my Art. And, 
" indeed/* adds the Chevalier del Pofo, " it 
** appears by his pictures that he neglected no- 
" thin2: that could enable him to become one 


" of the befl painters in the world." 

According to Fellbien, who was an intimate 
friend of Pouflin, his pictures did not very 
much pleafe the Romans -, fo that for a picture 
painted by him, reprefenting a Prophet, he was 
paid only eight livres, whilft a copy of it, made 
by a young artift, was fold for four crowns. 
He was, however, no complaincr of his want 
of patronage, and ufed occafionally to return 
money to thofe perfons who, in his opinion, had 
paid him too much for his labours. 

Poufim was a man of great fimplicity in his 
manner of living and in his converfation. His 
whole mind was occupied with his art, and 
rendered him infenfible to thofe gratifications 
of luxury of which fome refined minds are 
but^ too fond. He was an Athenian in his tafte, 

• - y^t 


yet a Spartan in his habits of life, and united 
the elegance of the one with the auflerity of the 

Poudin, when his diiTolution was approaching 
very faft, had received from M. de Ciiambrai 
his Treatife on Painting^. He wrote with dif- 
ficulty, on account of his bodily infirmities, and 
thus addrefled him ; 

" I muft. Sir, endeavour to roufe myfelf 
" after fo long a filence, I muft make my- 
*' felf underftood by you whilil niy pulfe has 
'• fbill power to beat a little. I have read 
** and examined at my leifure your book On 
" the perfccl Idea of Painting, which has ferved 
*' as a kind of nourifliment to my difordersd 
*' mind ; and I am rejoiced that j^ou are the 
" firft perfon of our nation w^ho has opened 
" the eyes of thofe, w^ho, feeing only by the 
" eyes of other peiibns, permitted themfelves 
" to be deceived by public opinion. Indeed, 

you have fo well explained and enlightened 
" a fubjecl very harfii and difficult to manage, 

that, perhaps, by-and-by fome one may be 

" found who will be able to improve the art of 

** painting*." 

« There 

* This perfon, indeed, we have tJje honour to pofTefs 
at prefent in tiiis country : " an ingenious Critic/' ^$ 

C C ^ Dfo 




" There are nine things in painting,'* adds 
PoufTin, in this Letter to M. de Chambrai, 
" which can never be taught, and which are 
" eflential to that art. To begin with the 
" fubjecV of it, it fhould be noble, and receive 
" no quality from the perfon who treats it j 
" and, to give opportunity to the painter to 
" flievv his talents and his induftry, it muft 
" be taken as capable of receiving the mofh 
" excellent form. A painter fhould begin with 
" difpofition, then ornament fliould follow, 
" then agreement of the parts, beauty, grace, 
" fpirit, coftume, regard to nature and pro- 
" babihty; and judgment" above ail. Thefe 
" laft muft be in the painter himfelf, and 

Dr. Johnfon, in his Life of Milton, with great Juftice 
defignates him ; a Gentleman whofe ardolir for ^rt is ex- 
ceeded" only by his intelligence in it ; whofe extreme 
delicacy of tafce is retrained by his candour; wtiofe 
o-reat power of judging critically is fufpended by his 
carneft dcfire ro find out beauties, and whofe liberality 
toward the profefTcrs of art is bo nded only by his fa- 
culty of extending it : 'n whoni the love of the beautiful 
yields only to the love ot the good ; in whofe intelledual 
character fagacity is combined with invefiigation, and with ingenuity ; an'd whofe moral character the 
union of the- Graces with the Virtues renders no lefs amia- 
ble than exemplary. The fkerch of this cliara<5ler mufl 
have been delineated with more than the ufual infehclty 
of the pen that attempts it, if it fliould be ntceiTary to 
append to it the name of William Lock^ Esq.;. of Nor-^ 
bury Park, Surry, 

*' cannot 


" cannot be taught. It is the gulden bough 
^' of Virgil, that no one can either find or 
" pluck unlefs his happy ftar conducts him to 
" it. Thefe nine points contain many things; 
*' worthy to be deicribed by good and by iu- 
^' teUigent pens." 

A peribn of quality having one day (hewn 
this great Painter a pidiure done by himfclf, 
he faid, " Signorey non vi mane a cJCiui fjoco di 
" necejfita — You only want a little poverty. Sir, 
" to make you a good Pa.inter." 

Cardinal Maffimi, who was a great admirer 
of Poufiin, vifited him often when he was at 
Rome, and one evening (laid with him till it 
was dark. On his taking leave of him, Pouffin 
followed him to the door with a lamp, and 
conduced him to his carriage. " How I pity 
*' you, M. Pouilin," faid the Cardinal, " for 
" not having a fervant !" — "And I, Sir," replied 
Poufiin, " pity you much more for having 
*' fuch a number." 

PouiTin's great work is his fuite of the Seven 
Sacraments, which are wonderfully well com- 
pofed, and mofl: exquifitely executed j that of 
Marriage is faid to be reprefented in a mora 
feeble manner than the reft. This gave rife 

c c 4 to 


to the French Epigram, " Cluun bon marriage 
^' ejl difficile a fair e meme en peinttire.^^ 

This great Mafter did not meet with that 
patronage and applaufe in his own country, 
to which he was fo eminently entitled. His 
fimplicity of flyle and his chaftity of colouring 
did not, perhaps, pleafe his countrymen^ fo 
that he twice took refuge in Rome, where his 
talents met with minds congenial to them. 
At that ciry he died in 1663, at the age of 
feventy-one. His life is written by M. Bellori, 
who likewife honoured his memory with thefe 
lines : 

Parce pits Iachry?nis^ vivit PussiNUS in urnd. 
Vivere qui dederat^ nefcius ipfe mori. 
Hie tamen if je filet \ fi vis audire loquentem^ 
Alirum ejl ! in tahulis vivit et eloquitur. 

Weep not for PouiTin ;,he lives in the grave ! 
How can he die, who life to others o:ave ! 
Yet there he is ijlent. Would you hear him fpeak? 
His voice m his impreiiive picSlures fcek. 

As PoufTin was one day attending a flranger 
to flicw him the ruins of Rome, the traveller 
exprefled a defirc to take with him into his 
own country fome piece of antiquity. Poullin 
told him that he would gratify his wifli ^ and 
ftooping down to the ground, brought up a 




handful of earth, mixed with fome fmall pieces 
of porphyry and marble nearly reduced to 
Dowder. " Take them for your Cabinet," 
faid PoufTin, " and fay boldly, Q^iejla i Romc^ 
^' Antic a r 

The Crucifixion is a fubject on which the 
art of Painting has been long employed, and 
has been in general treated in the fame unin^ 
tereftino- manner. Pouflin has treated it like 
a Poet, and has added circumfiiances of horror 
which have efcaped other Painters, He ha? 
chofen the moment at which the Son of God 
and the Saviour of Mankind has juft expired 
on the Crols, under a black and a lurid iky, 
rendered ilill more fomhre and horrid by fome 
glimpfes of the Moon, which appears to have ■ 
hid its head, in execration of the dreadful adt 
jufl committed. On a line with the Crofs, 
is the Centurion with his guard, and fome 
women ; and underneath it are fome foldiers, 
who are cafting lots for the vefture of Him 
who is on the Crofs. Three or four figures of 
the Dead rife out of the ground (a circumflance 
pientioned by the Evangelifhs to have taken 
place at the time), and are feen by one of the 
foldiers ; who, in an attitude of the extremeft 
terror^ ^raws his fword. 



PoufTin fludied the Antique with the greateft 
diligence, and engrafted its various beauties 
and excellencies into his works. Raphael was 
his favourite among the Moderns, of whom he 
ufed to lay, " that the Moderns were alTes 
*' in comparifon of Raphael, yet that he was 
^ an afs when compared with the Antients." 

Tlie great Prince of Conde v^^as defirous 
to have a pidure painted by this mafter. Pouf- 
fin thus wrote to his friend upon that occa- 
lion : 

" I thank you very much for your remem- 
*' brance of me, and the kindnefs you have 
*^ done me in not reminding his Highnefs of 
*' his intention to have one of my pictures. 
" He applied too late to have jufbice done to 
*' his application. I am become too infirm, 
" and the palfy prevents me from working. It 
*' is now fome time lince I have left off painting, 
" and I think of nothing but of preparing 
*' myfelf for death, My body is already gone, 
" There are no hopes of life : it is all over wdth 

'' mel" 

The infcriplion put upon PoufTm's monu- 
ment by his friend M. Nicaife begins thus, and 



well defcribes the fuccefsful diligence of this 

great Artifl ; 

D. O. M. 

Nic, PcuJJino GalUco 

Fi^ori juci atatis Pnmarlo 

^ut Art em 

J)iim pertinaci Jludio profcquitiiry 

Brevi ajjecutus^ pojied vicit. 


no iefs a Scholar than a Painter, animated the 
efforts of his pencil by enriching his imagination 
with pail:iges from Homer and from Virgil, 
Thefe he occafionally repeated as he was working 
at his eafel, and called in the affifhance of the 
fiflier Art to aid the poetry of the pencil by 
the painting of words. With what fuccefs he 
thus conjoined the Sifter Arts, his celebrated 
Gallery of the Luxemburgh will evince, which 
has long been the admiration of mankind, for 
magic of colouring, fertility of invention, and 
grandeur of compolition. Guido ufed to fay, 
that no one put figures together fo well as 
Rubens ; and indeed, whoever attends to the 
laft pidure in the Gallery of the Luxemburgh, 
that of the Coronation of the Queen at St. 
Denis, muft allow that it has never been ex- 

ceeded in juftaefs, or in fplendor and mag- 
nificence of compojStion, 

Sir Jon:iua Reynolds tifed to fay, that the 
mod grand as well as the mofl perfedl piece 
of compofition in the world, was that of Ru- 
ben^s pi6lure of the Fall of the Damned, in 
the Gallery of DulTeldorf. The fubjed: is 
dreadful; and the {kill and artifice of deUgn 
which are difplayed in combining together fo 
varied, fo heterogeneous, and fo horrid a mais 
is wonderful, and exhibits the great invention 
hq lefs than the compofition of the mafler, 

Rubens is a fliriking inftance, how much 
eafier it is to give precepts than to praiftifer 
them. In his " Treatjfe on Painting," he^ 
advifes the iludent to ftudy with the utmofl 
diligence the works of the Antients, in the 
remains of their fliatues and bas reliefs : yet in 
his Luxemburg Gailerv, when he introduces 
the Apollo Belvidere, he m.akes rather an Apolia 
of Flanders than of Greece. 

The Crucifixion of St. Peter v;ith his head 
downwards, was the lafb of Rubens' Works, 
and that which he admired the moft : he gave 
k to a Church in his native town of Cologne, 
The compofition of his celebrated Taking Down 


RU3ENS. 397 

from the Crols is faid to have hQcn borrowed 
cxadly from an old Print : the original is 
indeed excellent ; and Rubens, in a moment of 
idlenels, might perhaps think that he could not 
go beyond it- 

To the talents of a Fainter, Rubens added 
all the virtues of a Chriftian, and the graces 
of a Gentleman. He feems to have been 
extremely liberal, and to have painted many 
pictures for Churches and Convents from mo- 
tives of piety and charity. Thefe appear to 
iiave been fome of the happieil efforts of his 
penciij no kfs with refpeft to their execution, 
than the motives which infpired them.. 



This excellent Painter was pupil to Simon 
V^ouet. He loon furpaiied his mailer, and, 
though he had never quitted France, became, 
in fome points of the art, one of the firfl 
painters of his time, hll^ contemporary Le 
Brun appears to have been very jealous of his 
iiiperior talents ; for, on hearing of his death, 
he malignantly faid. " I feel now as if 1 had a 
** thorn juft taken out of my foot/' 

393 LE SUEtJR. 

Le Sueur died young, and left behind hua 
many works ; iuch as Tl\e Cloifter of thf 
Chartreux at Paris, Alexander and his Phyfi- 
cian, &c. that mic^ht rival the works of the 
greateft painters for elegance of defign, beauty 
of form, and truth of exprefRon. In colouring 
he was defective, that meretricious and ambi- 
tious appendage of the art where it is exercifed 
iipon great fubjecfts, and embraces extenfive 
compofitions, the appropriated effedls of which 
can be as well produced in chlaro ojcuro. 


A MORE unbialTed and more unequivocal 
teflimony was never afforded to the merit of 
the Iliad of Homer, than that given by this 
fculptor. By fome accident he ftumbled on 
the old hiiferable tranilation of Homer into 
French verfe, and the images which it fupplicd 
to a man of his ardent imagination flruck him 
fo forcibly, that he told one of his friends foon 
afterwards, " I met the other day with an old 
" French book that I had never feen before. 
" It is called Homer's Iliad, I think. I do 
" not know how it is, but fince I have read it, 
*' men appear to me to be fifteen feet high, 
*' and I cannot get a wink of fieep at night/'' 



D'Alembert, who mentions this anecdote, fays, 
that he once heard an artift talk nearly the 
fame language to him, " and who," adds he,. 
" in fpeaking hke Bouchard on, did not fpeak 
*^ aft4£i him." 

The fpeech of Bouchardon to his friend re- 
fpeding induced the celebrated Count 
Caylus to (ct about a little work, of great ufe to 
painters and to fculptors, entitled, " Tahlemt^ 
" tirees d' Homer e^' octavo. — " Subjects for Ar- 
" tills, taken from the Iliad and the OdyiTey of 
" Homer." 


[1675— 1690.] 

This great and unfortunate Prince, accord- 
ine to Renault, fucceeded to his uncle Charles 
the Fourth, not fo much in his Duchy as in 
the hopes of recovering it, it having been wrefled 
from him by Louis the Fourteenth. He took 
as the motto to his flandards, '• Jut nunc^ aiit 
" nimquam-^'* but was not the more fuccefsful, 
the Marfhal Crequi continually preventing his 
entrance into his dominions. He was mor(; 
§ fortunate. 


fortunate, however, when he fought for other^^. 
and gained for his relation Leopold Emperor 
of Germany (whofe caufe he had efpoufed) 
many viclorics, both over his rebellious fubjedlrs 
and over the Turks. He was a Prince of great 
honour and piety^ and, according to Marlhal 
Berwick, fo difinterefted, that when the Empe- 
ror was difpofed to go to war with France (which 
was the only chance the Duke had of recover- 
ing his Duchy), he wrote to him to tell him, 
that he ought to prefer the general good of 
Chriftianity ta his private animofities, and that 
if at that particular period he would employ all 
his forces in Hungary againil tlie Turks, he 
could nearly promife him to drive thofe infideJs 
out of Europe. 

The Emperor agreed to this magnanimous 
propofal of the Duke of Lorraine, and fent to 
him to come to him at Vienna, to take the com- 
mand of his armies. On his journey he was 
taken ill of a fever^ and, a few hours before he 
died, wrote the following letter to the Emperor, 
which breathes the fpirit of a Man, a tiero, 
and a Chriftian : ' 

*' Sire, 

" AussiTOT que j'ai re^u vos ordres^ je 
*' fuis parti d'Infpruk pour me reiidre a Vienne, 

" mais 


" mais je me trouve arrete ici par les ordres 
" d'un plus grand Maitre. Je pars, et je vais 
" lui rendre compte d'une vie que j'aurois con- 
" facree a votre fervice. Souvenez-vous, • Sire, 
" que je quitte une femme qui vous touche, 
" des enfans auxquels je ne laiffe que rxioii 
" epee, et mes fujets dans Toppreffion. 

" Charles*/' 

Louis the Fourteenth, on hearing of the death 
of the Duke of Lorraine, nobly exclaimed, " I 
^' have then loft the braveft and the moft ge- 
'' nerous enemy I ever had. His leaft excel- 
*• lence was that of being a Prince,'* 

* Sire, 

'' As foon as I received your commands, I fet out for 
*' Inipruck, on my way to Vienna; but I find myfelf 
*' Hopped in that eity by the orders of a greater Mafter. I 
'^ depart, and am going to give him an account of a life, 
*'■ that i would othervvife have confecrated to your fervice. 
" Remember, Sire, that I leave behind me a wife who is 
" your relation, children to whom I have nothing to give 
** but my fword, and my fubje«Sts who are in a ftate of 
*' oppreffion. 

*' Charles^'' 

VOL. IV. 3) D 

[ 402 j 



Tkis Monarch, on feeing the tombs of 
Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, and of 
Margaret of Auftria, exclaimed, " Behold the 
^' cradle of all our wars !" 

When he was before the walls of Menin, in 
Flanders, he was told, that if he chofe to rifk 
an attack, that place would be taken four days 
fooner than it otherwife would be. " Let us 
*' take it then," replied he, " four days later. 
*' I had rather lofe thcfe four days, than one of 
'^ my fubjedls." 

He was a man of good fenfe, but of no great 
reading : he ufed, however, to aftonidi the No- 
blemen who made up his party in the evening, 
by the apparent knowledge he had of what was 
going on in the literary world at Paris. He re- 
ceived every week a precis of every new book, 
that was publiilied in that Capital, made for him 
by one of his attendants. 

" On hearing of his death,'' fays Brotier, " a 
" great Monarch exclaimed, " Louis was a 

" pnaj). 


^* man of uprightnefs and integrity. I have 


known him by a long epiftolary correfpond- 
ence which we kept up together.'* 

Louis had^ however, the weaknefs of giving 
to his Miniflers only a part of his confidence : 
he fet fpies upon themj and the Count de 
Broglio, brother of the Marflial of that nam.e, 
was at the head of his fecret and private Cabi- 
net, which not unfrequently counteracted the 
plans of his public and acknowledged Admi- 



This French Germanicus w^as educated by 
the virtuous and intelligent Marflial de Muy, 
and did complete juflice to the pains that his 
excellent Governor took for his education. " A 
" Dauphin," faid this Pnnce, " fliould be a 
" mere cypher in the Government of France, 
*' whilft a King of that Country fliould endea- 
" vour to do every thing." 

When Louis the Fifteenth prefented the 
Dauphin, then a very young man, to the Prince 
of Conti, he faid, " Well, coufm, what do you 

J) D 2 *' think 


*' think of my Ton ?"— " Sire," replied he, " // 
** hd manque feulement im air du College : — All 
*' that he wants, Sire, is to have been brought 
** up at a public feminary , he wants that free- 
" dom and opennefs of manner, that poffcffion 
" cfhimfelf, which an alTociation with young 
" men of his own age alone can give him *.'* 

He ufed to fay, " That a Sovereign fhould 
" avoid war, without appearing to be afraid of 
" it ; carry it on with fpirit, without loving it ; 
" be the firft to brave that dano;er that other 
" perfons were incurring -, flied his own blood 
" with courage, and fpare that of his fub- 
" jeds." 

To induce the Dauphin to afk for a greater 
allowance than his father granted him, fome of 
-the perfons about his Court told him, that the 
Dauphin, the only fon of Louis the Fourteenth, 
had a larger income than himfelf " Indeed," 
faid he, *' I fhould be very happy to have my 

* The French Writer who tells this anecdote ob- 
ferves, ** That all the French Princes who have diftin- 
*' guidied themfelves were educated at a public feminary, 
" as the great Prince of Conde and his Brother at the 
** College Royalj and the late Pi-ince of Conti at that of 
** Hrorccurt.'* 



^ penfion increafed, were it not railed upon my 
'' father's fubjeds." 

" Ignorance," faid he, " is the greateft mif- 
" fortune that can happen to a Prince. It is 
*' but feldom that a King forms, in cool blood, 
" a defign to enilave his people. Humanity 
" oppofes it, and his own interefl deters him 
" from it. Ignorance alone prevails upon him 
" to attempt it. Ignorance then is the fourcQ 
" of all his miferies." 

" A Prince," he obferved, " holds his exift- 
" ence in the political world by his authority 
" only. Not to be perfedlly acquainted with 
*' its origin, its extent, and its bounds, or to 
" know them but fuperficially, is neither to 
" know the nature nor the properties of his 
" exiflence," 

The names of the children of the Royal Fa« 
miiy of France were ufed to be infcribed in the 
parifh regifter of Verfailles ; the Dauphin took 
his children one day with him to the Church of 
that Town, and, opening the regifter before 
them_, thus addreifed them: " Obferve, my good 
" children, your names following, in regular 
" order, the names of the pooreft and of the 
" loweft of my father's fubjeds. ReHgion and 
^' JMature know no diftindion : Virtue alonq 

D D 3 " makes 


" makes the difference between one perfon and 
" another; and perhaps he whofe name you 
" precede in this book may appear greater in 
" the eyes of God, than you may appear in 
" thofe of mankind." 

The Dauphin, with his ufual paternal folici- 
tude, caufed a book to be written for the ufe of 
his eldeft fon, the late unfortunate King of 
France (a book now become uklc(s) fur k drok 
public de France. 



Due LOS fays of this Prince, " He was by 
" nature humane, com^paffionate, liberal, and 
** brave. He would have been a virtuous man, 
" could any one be virtuous without princi- 
" pies." His Uncle (Louis the Fourteenth) 
faid of him, " that he was tmfanfaron des crimes 'y 

and," added this Monarch, " I really believe, 
" that if the Duke of Orleans were to be fe- 
" rioully ill, he would have recourfe to reHcs 
" and to holy water." 


Mr. Pope, fpeaking of him, fays, 
'« A Goc/lefs Regent tremble at a Star!'' 

§ Duclos, 


Duclos, in confirmation of his farcafm upon 
the Duke's fooHOi fears and idle fuperftition, 
fays, " that the Duke ufed to run after every 
" fortune-teller and aftrologer that came to 
" Paris, and exhibited in his charader all the 
'• credulous curiofity of a chamber-maid." 

The Duke was a man of talents, a Mufician, 
a Chemift, and a Painter; and he was more 
pleafed with the compliments paid to him on 
his fuppofed excellence in any of thefe arts, 
than on any attention or fiattery beflowed upoa 
his rank or his courage. 

The Regent one day gave his drawing-mafbeir 
the choice of two pidures from his Gallery. He 
folicited two that were painted by his Royal 
Highnefs. They were of courfe prefented to 
him, with a thoufand louis d'ors, as a reward 
for the jaftnefs of his taile. 

The Duke diftinguiflied hlmfelf extremely as 
a General in Spain, and was a man of great 
fenfe and great eloquence ; yet, from the want 
of the proper diredion of this aiTemblage of ta- 
lents, his life was pafTed in a manner neither 
happy nor honourable to himfelf, nor ufeful to 
others. His mother ufed to fay of him, that 
;it his birth all the fairies in the neighbourhood 

p D 4 wei:e 


were invited to beflow their favours upon him, 
except one who was left out by accident. She 
in revenge faid, that flie would make all their 
gifts inefficacious, by rendering the child inca- 
pable of making a good ufe of them 

Many of the Regent's bons mots remain : His 
definition of the perfons who frequent the Courts 
of Sovereigns, and, are in place with every Ad- 
miniftration, is excellent: '' Ce Jont des parfaits 
'' courtefans ', Us out ni honneiir ni humetir.'" To 
fome Ecclefiaftic of difhindion whofe character 
was indifferent, and who on folicitingthe Regent 
for a Bifliopric told him that he Ihould be dif- 
honoured if he was not placed in that fituation, 
he replied, " Sir, I had much rather that you 
*' fhould be difhonoured than myfelf," 

The good Staniflaus King of Poland, driven 
from his dominions by the ferocious Charles the 
Twelfth, took refuge in Pa,ris, where he was fup- 
ported at the expence of the Court of France. 
Some one complained to the ' Regent of the 
great fum of money which this exiled Mo- 
narch's fupport coft, and wifhed him to leave 
France. " Sir," replied the Duke of Orleans 
nobly, " France has been, and I truft ever will 
'*' be, the refuge of unfortunate Princes : and I 
" fnall m-ofb certainly not permit it to be vio- 

" lated^ 


*^ latedj when To excellent a Prince as the King 
" of Poland comes to claim it/* 

England has done itfelf immortal honour, by 
the protection it has afforded to the Emigrant 
Nobility and Priefthood of France during the 
late unparalleled Revolution in that country. 

The liberality and generofity which the Bri- 
tiib N^ition in general fhewed to the unfortunate 
French who have refided among them gave oc- 
cafion to the following lines in 1791, to intro- 
duce a Lady of birth, of elegance, and of talents, 
to the notice of the Public as a fingen 


From Gallic horrors, and Sedition's roar, 
Welcome, fv/eet Syren, to the Britiih fhore ! 
From his fam'd lyre fuch notes Amphion drew. 
And ftraight Bceotia's Hqnes to order flew, 
Leap'd into form, obedient to comman(i, 
And GWn^d the magic of the mafter's hand. 

Hadft thou attun'd thy fweetly- founding ftring, 
Thine and thy injur'd Country's wrongs to fmg; 
Hadft thou bev/ail'd, in thy all-powerful ftrain, 
Thy King a captive, and his Nobles ilain; 
Whilft law and right, the fanftuary and throne. 
One equal wreck, one monftrous ruin own ; 
Nor age nor fex whilft Hell-born Rapine fparcs, 
The hoary prelate from the altar tears. 



The facred cloyfler's reverend gloom invades. 
Drags into day the Heaven-devoted maids ! 
And (ftiame! oh fhame!) pollutes their pious ears 
With taunts profane, and v^^ith indecent jeers; — • 
The furious rabble fure had learnt to feel, 
Rebellion's felf had flieath'd its murd'rous fteel; 
Difcord for once had bade her horrors ceafc, 
And thou hadft footh'd the madd'ning herd to Peace ! 

Hov;^ vain the thought ! for Gallia's modern race 
The antient fathers of their foil difgrace. 
No more with zeal their Monarch they obey ; 
No more they bend to Beauty's fofter fway j 
Traitors to every power they once ador'd. 
And true to Licence only and the Sword ! 
A Bourbon now, robb'd of his vaft domain, 
His fubje6^s loyalty implores in vain; 
Proud Auftria's daughter, Gallia's beauteous Queen, 
Bleft with each grace of Pallas' lofty mien, 
Difplays her mournful majefty of charms 
Unheeded 'midft the din of civil arms : 
Their Royal child, with fad affright oppreft. 
In vain feeks refuge in a parent's breaft ; 
In vain his helplefs fuppliant arms extends, 
No pity foothes, no pious care befriends, 
Whilft with a trembling voice and ftreaming eyes, 
" O fpare my mother — fpare your Queen," he cries, 
(Patron of wretched Gaul's diflradted land. 
Oh fainted Monarch*, arm thy vengeful hand; 
Grafp the red bolt, avert this foul difgrace. 
And fave the glories of thy facred race I) 

» St. Louis, the Tutelar Saint of ■prance, from rrhcPA 
the prefent Royal Family is defcended, 



Then, lovely Syren, welcome to this Ifle, 
Where tempered Liberty has deign'd to fmile ! 
Where laws in Freedom's happieft hour defign'd, •% 
The wonder and the envy of mankind, > 

With equal force the Peer and Peafant bind ; ^ 
Where fcale of rank but fans the mind's bright firej 
And bids it to each dignity afpire; 
Where Kings, but echoing the public voice. 
Reign by true right divine, their people's choicej 
No lawlefs fway, no baleful power confefs, 
Contented only with the power to blefs ; 
Favour'd Vicegerents of th' Eternal Throne 
In mercy, its lov'd attribute, alone; 
Where every Mufe has fix'd her willing feat. 
Where every talent finds a fure retreat; 
Where foft Human ty (the country's boaft) * 

Beckons each wand'ring fufterer to the coaft. 
Here whilft thy trembling fingers ftrike the lyre 
To notes of horror or of foft defire, 
Thy lips in fweet vibration pour around 
Each mingled melody of vocal found; 
And whilfl:, refponfive to the well-ftruck firings. 
The little Loves expand their purple wings, 
O'er every charm of thy fair form prefide. 
And each compos'd and decent motion guide; 
Whiift fad remembrance of a happier fate 
(A hufband's love, a father's honour'd ftate*) 
For one (hort paufe arrefts the liquid note. 
And the figh lingers in thy tuneful throat; 

* Madame de S- — -'s father was Under-Intendant to 
M. Bertier, the Intendant of Paris, who was butchered by 
the mob of that city a few years ago. 



Whilft warm with extacy our bofoms glow. 

For thy fad ills the generous tears fhall flow, 

Pity with tranfport in each bread unite, 

And fympathy give virtue to delight. S. 

In the franknefs and openncfs of his charafler, 
and in fome degree in his perfon, the Regent 
refembled Henry the Fourth ; and he was much 
pleafed when any one noticed the refemblance to 

The Regent was a good judge of painting. 
The colledion of pidures which he made at the 
Palais Royal was a very fine one, and united in 
itfelfthe colle6tions of Chriitina Queen of Swe- 
den and Cardinal de Richelieu, with the addi- 
tions made to it by himfelf. Spence in his 
" Anecdotes" fays, that the moft coftly pidurq 
in the collefticn was the Bc'/k Raphael (as it is 
called), and that it coft thirteen hundred 
pounds. Ten thoufand guineas w'ere offered 
lately, by a Sovereign, for the three Maries at 
the Sepulchre by Annibal Caracci. A French 
banker bought the Italian part of the Collec- 
tion ; and the Flemifh part was on fale in Lon- 
don in the year 1793. 

The Regent's ion, on fucceeding his father, 
ordered Coypcl to cut to pieces all the indecent 



pictures ill the Palais 'R.oyal. This order was 
not rigidly complied with, as feveral of thefe 
pictures have made their way into other collec- 
tions, as thofe of Drefden, Berlin, &c. 

La Grange had written a mod abufive Hbel 
upon the Duke of Orleans in verfe : it was 
entitled " Les Philippiques,'' and accufed him 
of every thing that was bafe and fcandalous. 
The Regent fent for him, and afked him coolly, 
" Whether in his heart he believed him to be 
*^ fo bad a man as he had reprefented him.'* 
La Grange replied, " that he had not written 
" a fyliabie in his book, that he did not be- 
" iieve to be true." — *' Sir," replied the Re- 
gent, " it is well for you, that you are of that 
" opinion ; otherwife I diould have ordered you 
•* to have been hung up immediately *.'' 

On his being appointed Regent, he infifted 
on being allowed the power of pardoning. " 1 
" have no objection,'* faid he, " to have my 
" hands tied from doing harm ; but I will have 
" them free to do good/' 

* " Nothing," fays 'Montefquleii, " \o much lefier.s 
'* the character of great nien, as the attention they pay 
•' to their perfonal injuries. I know two men who were 
** entirely infenfible to them, Julius Ca;iar and the Regent; 
** Duke of Orleans." 



To his infant Sovereign he behaved with the 
utmoil: refpedt, and took great pains to infirucc 
him. " I will conceal nothing from your 
*' Majefly," faid he to hinij " not even your 
" faults.'' 

« The Regent died," fays Duclos, " of the 
*' indulgence of grofs pleafures \de fa chtre 
" crapuky as he terms it), in fpite of the 
*' advice of his Phylicians and of his friends. 
*' A man," adds Duclos, '' quits his vices 
*' in general, when he is quitted by them : the 
*' indulgence, however, of grofs pleafures is 
" too apt to remain with him, till it makes 
" him at laft fall a vidim to its pernicious 
'' effeds." 



is thus defcrlbed by Duclos : " She w^as ex- 
" tremely fond of her fon, though flie was 
*' much difTatisficd with his condud. This 
*' Prince fs had great good fenfe, was a woman 
*' of virtue and of honour, much attached to 
" the decorum of her fituation, and to the 
" etiquette of her rank. An excellent ilate 
of health which nothing could affed, and 





*' which prevented her from requiring any de- 

licacy with refpedt to herfeif, made her ap- 
pear harlh and unfeeling to others, whom 
fhe could not pofTibly fuppofe to ftand in 
" need of any kind of management or atten- 
*' tion to their feelings. She was a German, 
" and was extremely fond of perfons of that 
*^ Nation: indeed it was fufficient only to be 
*' of that Nation to have a claim to her atten- 
" tion." 

Some extradls from the letters of this Prin- 
cefs to Caroline Queen of George the Second, 
were printed a few years ago ; they are curious, 
but very grofs. Mrs. S , who was Bed- 
chamber-woman to Queen Caroline, ufed to 
fay, that fhe remernxbered perfectly well the 
Queen's receiving many of them, and that fhe 
occafionally faid, " Thefe are letters not fit for 
" every one to read." 

On the death of this Prlncefs, fome one, in 
alluficn to the extremely vicious character of her 
fon, and to the Proverb that has had its fandion 
in the experience of all ages and of all countries 
to its truth, " Idlenefs is the mother of Vice," 
wrote upon her cofBn, " C/y n>/l POi/ivete; Here 
" lies Idlenefs,** 

t 41^ 3 


The fpeech which this profligate Minlilet 
dehvered to the Affembly of the Clergy, wris 
made by Fontenelle, who wrote likewife the 
Epitaph for his Eminence, which he managed 
extremely welL Having nothing to fay of the 
good qualities of the deceafed Cardinal, he 
merely adverted in it to the height of his fitua- 
tion, and the uncertainty of power and of dig- 
nity. After the enumeration of ail his titles 
and employments, he adds from Scripture, 
*' What are all thefe titles and honours but 
" the changing bow of Heaven, and the va- 
" pour that melts into air ! PaiTenger, intreat 
" of Heaven for the deceafed more foiid and 
" more fubftantial bleffings." 

The Monument reprefents the Cardinal on 
his knees with a book open before him, in which 
there is infcribed " Miferere :'' his eyes are 
turned towards the body of the church, as 
if to intreat continually the prayers of the 
congregation for him. The idea of it was fug- 
gefhed by a relation of his, an Ecclefiaflic of 
great merit. 



Dubois, foon after the Peace of Ryfwick, 
Vas in England, where he became acquainted 
with a celebrated Countefs of that Nation, 
whom he ufed to call " la plus belle Irregtilarite 
*^ du Monde'' One of her friends, fuppoiing 
(no doubt) that Dubois would become one 
day Prime Minifter of France, gave him this 
advice : " Take care never to ferve any perfoii 
" too much j you will always fuffer for it ; and 
" I fuppofe that you are hardly enough of a 
" Don Quixote to pique yourfelf on the glory 
" of making a man ungrateful." 

The Cardinal, who had been exalted from 
a very mean iituation to the rank of Prime 
Minifter of a great Country, and a Prince of 
the Church, ufed occafionally to exclaim, in 
the mid ft of all his confequence and fplendor 
(fo much envied by the reft of mankind), 
" Alas ! how happy fhould I be, were I to 
return to my old fituation and lodging in 
a good fecond floor, with an old Gouver- 
nante, and with a hundred and fifty pounds 
♦ a-year !" The obfervant Fontenelle ufed to 
fay, " What always made me fatisfied with 
*' my low condition of life, was to fee Cardinal 
" Dubois come to me to be foothed and com- 
" forted, and that 1 had never occafion to apply 
*' to him for a fimilar purpofe.'* 

VOL. IV, E E Soon 


Soon after the Regent had made Dubois a 
Councillor of State, he fent for him, and taking 
him by the hand faid, " My good friend, wc 
" mud now have a little honefly : I mufl beg 
" it of you as a favour." 

The Cardinal was a man of very preclfe and 
accurate converfation, and had a great deal of 
general knowledge. This he took care to in- 
creafe, by always leading, with great dexterity, 
the perfons with whom he was converfmg to 
fubjeds on which they had moft knowledge *. 

Mr. Crawfurd, in one of his difpatches from 
the Court of France, after giving an account of 
the lafl hours of the Cardinal, embittered by the 
moll horrid tortures of mind and of body, thus^ 
delineates his character ; 

*' His Eminence had no great order in pri- 
*^ vate affairs, nor even in the conduct of the 
great detail of public bufinefs which he took 
upon him; fo that there is a good deal of 
*' confufion in his family, and amongfl his 

• " M. de Variilas," fays Menage, " told me one day, 
*' that nine parts out of ten of what he knew, he had 
*' picked np in converfation. On refleft/ng a little," 
adds Menage, " I told him that I was precifely in the fame 
♦' fituation." 

'' Clerks 


** Clerks in their different offices. He could 
" never bring; himfelf to diftribute his time 
*' of doing bufinefs into appropriated hours 
and days, for the different affairs of which he 
undertook the detail ; and by this means 
feldoni had time to finilh any thing but 
what was immediately preffing, and remained 
*' almoil in a continual hurry by the great 
*• multiplicity of affairs that neceffarily crouded 
" upon him in fuch a country as this ; whiift 
" he let every one know, that it was to him 
" alone they mufl addrefs themfelves, if they 
" expedled to fucceed in any demand they had 
*' to make.'' 

The Cardinal, whofe papers were never put 
in any order, ufed frequently, in fearchin^ after 
any thing he wanted, to fwear exceflively. One 
of his Clerks told him, *' Your Eminence had 
" better hire a man to fwear for you, and then 
*J you will gain fo much time." 


This celebrated Projedor, foon after his arri- 
val at Paris, boafted, " that he would make 
" France fo powerful, that every other Nation 
" in Europe fhould fend Ambaifadors to it, 

E E 2 " but 

420 MR. LA\V. 

" but that the King of France fliould merely 
" fend MefTengcrs to the other Nations *.'* 

A friend of Law's afked him one day, whe- 
ther it were true that he was o;oino; to war with 
England. " I Oiould think," added he, " that 
*' a Minifler Hke yourfelf, w^iofe interefh it is 
" to m.ake the State flourifli by commerce, and 
" by eftabUfhrnents that require peace, would 
*^ never think of going to war." Law calmly 
replied, " Sir, I do not defire war, but I am not 
" afraid of it." 

Law had promifed his mafter, the Regent, 
mountains of gold; and when his promifes failed, 
the Regent fent for him, called him by all 
the opprobrious epithets that he could think of 
— " Knave, Madman !" and faid, that he did 
not know what hindered him from fending 
him to the Bafhile, for that there never was 
any perfon fent there v/ho deferved it fo well 
as himfelf. 

* " Jt: rendrai la France fi grand:^ que toutes les 2\ at ions 
^' de r Europe enverront des ximbajfadeurs a Paris^ €t h R<a 
'^ r^twuena que des Cemkrs.'* 

[ 421 ] 


This eminent Surgeon was one day fent for 
by the Cardinal Dubois, Prime Minifter of 
•France, to perform a very ferious operation upon 
him. The Cardinal, on feeing him enter the 
room, faid to him, " You mufl not expedt, 
" Sir, to treat me in the fame rough manner 
*^ as you treat your poor miferable wretches at 
" your Hofpital of the Hotel Dieu."— " My 
*' Lord,'* replied M. Boudou with great dig- 
nity, " every one of thofe miferable wretches, 
" as your Eminence is pleafed to call them,, is 
^' ^ Prime Minifter in my eyes," 



" Marseilles' good Bllhop" was of the 
family of Belfunce in the province of Guienne 
in France. He had taken the vows as a 
Jefuit, and became afterwards Bifliop of Mar- 
feilles. In confideration of the eminent fer- 
vices he rendered to that city during the plague 
that vifited it in 1720, the Regent offered him 
the richer and more honourable fee of Laon in 

E E 3 Picardy. 


Picardy. He refuted that bifliopric, giving as 
a rcafon, his unwiUingnef;: to leave a flock that 
had been endeared to him by their fufferings : 
he was, however, prevailed upon to accept of a 
peculiar diftindion with refped to the Court 
in which any law'uits he might have the un- 
happinefs to be engaged in fhould be tried. 
His pious and intrepid labours are commemo- 
rated in a pidure in the town-hall of Marfeilles, 
in which he is reprefented in his epifcopal habit, 
attended by his almoners, giving his benedidion 
to the dying and the dead that are at his feet, 
Father Vanniere, in his '^ Pr medium Rujlicum^^- 
alludes to M. de Belfunce in thefe lines : 

'fvlta qui Pf'icfid et aurt 

ProdiguSj ajftduis anhnos et corpora curls 
Suftiniiit^ mort m vifus calcare metumqui 
Intrepido vadens perjirata cadavera pajjh, 

Profufe of life, and prodigal of gold, 

The facred Paftor tends his fick'ning fcld; 

Repofe of body and of mind difdaiiis. 

To calm their woes, and mitigate their pains j 

Bravely defpifes death, and ev'ryfear. 

With holy rites their drooping hearts to chear| 

Vaft heaps of dead without difmay he views. 

And wich iirm ftephis geri'rous way purfues, 

Some others of the Bifhops of Provence are 
|iientione4 with lefped by Father Vanniere for 



their humanity and exertions on this occafion, 
as M. de Ventimille, Archbifliop of Aix, &c. 

M. de Belfunce was an author. He wrote 
the Lives of his Predeceflbrs in the See of Mar- 
feilies, and fome rehgious tracts. 


When the Abbe de St. Pierre prefented his 
projedl of a perpetual peace * to this wiley and 
experienced Minifter, the Cardinal faid, " Sir, 
^' I am much afraid that you have forgotten 
^' the preliminary article. You have forgotten 
" to fend a troop of miflionaries, to diljpofe 
" the hearts and the minds of the different 
*^ Sovereigns of Europe towards your excellent 
^* projedl," 

The Cardinal, like our excellent Minifter SIf 
Robert Walpole, was forced into an expenlive 
and ruinous war by the clamour of faction and 

* Soon after St. Pierre publlfiied his book, a Dutch Inn* 
keeper fet up a fign, infcribed, " a la Paix perpetuelleJ** 
It reprefented a Church-yard; as if themifchievous paffions 
and the follies of mankind were to ceafe only with the total 
c.xtindion of the human race. 

E E 4 the 


the folly of the people. On the Cardniars part, 
indeed, he had taken the moft effcdiual method 
of keeping the two great Nations of France and 
England in perfect harmony with one another : 
He ufed to remit to Sir Robert a certain fum 
of money occafionally, to be diftributed amongd 
thofe, who, from difappointment and a love of 
revenge, were hkely in this country to coun- 
terad his pacific intentions *. 

Fleury being one day told, that he was re- 
fponfible to his Sovereign for his condud, 
replied, " Say, rather to God and to my coa-» 
*' fcience.'- 

* The Afs loaded with gold by Philip of Macedon tooJ; 
more Towns, perhaps, than his well-difcipUned and expe- 
rienced armies. The French have ever known how to 
apply that univerfal agent with great fuccefs. Moft wars 
end as moll; revolutions begin, from the want of money : 
it would therefore feem to be good policy, and even a great; 
faving of the precious metal, no lefs than of the lives and 
the happinefs of mankind (which are not often fufficiently 
confidered in the accounts of Statefmen) if the moft dread* 
ful of human calamities was attempted to be prevented by 
the fame means which eventually put a ftop to its progrefs. 

[ 425 ] 


To the honour of the humanity of this great 
General, the following ftory, told of him by M. 
de^ Senac, his Phyfician, fhould be mentioned. 
The night before the battle of Raucour, M. 
de Senac obferved his illuftrious patient very 
thoughtful, and afked him the reafon of it ; when 
he replied in a palTage from the " Andromaque'* 
of Racine, 

Songe^fonge^ Senac^ a cette nu'it cruelUy 

^ui fut pour tout un peuple une nuit eternelUn 

Songe aux cris des vainqueurs-iforige aux cris des moun 

Dans la jiamme etoujf'is fous lefer expirans : 

Think, think, my friend, what horrid woes 

To-morrow's mornino- muft difclofe 

To thoufands, by Fate's hard decree, 

The laft morn they fliall ever fee, 

Think how the dying and the dead 

O'er yon extenfive plain fhall fpread ; 

What horrid fpeclacles afford, 

Scorched by the flames, pierced by the fword : 

" and added, Et tons les foldats n\n favolent rmi 
" encore — And all thefe Soldiers knew nothing 
f At all of what was to happen/' 



The following Letters were written by Mar- 
jQial Saxe to M. D'Eon de Tifle, Cenfor Royal, 
and Secretary to the Regent Duke of Orleans. 
They are permitted toembeUiili this ColledH: ion, 
by the kindnefs of the Chevaliere D'Eon, 
niece to the perfon to whom they were ad- 

" Monfieur, 

" Je vous prye einjian mant de preter unc 
" atanfion favorable a Je que Mile. Sommer- 
** ville * vous dira, ill ma paru ({uon la vexe & 
^' Jalt une bonne fille, a qui je feres charmc 
" de randre fervijje^ foiez perfuades que loa 
** fatiret aitre plus parfaitement, 
" Monfieur, 
^' Votre tres humble & tres oheijfent ferviteur, 

" Maurice pe Saxe/' 
^' A Paris le Mardis 
" dernier s de Juillet, 
<' 1740." 

'' A . 

" Je vous prye d' aitre perfuades^ Monfieur, 
«' que Ton ntfauret aitre plus fenfible que je le 
" fuis an marques de votre fouvenir & de votre 
" amities^ elle me Jeras toujour chere, & mais 
*' fticfais acquiereroHt de notivos agremens pour 

* An Adrefs of the French Opera, 

^' mo)\ 


•^ moy. Cant \t faiires que vous vous y elntereJJ}^^ 
^^ Ton fauret aitre plus parfaitement, 
" Monfieur, 
•' Votre tres humble & tres obeijfent iervltei^ii 

^' Maurice pe Saxe." 

Marfhal Saxe was a Lutheran, and his body 
could not therefore be buried in any of the 
Catholic churches in France with the ufual cere* 
monies attendant on the funerals of great men. 
This made the Queen of Louis the Fifteenth 
fay, with fome archnefs, " What a pity it is 
" that we cannot ling one De Proftmdis to 3, 
'' man who has made us ling fo many 7^ 

Of the greatnefs of Marfhal Saxe's courage 
who can doubt ? yet his friends faid of him, 
that he would never * fight a duel s that he 


* A greater degree of ridicule was never thrown upon 
duelling than by the following ftory, which Dr. Sandilands 
rold to Mr.Richardfon, jun. 

" Colonel Guife going over one campaign to Flanders, 
** obferved a young raw Officer who was in the fame vef- 
^' fel with him, and with his ufual humanity told him, that 
" he would take care of him and conduct him to Antwerp, 
*' where they were both going, which he accordingly did, 
*' and then took leave of him. The young fellow was 
*^ fpon told, b^ fome arch rogues whom he happened to 

" faU 

42J M. DUCL05- 

nlvvays looked under his bed every night ; ani 
every night locked his chamber door. 



Loris THE Fifteenth faid of Duclos, 
" Ceji tin homms droit et a droit, ^^ a man of 

" fall In with, that he muft fignaliz? himfelf by fighting 
'* fome man of known courage, or elfe he would foon be 
*' defpifed in the regiment. The young man faid, he 
*' knew no one but Colonel Guife, and he had received 
'' great obligations from him. It is all one for that, they 
" faid, in thcfe cafes. The Colonel was the fitted man 
*' in the world, every body knew his bravery. Soon after- 
" wards, up comes the young Officer to Colonel Guife, 
" as he was walking up and down in the Coffee-houfe, and 
*' began in a hefitating manner to tell him, how much 
•' obliged he had been io him, and how fenfible he was of 
•' his obligations. Sir, replied Colonel Guife, I have done 
" my duty by you, and no more. But Colonel, added the 
** young Officer, faultering, I am told that I muft fight fome 
*' Gentleman of known refolution, and who has killed 
*' feveral perfons, and that nobody — Oh ! Sir, replied the 
*' Colonel, your friends do me too much honour ; but there 
" is a Gentleman (pointing to a huge fierce-looking black 
" fellow that was fitting at one of the tables) who has kilU 
** ed half the regiment. So up goes the Officer to him, 
*' and tells him, he is well informed of his bravery, and 
•* that, for that reafon, he mufl fight him. Who I, Sir? 
" replied the Gentleman : why 1 am Peale the Apothe-. 
<' Q^rv .''''^Richarclfoniana, 

* virtue 

M. DUCLOS. 429 

Virtue and a man of the world. He was the 
hiftoriographer of France, and the only per- 
fon to whom RoulTeau ever dedicated any of 
his works. When he was at Rome he was 
aiked by Clement XIII. whether he intended 
to publirn the Memoirs of his own Times. He 
replied, " Holy Father, I neither wifh to de- 
" bafe myfelf by flattery, nor to incur any un- 
" neceflary danger by telling the truth." 

Speaking of Politenefs in his " Conjideration's 
fur les MmrSy'' he fa}^s, 

" Mankind are fo much indebted to each 
other, that they owe mutual attention ; thef 
owe each other a politenefs wortliy of them- 
felves, worthy of thinking beings, and varied 

" according; to the different fentiments that 

" fliould dictate it. 

" The politenefs of the great therefore 
" fhould be that of humanity; and that of 
*' inferiors gratitude, if the great deferve it; 
" that of equals efteem and mutual fervices ; 
" far from endeavouring to encourage incivility, 
" it is much to be wifhed, that the poUtenefs 
" arifmg from foftnefs of manners fhould be 
" added to that which proceeds from goodnefs 
^ cf heart. 

" The 

43»^ ^. DtrcLos. 

" The moft pernicious effe6t of the common 
" politenefs of the world is, that it teaches us 
*^ to do without thofe virtues which it imitates. 
" Were we but taught by our education to be 
*' humane and benevolent, we fliould either 
" poflefs pohtenefs, or could do very well with- 
*' out it. 

*' We fhould not perhaps have that polite- 
^' nefs which announces itfeit by the Graces, 
*^ but we fhould have that which announces 
*' the honeft man and the man of honour. We 
*' fhould then have no occafion to have re- 
** courfe to mere appearances. 

*^ Inflead of being artificial to pleafe, It 
*' would then be fufficient that we were good 
mens inftead of being diflemblers to flatter 
the weaknefs of others, it would be enough 
for us only to be indulgent to them. 



*' Thofe to whom we behaved in this man- 
** ner would neither be rendered infolent nor 
" corrupted by it j they would only be grate- 
*^ ful and become better." 

It was an obfervation of Duclos, " That 
*' rogues always leagued together, whiifl: honeil 
( ** men kept themfelves ifolated, 

^ Impious 

K. DucLos. 43r 

*■* Impious^ and profligate writings," fald he, 
** are read once for their novelty, and, except 
** on account of the bad principles they con- 
" tain, they would never have been taken the 
*• lead notice of, like thofe obfcure crhninals 
•* whofe names are known only by their crimes 
" and their punilliments." 

Tliefe obfervations of Duclos are taken from 
his Life in the *' Necrologe des Hommes cekhres 
** de France ^'^ a work formerly publilhed every 
year at Paris in i2mo. It contained the Lives 
of the diftinguifhed Perfons in Arms, in Arts, 
and in Learning, who had died within the year. 
It gave an account of their adions, their writ- 
ings, their labours, and their difcoveries, and 
contained as well the hiflory of the progrefs 
of the human mind, as the lives of the perfons 
mentioned in it. Each article was furnifhed by 
a perfon converfant with the profeffion of the 
particular perfon defcribed in it. A book con- 
duded on the fame plan would be a great ad- 
dition to the literature of this country. 


FoNTENELLE was of a good-humoured and 

5ipathiftical difpoiition. He was once afked how 

* he 


he liad managed to be fo generally liked as he 
was. He replied, " By oblerving tbefe two 
*' maxims : One cannot tell wliat may happen s 
** and every body may be right at lafl.** 

On feeing the buft of Boileau, the Satirlft, 
he exclaimed, " I fay now of Boileau what I 
*^ have always faid, crown him with laurels, 
" and hang him afterv/ards upon the next 
'' gibbet *.'' 

Of a company confifting rf m.en of no great 
underftanding, and of Ladies who were of a cer- 
tain age, he faid, " Les hommes font pajfable^ et 
" lesfemmespajfees.^^ 

Some one afking him how old he was, he faid, 
" Hufli ! Pray don't fpeak fo loud s death 
" feems to have forgotten me, and you may 
" perhaps put him in mind of me." 

* Boileau himfelf favs, 

' ■ — Quittons Itzfatyre^ 

C^ejiun mechant metier que ceLui de med'ire. 

The Satirifl but too ofren avenges his own miferies upon 
the feelings of others. — Regnier ufed to tell his friends, that 
he never became difcontented with the world, till he had 
long been difcontented \\ ith himfelf, 

A few 


A few hours before he died, being afked 
what he felt, he faid, " rien qinme difficult e 
" d'etrer 

Fontenelle*s Dramas are very elegant in their 
ftyle and in their thinking. His- Eloges are 
excellent. His other works are- of no great 
value. The '• Hitlorv of Oracles" was taken 
from Vandale, a heavy Dutch writer, and drefied 
up with Fontenelle's ufaai elegance. 


faid to Madame d'Aiguiilon on his death-bed, 
" I have always refpedled religion ; the mora- 
" lity of the Gofpel is the moil valuable pre- 
** fent that God could have beftowed upon 
** mankind.'* 


*' 1 am attached to my country, becaufe I 
" like the Government under which I was 
" born, without being afraid of it, or expelling 
" any emolument from it. I (hare equally 
" with my fellow-citizens in the protection 

VOL. IV. F F " which 


•'^ which it affords to us, and I thank God 
*' that he has given to me a degree of mode- 
*' ration. 

" If I knew any thing that would be ufeful 
to myfelf, and at the fame time prejudicial 
to my family, I would erafe it from my 
mind 3 if I knew any thing that would be 
" ufeful to my famiily, but prejudicial to my 
•' country, I would drive to forget it 3 if I 
*' knew a::iy tiling that v/ould be ufeful to my 
*' country, but prejudical to mankind, I lliould 
** look upon it as a crime. 



*' We are allowed to afpire to the highefl 
*' fituations in our country, becaufe it is per- 
*' mitted to every citizen to wifh to be ufeful 
*' to his country. Befides, a noble ambition 
*' (when properly direfted) is a fentiment very 
*'' ufeful to fociety; for, as the phyfical world 
" fubfifts only becaufe every particle of matter 
" tends to fly off from, the centre, fo the poli- 
" tical world fuftains itfelf by the inward and 
" reiilefs defire that every one has to remove 
** from the fituation in which he is placed. 

" The heroifm that found m.orallty avows 
" has very few charms fjr mofl men -, the he- 

" roifm 


*"^ roifm that deftroys morality flrikes us and 
^' forces our admiration. 

There are no perfons that I have ever more 
completely defpifed, than witlings^ and per- 
" fons of rank devoid of probity. 


My principle has always been, never to do 
that by another perfon which I could do by 
" myfelf. This has enabled me to make my 
" fortune by the means which I had in my 
own power, moderation and frugaUty^ and 
never by means external to myfelf, which are 
but too often bafe or unjufl. 

" I love to frequent thofe houfes where I 
" can come off well with my every-day under- 
" (landing. 

" I doat upon friendfhip. I never remember 
" in my life to have given away four louis d'ors 
" from oflentation, or to have paid four viiits 
" from views of intereil. 

" It was my intention to have made my 
" Efp7it des Loix'' a work of greater extent, 
" and to have confidered many parts of it more 
" fully. I am now become unable to do as I 
*' intended. My ftudies have weakened my 

F F 2 " eyes i 


•* eyes ; and what light remains within, is merely 
" that of twilight, in which they will foon fet 
** for ever. 

" I am not fo humble as the athcifls are. I 
" w^ould not change my hopes of immortality 
*' for all their Quietifm. 

*' Religion is peculiarly necelTar}' to the Eng- 
" liih 5 as thofe perfons who are not afraid to- 
*^ deftroy themfelves, fhould at lead be taught 
" the fatal and eternal confequences that attend 
" . the raih and wicked adion of a moment, 

** In the courfe of my life I have been very 
** foolirh, but have never been malignant, 
** When I fee a man of worth, I never attempt 
** to take him to pieces. 

•' Idlenefs * Inould really be ranked amongft 
** the tortures of Hell. Yet people are foolifli 

" enough 

♦ ** Idlenefs," fays Lavatcr, frrongly, " is the original 
•• fin of our firfl parents. Do you not think it then dif- 
•* obedience or rebellion ? Nothing like it! their leading vice 
** was idlenefs. He that can fubdiie that one vice, can ne- 
•' ver fail to accompliPn whatever he purpofes to do." 

** Idlenefs," fays the learned Lord Monboddo, *' is the 
** fource of ahnoft every vice and folly. For a man who 

" dcca 

MONTESQxriEx;, 437 

** enough to clafs it with the beatitudes of 
** Heaven. 

" Thbfe 

** dees not know what to do, will do any thing rather than 
** nothing; and I maintain, that the richeft man who 
*' is haunted by that foul fiend (as it may be called) is a 
** much more unhappy man than the dav-bbourer, who earns 
** his daily bread by the (w eat of his brow, and who there* 
** fore only fubmlts to the fentence pronounced upon cjr 
** firft parents aft^r their fall, and which, if it be underftood 
** (as I think it ought to be) of the labour of the mind, 2<, 
** well a$ of the body, we muft all fubmit to, or be mifer- 
** able if we do not. And accordingly thofe, who have 
** nothing to do, endeavour to iiy from thcmfelves, and 
'* many fiy from the country and go abroad for no other 
^ reafon. 

Frnftra^ nam comes atra petit feqititurquefugacem, 

'Gainft the foul fiend what can relief afford ? 
Our bed he climbs, participates our board; 
Fly as we may o'er earth*s extenfive round 
He follows dill, and at our heels is found. 
From his fell looks each joy a blafl acquires, 
And life itfelf beneath his g^afp expires. 

" And fomc go out of life for no other reafon (and I think 
" there may be a worfe reafon), than becaufe thev have 
*' nothing to do in it.'* 

Metaphyf. vol. iv, p. 931. 

*' Wearinefs of life," fays Dr. Darwin, " in its moderate 
•' degree has been e-leemed a motive to action by fomcphi- 
*• lofophers ; but thofe men who have run through the 
" ufual amufements of life early, in refpecl of their age, and 
♦* who have not indu{lry or ability to cultivate thofe fciences 

F 7 3 ,4* which 


" Thofe perfons who have Jittic to do arc 
" great talkers. A man talks, in general, in 
" proportion to the fmall degree of thought 
" which he poiTefTes. 




In the whole courfe of my life I have never 
known any perfons completely defpifed, ex- 
cept thofe who keep bad company. 

*' Our modern orators appear to give in length 
what they want in depth*. 

" If 

** which afford a perpetual fund of novelty and of confe- 
•* quent entertainment, are liable to become tired of life, as 
*' they fiippofe there is nothing new to be found in it that 
*' can afford them pleafure ; like Alexander, who is faid to 
*' have filed tears, becaufe he had not another world to con- 
^' quer.*' 

The remedies recommended by this ingenious philofo- 
pher againfl the iadium 'vita are, " fome reltraint in ex- 
" haufiing the iifual pleafures of the world early in life; 
** the agreeable cares of a matrim-onial life; the cultivation 
*' of fcie-nce, as of Chemiftry, Natural Philofophy, Natural 
•* Hiftory, &c. which fupply an inexhauftible fource of 
" pleafurable novelty, and relieve ennui by the exertion they 
** occalion." 

Zoonomia, vol. ii. 

* Tully himfelf calls this d.ti^di " caJumnia dkendl" the 
fcandal of public fpcaking. This abufe of a noble faculty 
has ukimalely deliroyed tvtry State in which it has been 
praclifed. Athens and Rome fell when the tinfel of rhetoric 


MONTESQiriEtJ. .439 

** If you afk me, my Ton, what in general are 
" the prejudices of the Englilh nation, and what 
*' they efheem mofi:, I fhould anfwer your quef- 
" tion with fome difficulty. They do not appear 
" to affed either war or ambition, neither thofe 
" perfons who are well with the Ladies, nor 
" thofe who have the ears of the Minifter. 
*' They appear defirous that men fhould be 
" men. They efteem only two things, wealth 
" and merit." 

*' It is not,'* fays this acute writer, in 
his Spirit of Laws, " it is not my bufmefs to 
enquire, whether the Englifli really pofiefs 
that freedom which they are fuppofed to 
have. It is enough for my purpofe that it 
" is eftabliflied by their Laws. I do not how- 
" ever pity thofe nations who do not enjoy that 
" blefling. I know but too well that excefs 
" of reafon itfelf is not a defirable thing, and 
" that in general mankind adapt themfeives 
^* better to a medium than to the extremes." 

was preferred to the pure gold cf knowledge, when men 
affected to appear wife rather than be really fo, and found 
the nation foolifli enough to be fatisiied with the Ihadow 
inftead of the fubftance. " Is it not furprizing," fays Dom 
Noel d'Argonne, "• that, fince eloquence has begun to be 
"' fufriciently known, mankind lliould ftill continue to b? 
♦^ duped by itr" 

F F 4 



[ 44^ ] 


Du Fresnoy's Latin Poem on Painting is 
well known. It v/as written by an artift; but, 
though it contains many excellent precepts and 
oblerrations relative to art, it i:-, like moil other 
Latin didadiic poems, dry and uninterefting. 
Abbe iMarfy's Latin Poem on the fame fubjed: 
is ViTitten with greater elegance of ftyle, and 
with fuperior liarniony of verfification. Many 
of the defcriptions it contains are beautiful. It 
would appear to advantage in an Englifh drefs, 
were notes appended to it by an eminent Artift 
or a good Connciifeur, in the fame manner as 
Sir Jofliua Reynolds's Commxnts illuflrate the 
text of the tranllation of Du P'refncy by Mr. 

Marfy was the fon of the celebrated fculptor 
of the Baths of Diana in the gardens of Ver- 
failles, and feems to hsve had a kind of heredi- 
tary right to iafte and knovv- ledge in art. 

lie thus defcribes Le Sueur and Nicole 
Fouiiin : 

Sufrii quid claujha kquar do^ique Salinas : 



Pi^uram Aufonns ex quo deduxit ah 9rh 
Et Roma sreptas t'bi Gallia tradidit artes, 

JLe Sueur's famM Cloif^er all our wonder claims; 
Why fpeak of learned Pouiiin's Sabine dames? 

Pouiiiin to whom indebted Gallia boafts 
Painting re. orcd from the Italian coalls, 
Proud from his povvcs of pencil to aflume 
, Each various grace of art defpoird from Rome* 

He thus commemorates Titian, the painter 
of Nature : 

— j^gnofco tuos Tittane colores 

JOo^e tot iUicihiis fuccU dec or are tabellas 
Jlrte color andi naturam tit "uincere pojps, 

Titian, thy magic colours I defcry, 
Skiird by the blerded tints that charm the eye; 
That Art with Nature's felf appears atflrife, 
^nd the dull canvas animates to life. 

M. de la Mierre and M. Watelet have writ- 
ten Poems on Painting in French verfe ^ taking 
many of their fentiments and obfervations from 
the Latin Poems of Du Frefnoy and de Marfy. 
Xhey have not, I fear, found many admirers. 

Abbe de Marfy, fpeaking of the art of Paint- 
ing * when exerciied by fuch m.en as Aiichael 

* The title of Marfy \s Poem is " Piaura," 1736. i2mo. 
He wrote alfo a Latin Poem on Tragedy, 



Angelo and Julio Romano, defcribes its fuhlimc 
effecls, in fome lines which may be well applied 
tothe Gallery of Milton, now painting by Mr, 

Nunc etiam hnpavidh fur gens ad fidera pennis 
Terrenes ml feeds hahens^ fiammentia tnundi 
Mania tranjgreditur. 

Painting, on fearlefs pinions borne, afcends 
The flars exalted region, and, fet free 
From every feculence of this vile earth, 
Eurfts through the flaming barriers of the world. 

■ "II ■ ill I II in'w»iafiirar»i ■"! ■! 


This great Mufician poiTeiTed that enthu- 
fiafm, without which nothing great is ever ef- 
fe<fbed. He had one day fome men of letters 
at Ins houfe, who laughed at him very much 
on his making an anachronifm.. Raraeau Hew 
Vv^ith great em.otion to his harpfichord, and, run- 
ning rapidly over the keys of it, played a mod 
exquinte piece of harmony. " Now," faid he, 
*' Gentlem.en, it furely fhews more talent to 
" be able to com.pofe fuch a piece of mufic as 
" that which you have juft heard, than to be 
" able to tell in what vear Charlemagne or 
" Clovis died. You only remember s I invent; 

RAMEAU. 443 

^^ and pray which is the moil admirable, ge- 
** nius or erudition ?'* 

On a quarrel he had with the elegant Qui- 
nault, whole Operas he fet to muhc, he faid, 
*^ You will fee how well I can do without my 
^' Poet. I will in future fet the Dutch Gazette 
*' to muiic." 

The Collar of the Order of St. Michael w^as 
intended for Rameau by Louis the Fifteenth, 
He died, however, before he received it -, and, 
at a public funeral, which the Royal Academy 
of Mufic made for him in one of the churches 
of Paris, the office for the dead was fet to mufic, 
taken from his own Operas of Caflor and Dar- 

His enemies complained, without reafon, that 
his mufic pleafed merely from its difficulty of 
execution *, It was indeed grand and elaborate, 
and excelled in its power of harmony, and in 

*- Dr. Johnfon was obferved by a nuifical friend of h'ls, 
to be extrennely inattentive at a Concert, vvhilil: a cele- 
brated folo player was running up the divifions and fub- 
diviiions of notes upon his violin. His friend, to induce 
him to lake greater notice of what was going on, told him 
how extrenriely difficuli it was. *' Difficult do you call it, 
'^ Sir?" replied the Dodor; " I wifh it were impollibk." 


444 w- d'acquiw. 

the juft combination of founds apparently dlf- 
cordant. This, however, evinced the geniui 
and the knowledge of the mailer. 


This great Mufician was a competitor for 
the exquilite organ of St. Paul's at Paris, with 
Rameau. They had each of them played a 
fugue, on the merit of Vv^hich the judges were 
divided ; and, as it was fuppofed that their com- 
pofitions were premeditated, they were defired 
to execute a volux^.tary. 

D'AcquIn firfl afcends the organ-loft, throws 
his fword with fome emotion at his feet, and 
exclaims, looking down upon his audience with 
an air of triumph, infplred by the confcioufnefs 
of his own talents, " Ceft moi qui vats toucher!'^ 
and in this tranfport of enthuiiafm, which the 
indecifion of his judges had occalioned, made 
iuch fpirited efforts, that the fuffrages w^ere no 
longer divided, and he triumphed, in point of 
execution at leaft, over the greateft muficJaA 
|;hat France ever produced. 

Rameau, however fuccefsful his competitor 

had been, ufed to fay of him, " There is no good 

3 " mufic 

•• mufic now: our tafte for it is continually 
*^ changing: M. d'Acquin alone has had the 
*^ courage to ilem the torrent ; he has always 
*' maintained to the Organ the majefty and the 
" graces that are peculiarly appropriated to 
** that wonderful inftrument : he might, how- 
*** ever, have given into all the tricks of execu- 
" tion if he had pleafed ; I admire him for not 
" having done fo." 

J.J. Rouffeau, in his Muiical Dictionary, ob- 
ferves, article Preluder, " It is in this great art, 
" that our good Organifls in France excels fiich 
*• as M. d'Acquin and M. Claviere/* 


in his Life of the modern Roman Demagogue 
Rienzi, obferves, " that popular talents, ia 
" general, are combined with a certain degree of 
" infanity.** The miafs of iPiankind appear ra- 
ther to be pleafed with what dazzles than w^ith 
that which convinces them ; and are more im- 
preffed by the ardour of enterprize than by the 
fobriety of practicability. It is the exercifed eye 
alone which prefers the impafto of Titian to the 
glaize of Barocci, — folid and fubftantial colour 
to airy and diaphanous tints. 

r 446 ] 


This ingenious man, however metaphyfical 
and alembicated he may be in his writings, was. 
of great fimplicity and bon hommie in his charac- 
ter and converfation. Having one day met 
with a ilurdy beggar, who afked charity of him, 
he rephed, " My good friend, ftrong and ftout 
*^ as you, it is a fliame that you do not go 
*' to work." — '' Ah Mailer," faid the beggar, " if 
*^ you did but know how lazy I am." — " Well," 
replied Marivaux, " I fee thou art an honefi: 
" fellow, here is half a crown for you.** 

Being one day in company with Lord Boling- 
broke, who had profeffed himfelf an infidel on 
many points of the Chriftian Religion, though 
he had mentioned as true many dubious hifto- 
rical fa6ts, "Well, my Lord," faid he, "if you 
" are an infidel, I fee that it is not for want of 
" faith." 

[ 447 ] 



The fituation of this excellent Prince is thus 
emphatically defcribed by that great Politician, 
Frederic, the lafl King of PrulTia, in one of his 
letters to Voltaire : 

** June 18, I776, 

" I HAVE lately learned that the King of 
" France has difplaced fome of his Mlnitters. 
'* I am not aftonifhed at it. I look upon 
'' Louis the Sixteenth as a young lamb in the 
*' midfl of wolves. He will be in great luck 
" if he gets out of their claws. A perfon who 
'' fliould chance to have been in the habits of 
" Govei-nment, would be at prefent much puz- 
" zled in France; — watched and furrounded 
with artifices of every kind, he v/ould be 
forced to be guilty of miftakes. How m.ucii 
more likely then is it, that a young Prince, 
without experience, fhould be hurried along 
by the torrent of intrigue and cabal. 

" Thofe perfons who have talked of the 
*' French Government to you, have doubtlefs, 
*' my dear Voltaire, exaggerated many things. 

** I have 

44^ tOt'tS THE SrXTEENTIt. 

** I have had an opportunity of getting at thfe 
*' true ftate of the revenues and of the debts 
" of that kingdom. Its debts are enormous, 
** its refources exhaufled, and its taxes mul- 
^^ tiplied beyond bounds. The only riiethod 
** to diminifli in time the load of thefe debts, 
" would be to put its expences within certain 
" limits, and to retrench every fuperfluity* 
" But, alas ! this I fear will never be done 5 
" for, inftead of faying, I have fuch an income, 
^^ and I can afford to fpend fo much of it, we 
" are but too apt to fay, I muft have fo much 
" money, find out expedients to procure it 
** for me. 

*' Thofe rogues of Monks fhould be made 
*' to bleed pretty freely. This, however, would 
*' not be fufficient (though it would undoubt- 
*' edly afford fome refources) to pay off the 
*' debts in a fiiort time, and to procure for the 
*' people of France all that affiitance for which 
** they have at prefent fo great an occafion. 
^' This difhrefsful fituation took its rife in the 
" preceding reigns, which contracted debts for 
" the payment of w^hich they had made no 
" provifion. 

** It is this derangement of its finances 
*•* which fo materially influences ever}^ part of 

" its 


*' its Government. It has put a flop, to the 
" wife projeds of M. de St. Germain. It- 
" has prevented its Adminifl'ration from having 
" tbjat afcendancy in the affairs of EuropCj 
" Vv'hich France has been ever ufed to take 
^' fince the reign of Henry the Fourth.- With 
" refpect to your ParUaments, as a thinkin'g 
j*^i man, I have conftantly condemned the revo- 
•*'' cation of that of Paris, as contrary to every 
*' principle of logic and of good fenfe.'* 

Is it then any wonder, that when M. de Mal- 
fnerbes came' to requefb his- difmifiion from Ad- 
miniftration, the King exclaimed^ "I can, in- 
" deed, grant you your diUniflion. I wifli I 
" were able to procure my own !" 

His fhort-fighted Miniflers, in thefe dif- 
trefsful circumftances, engaged him to afhO: 
the Colonies of a great Nation that were at war 
with the parent Country * j and not only to 


• That Minilier of routine M. de Vergennes^ grown^old 
m intrigue and cabal, ufed to exclaim with rapture after 
the American War, " I have cut off one arm from the 
*' proud Iflanders, I will foon cut off the other.'" ' The 
direption of that arm, however, like the teeth of the ferpen't 
of Cadmus, has produced armed legions, which have not 
6nly deftroyed each other and the Country by vvhofe folly 

voL. IV. G p and 


zdd to the immenfe debt already incurred in 
France, but to effecfl the propagation or that 
fpirit of revolt wHich hhs ended fo fatally fot 

that kingdom. 

On an application made to him by Tippoo 
Saibj not long before he fuffered, to afll^ him 
in taking poileffion of Tome Provinces in; India 
from the Engliili, and annexing them to the 
Crown of France, Louis nobly refufed his 
affent, and laid, " In the American War, my 
*' Minifliers took advantage of my youth and 
*' inexperience. Every calamity that v/e have 
" fuffered in France took its rife from that 
"event." - 

... Arh::^ 

During his infamous mock trial, this Prince 
Vv'as afk:ed, What lie. had done with a certain 
fum of money — a fevv^ thoufand pounds. Hi=s 
voice failed hini, and the tears came into his eyes 
at this quefiion; at laft he replied, " yatmai-s 
^^•^afaire des heureux. — I had a pleafure in mak- 
" ing other people happy." He had given the 
. nioney away in charity. 

and treachery they vi'ere produced, but thrc;iten the defiriu:-^ 
ilcp^.eif EurApe" jrfelf, and all that has be?n held l^^cred for 
£ges h}^ the Inhabirants of it. 



On the night preceding his execution he faid 
to M. Edo;eworth, " I do not know what I have 
" done to my coufin the Duke of Orleans, to 
" induce him to behave to me in the way in 
*' which he has dune ; but he is to be pitied ; 
" he is ftill more wretched than I am ^ I would 
^' not change fituations with him/' 

A few hours before he died, he faid to the 
fame Gentleman, " How happy I am to have 
" retained my faith in religion. In what a 
" terrible flate of mind fhould I have been 
** at this moment, had not the grace of God 
" preferved this bleiTmg to me. Yes, I fliall 
" now be able to fliew my enemies that I do 
'' not fear them.'* < 

As this monarch, the mofl benevolent, the 
bed intentioned Prince, and the mofl affec- 
tionate lover of his people * that Time has 
ever produced, was afcending the fcaffold to 
fufFer the fentence inllicled upon him by his 
unprincipled and infamous Judges, his virtuous 
and intrepi4 Confelfor exclaimed, with ail the 

* " // ny a que mo: ^ M. Turgot qui aim.ns k pcnpky" faid 
this unfortunate , Prince ; who, during the Revolution, was 
continually faying, " I cannot bear to have a drop of my 
*' people's blood flied on my account," 

G G 2 energy 


energy of Comellle himlelf, " Digne enfant Je 
" Saint Louis, monte an del :''' 

O true defcendant of a Sainted King, 
Let this fad fcene to thee no terrors bring ; 
Afcend the fcaffold then with dauntlefs pace, 
It leads to join in Heaven thy facred race. 


was one -of thofe few Poets who f^crifice no 
iefs at the fhrine of Piutus than at that of 
Apollo. In one of his letters to a friend, re- 
fpe6ting economy, he has thefe excellent obfer- 
vations : 

" A fmall patrimony becomes every day 

" fmaller 9 for the price of every thing is cpn- 

'"' ^inually .incre;afing*. A prudent man will 

*^ t)e ey<^r a|te:ntiye to all the different opera- 

*^ tioDS that Government, conftantly haralTed 

" for money, and continually fhifting its plans 

^*.cf finance, is makinfr in the funds of the 

': . ■ . ;.iiirii::r 

'•* ^* Kea-hc crercifes no tr.lde or praffeffioa,'' fays Mr. 

Soarre Jenyi.s r.rchly, " is impofed upon by every Ox^e, 

** without £ny>-po»;er of making reprilals. He is like a 

'-'man in the pillory, pelted by all without being able to 

*^ return it. He has but one chance, which itw meirs 

** iituation or abilities will admit cf, which is, that of ret::- 

" iiating upon the public.'* 
'-' § 'J country. 


^' country. There always are feme operations 
^' going on, by which a private man may get 
" a good deal of money, without having the 
" leafl obligations to any one; and nothing 
" furely can be fo fatisfadory to him, as to be 
*' indebted to himfelf only for his own fortune. 
" The firfl ftep towards it is always painful j the 
*' reft follow as of courfe. 

" A prudent man will be always economical 
*^ in his youth ; and at a certain age, he will 
*' find himfelf much richer than he ever ex- 
peeled to have been. That is the time in 
which a good fortune is the mofl elTentiai 
to a's happinefs. I am in that iitua- 
tlon my felf at prefent ; and, after having lived 
a great deal with Kings, i am at laft become 
a King m.yfelf. In France, you know, a man 
" mufl be either a hammer or an anvil , T have 
'' chofen to be the firft/' 

Voltaire h^ad v/ritten a Tragedy called Bru- 
tus, and had a fhare in a (hip of that name ; 
his Tragedy was damn'd, and his fliip made 
a fuccefsful voyage : " Well," faid the Wir, 
^' one of my Erutus's has made amends for th^ 
" other.'* 

Q Q c^ When 





When the Emperor Jofeph travelled through 
Switzerland, he did not pay a vifit to Voltaire. 
He was aiked by the learned Baron Haller, 
why he had not called upon that celebrated 
Writer ? The Emperor replied, *' Had I tra- 
" veiled, Sir, merely as an Emperor, I fhould 
^' mofh aflurediy have paid my refpefts to io 
" diflinguifhed a character; but I travel as a 
*', and am therefore anxious to 
" preferve all the punftilios that are annexed 
'' to that character : a Gentleman cannot go 
" to fee a man who has been caned, and who 
" has been difgraced by fome decifions of the 
'' Courts of Juftice againft him." 

The Secretary of M. DaguefTeau, Great 
Chancellor of France, was afked by his Mafter 
one day, what he thought of a production of 
Voltaire that had juft appeared ? — " UEpitre 
'' a U Uranier—" Why, Sir," replied he, 
" the perfon who wTOte it . ought to be fhut 
*- up in a place where he could not get at pen, 
*' ink, and paper. The writer of it is a man 
" that, by the general turn of his mind, is 
" capable of ruining a Kingdom and overfetting 
" any Government whatever.'* 

Madame de Talmond once faid to M. 
Voltaire, " I think, Sir, that a Phiiofo- 

" phcr 


^'■' pher * fliould never write but to endeavour 
" to render mankind lefs wicked and lefs un- 

*' happy 

* '• An ancieat.Philofopher," fays Duclos, " was one 
*' day accufine 'a^ celebrated Courtezan of fediicln2r the 
" vonth of Athens: ' Alas!' replied flie, ' Would to 
" Heaven, that we were the only perfons who corrupt 
*' them ! D j not you Philofophers come in for your (liarc 
" of the imputation r* — Then," fiibjolns D-uclos, *' it is 
" now the fa.hion to declaim againft prejudices; perhaps 
" we have already deflroyed too many of them : prejudice 
*' is the law of the generality of mankind. In fpeaking on 
"this fubjesS, I am under the neceffity of finding fault 
** with thofe writers, who, under the pretence of com- 
*' bating fuperftirion (which would be a very laudable 
'* motive, if it were retrained within the bounds of virtue 
*' and of prudence), endeavour to fap the foundations of 
" morality, and loofen the bands of fociety j the more 
" fenfelefs, as they themfelves would be in the moft danger 
♦' if they were to fucceed in making profelytes. The per- 
" nicious effe(fls which they produce upon their converts, 
" is to render them in their youth ufelefs and dai^gerous 
" citizens and fcandalous criminais, and in an advanced 
" acre wretched and miferable m^en ; for there can be but 
" few of them, who, at that time of life, can pollefs the 
" curfed advantage over their fellow^s, of becoming fo 
'' completely abandoned as to be carelefs about the future 
** confequences of their pafi: lives : for 

' ' Nunquam aliud Natura^ aliud fapientia dixit. 

" Nature and Wifdom differ but in name, 
*' Their ends and objects ever are the fame; 
'* In fpite of Sophiftry's feduftive art, 
" They force their truths eternal on the heart. 

o G e^ *' Anc!, 

•4-^6 VOLTAIR]^. 

." happy than they are. Now you do quite 
" the contrary. You are always writing againfl 
-" that Religion which alone is able to re- 
*' ftrain wicked nefs, and to afford us confola- 
** tion under misfortunes." Voltaire, accord- 
ing to Brotier, was much . llruck with what 
M. de Talmond had faid to him, and ex- 
cufed himfelf by faying, " that he wrote only 
" for thofe who were of the fame opinion with 
'' himfelf." 

Voltaire's pen was fertile and very elegant ; 
his obfervations are occalionally acute, yet he 
often betrays great ignorance when he treats 
on fubjeds of ancient learning, Dr. Johnfon 
told his antagonift Freron, " that Kir eral 
*' acerriml higenli ac pane arum liter arum ," and 
Bifhop Warburton fays of him, with no lefs 

" And, as Juvenal has finely obferved, 

*' Exe?nplo quodcunque malo comniitt'itur ^ ipji 
*' D iff licet au^orit Prima eft hcec uliio^ quodfe 
** Judicc nemo nocens ahfolvitur. 

*' Wlioe'er commits a crime is fure to feel 

'* Dilpleafure at himfelf; nor can he fteel 

" His mind *gainil thofe compun6tions which are fent 

** By guilt itfelf, as its own punifliment: 

*' Wrjift, to increafe the anguifli of his heart, 

^^ Accufmg Confcience a^fls the Judge's part.'^ 



pleafantry than truth, " that he writes indit- 
*' ferently well upon every thing.'* 

According to the Author of the '' Galerie 
" de r Ancienne Cour^'' Tronchin allured his 
friends, that Voltaire died in great agonies of 
mind. " Je meiirs ahandonne des Dieux et des 
" Hommes /" exclaimed he, in thofe awful mo- 
ments when truth will force its way. *' 1 wiihed," 
added Tronchin, " that thofe wh© had been 
*' perverted by his writings had been prefent at 
*' his death ; it was a fight too horrid to fup- 
" port. Gn ne pouvoit pas Je tenir c outre un 
^' pareilfpe5f/icle.''^ 

" Voltaire," laid Montefquieu, " can never 

'* write a good hiftory. He is like the Monks, 

*' who ahvays write for the honour of their 

" Convent, and never of the fubjecb on which 

" they treat -, Voltaire will always v/rite for his 

" Convent ^:' 


* This Convent was a Priory compofed of a fcvv pre- 
tended Philofophers, and a great Monarch at the head 
of them, who, Iiowever, better acquainted with the nature 
of men and of human affairs than themfelves, did not 
proceed to the violent extremes into which they gave. 
Voltaire's infidel writings poHefs this pernicious quality, 
thr.t they render infideliiy eafy to the meaneH capacity, 
und convince thofe perfons by a joke or a fneer, to 



The late Bifliop Warburton had intended 
to have written againft Voltaire ; and it is a 
pity that he was diiluaded from doing that 
which he would have done eminently well, as 
he had wit and talents equal to thole of Vol- 
taire, and was confiderably his fuperior in learn- 
ing. The lofs, however, of the antidote of the 
Biftiop to the poifon of this lively though 
dangerous Writer, is in fome degree fupplied 
by ^' Les Lettres de auelqnes Jtiifs a M. de Vol- 
" tairey 

By the kindnefs of Mr. Wyndhaivt, an 
Englifli Letter of M. de Voltaire to Mr. Dod- 
dinston, afterwards Lord Melcombe, is fub- 

'* A Monrio?i pres de Laufanne^ 
*' 4 Feviier 1756. 

" Sir, 
" I WAS very fick in the month of January, 
*' at the foot of the Alps, when a handfome 
" youth did appear in my cabin, next to 

whom argumentation would be incomprehenfible. They 
raife a laugh in young minds againll certain ferious 
objefts, when the imprelTions are ftrong and vivid, and 
fcatter thofe lire-brands in fport, which, under the beauty 
and piayfulncfs of the flame, conceal their powers of 
combo ftion. 

** Laufanne, 


" Laufanne, and favoured me with your kind 
" letter, written in September^ the date from 
** Eaftbury. 

"^ 'ff "^ 7^ ^ 

" The country about Geneva, which you 
*' have feen, is now much improved ; noble 
" houfes are built, large gardens are planted, 
" Thofe who fay the world impairs every day 
" are quite in the wrong — are quite in the 
" wrong as to the natural world ; 'tis not the 
*' hke in the mioral and the political one. 

" Be what it will, I have pitched upon two 
'' retreats on the banks of that lake you are 
*' pleafed to mention in your letter. I pafs 
*' the winter by Laufanne, and the other fea- 
^* ions by Geneva, without care and without 
'' Kines*. 

'^ That country would not perhaps agree 
with a Frenchman of twenty-five; but it is 


* Voltaire was one of the greateft flatterers to Kings 
and the Great, to their faces and in his letters to them, 
that ever exifled. He had written fome verfes in favour of 
M. de Choifeul when he was in place ; he afterwards wrote 
complimentary verfes on M. de Maupeou, who fiicceeded 
him. M. de Ciioifeul, to flievv his contempt at this 
behaviour, put a reprefentation of the head of Voltaire 
upon a weather-cock on one of the wings of his Chateau, 
at Chanteloup. 

" moft 


" mod convenient to old age; when one is 
*' pall fixty, the place of reafon is a private 
ftation. Yet, though I am mightily pleafed 
with thefe lands of peace and freedom, I 
would gladly fee another land of liberty 
again before I die ; I would have the honour 
to fee you again, and renew to you my iin- 
" cere and everlafling gratitude for all the to- 
" kens of kindnefs I received from you when I 
" was in London. 

** My good Countrymen have fometimes 
upbraided me for having too much of the 
Englifli fpirit in my way of thinking; it 
fhould be but juft I Hiould pa^ a vifit to 
thofe who have drawn that reproach upon 

" me ; be fure, dear Sir, none was more guilty 

" than you. I hope I fliould find you in good 
health, for you are born as found and ftrong 
as Nature made me weak and unhealthy. I 
hope the evening of your day is ferene and 

" calm ; 'tis the befl: lot of that hour : you 

" have enjoyed all the reft. 

** I am, with the tendereft refped, 
" Sir, 
^* Your moft humble and obedient fervant, 






Sir William Chambers prefented his book 
OR Oriental Gardening * to Voltaire, The two 
following Letters pafTed between them on the 
occafion : 

" London, July 3, 1772. 
" Sir, 

I TAKE the liberty of fending you a little 
book lately pubhfhed by me ; it contains, 
*^ be fides a great deal of nonfenfe, two very 
** pretty prints engraved by the celebrated Bar- 
^"^ tolozzi; v/hich prints, and the view with 
*^ which the book was publifhed, are its only 
" recommendations. 

^' The tafte of Gardening, as it feems to me, 
*^ is very indifferent all over Europe. A willi 
**^ to fee it mended has induced me to throw 
'^ out a few hints upon that fubjecl ; they may 
*^ excite others to labour in the fame field ; 
*^ fo ample, fo rich, fo well deferving the at- 
" tention of orenius. It is much to be re- 
^' gretted that Monfieur de Voltaire (amidft the 

* That great Architect was much ridiculed on Jthe fub«> 
jed: of this book. He, however,, afTured his friends, th^t, 
ail the ideas of Oriental Gardening mentioned in it were 
taken from a Treatife of Fathei' Attiret, an European Mif- 
fionary in China, who had vvritLea on the Garden* of>that 
Country. , :ii m^ " 

*' great 


" great variety of fubjedl;^ he has lb fucccfsfully 
•* treated) has never employed his thouglits 
** upon this. 

" I have the honour to be, with great refpeft, 

" Sir, 

" Your moil obedient humble Servant, 

" William Chambers. 

*' To Monfieur de Voltaire ^ 

" Amt 7, 1772. 

*' Au Chateau de Fi-vney. 

" Monfieur, 

" Ce n'eft pa,s affez d'aimer les jardins, ni 
' d'en avoir. II faut des yeux pour ies regarder, 
' et des janibes pour s'y promener. Je perds 
' bientot Ics uns ct les autres, grace a m^a vieil- 
' lefle et a mes maladies. Un des derniers 
' ufao^es de mia vue a etc de lire votre tres 
' agreable ouvrage. Je m'aper^ois que j'ai fuivi 
' vos preceptes autant que mon ignorance eE 
' ma fortune Font permis. J'ai ^/^ /o;// dans mes 
' jardins, parterres, petite piece d'eau, prome- 
' nades regulieres, bois tres irreguliers, valons, 
' pres, vignes, potagers, avec des murs de par- 
' tage couverts d'arbres fruitiers, du peigne ct 
^ du fauvage, le tout en petit, et fort eloigne de 

" votre 


" votre magnificence. Un Prince d'Allemagne 
*' fe ruineroit en voulant etre votre ecolier. 
• " J'ai riionneur d'etre, avec toute Teftime 
" que vous meritez, 
" Monfieur, 
" Votre tres obeiiTant Serviteur, 

" Voltaire, 
" Gentilkomme ds la CJiambre dii Roiy 

An impertinent perfon had teazed Voltaire 
with continual letters, to which no anfwer had 
been given; at lafl Voltaire wrote to him 
thus : 

" My Dear Sir, 

" I am dead, and cannot therefore in future 
*' have the honour to write to you." 


This eloquent Writer was very much cha- 
grined, when he was not permitted by Voltaire*s 
friends to add his Louis-d'or to thofe that had 
been collecled for raifing a ftatue to him, whilft 
living at the Comedie Frano'.ife at Paris. When 
his friends reprefented to him as a Philofopher 
their furprife at this, he replied, *' Mals^ MeJ- 
" fietirsy je meurs de glolre'' This pailion for 


464 J- J- ROUSSEAt;. 

glory and diftincllon fecms to have beei^ • the 
leading pnnciple of his conduct. His literary 
career began in paradox; he took the wrong 
fide of a queilion long fince fettled,; and,fiattered 
by the fuccefs of his efFortSy he proceeded to 
his too famous " Contrat' Sbcrai,'' the political 
creed of a neighbouring Nation, who widi, like 
MakO'met, to propagate it With -arms in their 
hands throughout Europe. Yet, as if. confci- 
ous that what \vas merely a difplay of perniciQus 
ingenuity in him, might be taken as' a ferious 
truth by others, he fays, in another place, ''^ In 
" the iriifery attendant upon human affairs, 
*' what thing is valuable enough tp-'be pur- 
" chafed at the expence of tlie blood of , our 
*' brethren ? Liberty itfelf coils too dear at 
" that price. It is vain," continues he, " to 
" attempt to confound liberty and indepen- 
*' dence ; they are thinos fo different in them- 
" felves, that it is impolTible to unite them. 
'' When every one acts as he pleafes, he thuft 
\ often do what is unpleafant to others ; and 
" wdio can call that fituation a ftate of free- 
" dom. Liberty confifls ,lefs in having our 
'' own way, than in not being fubject to the 
'* will of others. It confifts, likewife, in being 
" unable to fubmit the will of another perfon 
" to that of one's own. Whoever has conti- 

" nually 

J. J. ROUSSEAU. 465 

** nually his own way cannot be free; and, in 
" reality, to command is to obey/* 

He fays, in his Lettres ecrites de la Mon- 
tague, — " After having, during the whole 
" courfe of my life, been the panegyrift of a 
** Repubhcan form of Government, muft I, 
" towards the end of it, be obliged to confefs, 
" that of all the Governments that exift, 
" Monarchy is that in which there is the 

greatefl regard paid to the true liberty of 

man ?'* 


Had Roufleau, who v/as rather capricious 
than malignant, rather a man of no fixed princi- 
ples than of bad principles, lived to have {^tvx 
the pernicious efFecls.of his paradoxes upon the 
happinefs of mankind in our time, he would 
have been the firil to ha,ve execrated his ovv^a 
fedudlive talents, and to have broken that ma- 
gical wand, which, though like that of Profpero 
it could " fet the waters in a v/ild roar," yet did 
not, like his, poflefs its more falutary power of 
allaying them*. 

* The venerable and rerpe6Vable Bifliop of Leon dd 
St. Pol, now in London, was once prefent when RoufTeau 
was accufed of being occafionally in his writings contra- 
di6\ory and inconfequent. " J tell nnankind," aniwered 
he, " what I reaily think true at the time, and fo 1 perform 
" my engagements with them." 


[ 466 ] 



This Prelate was of a Miniflerial family, had 
fome talents, was an elegant writer, and, like 
Vefpafian, would have ever appeared dignus 
regnandi Ji non regnaffet — capable of the office of 
Prime Minifler of a great kingdom, had he never 
been placed in that arduous fituation. 

When ArchbiQiop of Thouloufe, he diftin- 
guidied himfelf by his poliflied manners and 
elegant hofpitaHty. His Paftoral Letter Againft 
Burying in Churches is well written, and forcibly 
expofes that abufe, which, like the torment of 
Mezentius, conjoins the living with the dead, 
and is produ6tive of many mifchievous effedls 
on the healths of mankind. 

* M. de Brienne's great grandfather was Secretary of 
State to Anne of Auflria. He publifhed his Memoirs in 
three volumes i2mo. for the ufe of his fon. They are very 
entertaining. The elder brother of the Cardinal de Brienne, 
the Marquis, had his arm fliot off in the fatal attack of 
Fort L'AfTiette, in Savoy, in 1746. He was requefted to 
retire to his tent. " No, no,*' replied he, " I have another 
** arm left for the fervice of my King.*' He perfifted, and 
was foon afterwards killed by a caiinoa-balL 

" O ye," 


" O ye," lays he in his Paftoral Letter, 

*' my dear Brethren, who continue to think our 

" regulations too fevere (although we have 

" been as little rigorous as poiiible), what eom- 

*' plaints can you make, what objedlicns can 

" you oppofe to them ? Churches, in the 

** early times of our holy religion, were never 

" made ufe of as the fepultures of Chriftians. 

" They feem to have been fo little intended 

" for that purpofe, that in the office for the 

*' confecration of them, according to a learned 

" Canon Lawyer, there is not a iingle prayer 

" that relates to it, though there are fome ex- 

" prefsly deflined for the confecration of church- 

" yards j and can you fuppofe that preten- 

" fions, againft which their abufe will ever 

proteft, can prevail againfl the dignity of our 

" facred fabrics, the holinefs of our altars, and 

*^ the confervation of the race ? 

" Will you then have recourfe to your fitua- 
" tion, your confequence, the rank which you 
" hold in fociety ? 

" Our grounds of confidence are fo great, 
" that we are inclined to think thofe perfons 
•* who have the greatefh claims to diftindiiion, 
" will be the lafl to exert thofe claims. Ex- 
** ceptions caufe always jealoufy and multiply 

H H 2 " pre- 



" pretenfipns. Who will dare to complain 
" when the prohibition becomes a general law ? 
" and furely in the grave at lead there ought to 
" be no exception made for any one." 

M. Hecquet lays, in his " CoUedion of 
" Tracts relative to the Exhumation of the 
" great Church of Dunkirk," that the town 
^' became more healthy after the bodies of 
" thofe who had been buried in it had been 
" taken up. The houfe of the God ot 
Mercy," fays he, " then ceafed to be the 
cavern of Peflilence, and the Sanctuary of 
Religion was no longer the grave of pollu- 
" tion." Similar efFeds produce fimilarcaufes; 
and when the exhalations from putrid animal 
•matter are added to the fmoke, the filth, and 
the clofenefs, of great towns, the philofopher 
will behold them no lefs as the deftroyers than 
the corrupters of the human race *. 

* See *' Pieces concernantles Exhumations faita t^ans VEyllfe 
** de St. Eloy en Dunkerqiie^ imprimees et publices par VOrdre du 
*' Gouvernment^ Paris, 1785." The ancien regime oiYrdinCQ 
was ill general very careful of the lives and healths of its 
fubjeds, within the kingdom at leafl. Were they threatened 
with any epidemical difeafe, or did any particular complaint 
appear, the beft Phyficians were appointed by the Govern- 
ment to examine into the nature and caufes of them; and 
their reports were printed at the expense of the King. It 
did not wait for the flow and uncertain exertions of bene- 

r 469 ] 


It was faid of Turgot, and of his predecef- 
for in the finances, Abbe Terrai, " que le pre- 
" mier fit mal le bien, et que le fecondfit bien le 
" mal'' There might be fome truth in this , 
for Turgot, with the befl intentions in the 

volence in the individual ; it confidered itfelf as the " nurf- 
** ing father and the nurfing mother of its people." The 
fame remarks may be extended to any improvement in 
Agriculture, Manufactures, Navigation, &c. The ableft 
Chemifls, the bed Mechanics, &c. were employed and paid 
by Government to make experiments, to furnifli models, &c. 
a paternal care well worthy the notice of other Govern- 
ments, who, though bleiTed with more freedom, are but too 
apt to have lefs attention and ufe a lefs degree of exertion 
refpe6ting thefe obje6ls. The merit indeed of a chemical 
procefs to arrefi: the baleful power of contagion, difcovered 
by a learned, poliflied, and benevolent Phyfician, has lately 
attracted the notice of our Board of Admiralty, and induced 
it to iuake ufe of a method fo fimple and fo certain to pre- 
ferve the healths and the lives of thofe perfons commitred 
to their care. No remuneration nor no dillinctions have as 
yet attended the difcoverer, who in this, as in fome other 
benevolent exertions, has merely been gratified with the ap- 
plaufes of his own virtuous mind ; thofe applaufes which 
the whole courfe of his liberal and intelligent practice has 
ever fecured to him.— See ** A Letter addreiTed by James 
'' Carmichael Smyth, M. D. F. R. S. to Lord Spencer." 

H H 3 world, 

47^ M. TtJRGOT. 

world, was perhaps rather too precipitate in 
fome of his meafures. He fuppofed the reft 
of mankind to be as honeft, as virtuous, and 
as intelligent as himfelf, but was moft fatally 
deceived. Turgot innovated many things in 
the French Government : — the things were 
very probably in themfelves right, but the 
Nation was not perhaps in a proper ftate to re- 
ceive them. The ill fuccefs of this upright 
but imprudent Minifter gave rife to the follow- 
ing verfcs, which were written in 1777, and 
which were called " La Prophet ie "Turgot ine ;" 
a prophecv, alas ! too cruelly verified by the 
rapine, the mafiacres, the regicides and the facri- 
lege Vvdiich have fucceeded. 



VI VENT tous nos beaux efprits 

Encyclopediftes ! 
Du bonheur hran^oisepiis. 

Grands Economiftes. 
Par leurs foins au temps d'Adam 
Nous reviendrons, c'eft leur plan : 

Momus les allifte, 

Momus les afEfte ! 


M. TURCOT. 471 

Ce n*eft pas de nos bouquins 

Que vient leur fcience ; 
En eux ces fiers Palladins 

Ont la fapience : \ 

Les Colbert et les Sully 
Nous paroiflent grands ; mais fi ? 

Ce n'eft qu'ignorance, 
O gue, 

Ce n'eft qu'ignorance I 

On verra tous les etats 

Entre eux fe confondre, 
Les pauvres fur leurs grabats 

Ne plus fe morfondre; 
Des biens on fera des lots. 
Qui rendront les gens egaux 

Le bel xEuf a pondre^ 
O gue, 

Le bel ceuf a pondre ! 

Du meme pas marcheront 

Noblefle et roture; 
Les Francois retourneront 

Au droit de nature. 
Adieu Parlement et Loix, 
Et Dues et Princes et Rois ! 

La bonne aventure, 
O gue, 

La bonne aventure ! 

H H 4 Puis 

47^ M. TITRGOT. 

Puis devenus vertueux 

Par philofophie, 
Les Francois auront des Dieux 

A leur fantaifie. 

* * ^^ * * 

Alors l*amour et furete 

Entre fceurs et freres, 
Sacrements et parente 

Seront des chimefes; 
Chaque pere imitera 
Nofc quand il s'enivra. 

Liberie pleniere, 
O gue, 

Liberte pleniere I 

Plus de Moines langoureux, 

De plaintives Nonnes, 
Au lieu d'adrcfTer aux Cieux 

Matines et Nones, 
On verra ces malheureux 
Danfer, abjurant leur voeux, 

Galante chaconne, 
O gue, 

Galante chaconne ! 

Partifans des novations, 

La fine fequeile 
La France des nations 

Sera le modele. 


M. TURCOT. 473 

Et cet honneur nous devrons 
Au Turcot et compagnons, 

Befogne immortelle, 
O gue, 

Befogne immortelle ! 

A qui devrons nous le plus! 

C'eft a notre maitre. 
Qui fe croyant un abus, 

Ne voudra plus Tetre *. 
Ah ! qu'il faut aimer le bien 
Pour dc Roi, n'etre plus rien, 

J'enverrois tout paltre, 
O gue, 

J'enverrois tout paitre! 

This " Prophetic" was written by M. de 
Lifle, a Captain in the French lervice at the 
time in which that virtuous and learned Mi- 
nifter made his reforms in the Government of 
France; reforms which, however dictated by 
the greateft purity of intention, and emanating 
from a mind mofl highly cultivated and in- 

* This relates to what the unfortunate Louis the Six- 
teenth faid to M. de Malfnerbe, when that Minifter of State 
defired his Sovereign to permit him to refign : " Que vous 
** hci heiireux^ Monjieur ! que je puis pas m* en oiler aujji. — How 
" happy you are, Sir ! Why cannot I refign too r'* Louis 
faid one day of M. Turgot, " He and I are the only per- 
" fons in the country who have a regard for the people." 


474 M. TURCOT* 

formed, were but ill calculated for the com- 
fort and happinefs of a People who pufh every 
thing to extremes, and feem to have been daz- 
zled and to have become wild at the mere dawn 
of that liberty, to the fplendor of which they 
had been fo httle accuflomed*. 

M.Turgot always gave his teilimony in favour 
of the virtue and good intentions of the late 
unfortunate Monarch of his country : " Nonx 
" avons tin Roi honnete homme^'' he ufed always 
to fay — " We have a King who is an honeft 

* Cwruptio opt'ime eji feffima^ fay the fchools, — the abufe 
of any thing is more dangerous in proportion to its in- 
trinfic excellence. A Poet has feigned that Milton became 
blind, in confequence of the aftual appearance of the God- • 
defs of Liberty to him. The mere fliadow of that aiiguft 
and venerable Divinity has ofFufcated the mental eye of 
the French nation, and excited it to the ir.diilgence of 
thofe rude and turbulent paflions by which the moft deteft- 
able tyrants themfelves have been diftinguiflied, avarice, 
revenge, and cruelty, the violation of every principle of 
juftice, and the profanation of every farred rite. Happy 
would it have been for themfelves and their neighbours, if, 
like the ancient Cappadocians, they had refufed that freedom 
which was offered them by the humane and virtuous Turgot ; 
as by their abufe of that ineftimable bleffing, the fource of 
fvery exalted energy of the human mind, they have con- 
verted it into a curfe, as well to then:felves as to the other 
nations of Europe. 

" man." 

M. TtJRGOt. 475 

** man.'* Poor Turgot iliould have looked 
into that oracle of human wifdom, Lord Bacon, 
who would have told him, " It is not good to 
try experiments on bodies poHtic, except the 
neceffity be urgent, or the utility evident ; 
and to take good care that it be the defire of 
*^ reformation that draws on the change, and 
" not the defire of change that projeds on the 
*' reformation. Further," adds his Lprdfhip, 
" all novelty, though perhaps it mufh not be re- 
jeded, yet ought ever to be held fufpeded^ 
and laflly, as the Scripture dire6ls, State 
Jitper vias antiquas — Let us make a ftand upon 
" the antient ways, and then look about us, 
*^ and difcover what is the ftraighteft and right 
" way, and fo walk in it." 




fays in his " Maxims," 

" The laws that refped: a fecret, and a fum 
** of money entrufhed to a man, fliould ftand 
" upon the fame foundation. 

" One of my friends, a man of very deli- 

" cate health, but of great ftrength of charac- 

-jv " ter. 

47^^ M. CHAMFORT. 

" ter, ufed to fay of himfelf, " I am as well 
" the reed that bends and never breaks, as the 
" oak that breaks and never bends, homo inte- 
*' rior totiis nervus. 

" A man without character is a thing, not 


a man. 


A man without principles is commonly a 
" m-an without character. Had he been born 
" with a charadler, he muft have feen the ne- 
" ceffity of forming to himfelf principles con- 
" fiflent with it. 

*' Philofophy, like the art of Medicine, con- 
" tains a great deal of trafh, very few reme- 
" dies, and hardly any fpecifics. 

" Vanity caufes a man to exert his talents 
" more forcibly than he otherwife would have 
** done. Put a flick to a piece of pointed iron 
" it becomes a dart, add a few feathers to it 
" and it becomes an arrow. 

" Weak men are to rogues and defigning 
" perfons what light troops are to an army; 
" who do more mifchief than the army itfelf 
*' by fcouring and ravaging the country. 

^^ If 


**' If a man really wifhes to avoid being a 
" quack, he fliould never get upon a flage^ 
" but if once he has played his tricks upon it, 
" he mufl continue them, or fubmit to have 
^* ftones thrown at him by the populace. 

" Moil men are flaves, becaufe they cannot 
*' pronounce the monofyllable " No," and are 
" unable to live alone. 

" General maxims are, in the conduct of 
" life, what routine is in certain arts. Situa- 
" tions in each occalionally arife, which require 
" fomething beyond them.'* 


the Editor and Translator of Tacitus, was a 
Jefuit. " No one," fays his Biographer, " ever 
" more rigidly pradifed the maxim of the an- 
*' cient Phllofopher, " live concealed." Many 
" of his own excellent maxims ftill remain in 
" the memory of his friends." 

He ufed to fay, " That as a man could not 
" always do what he wifhed to do, to enfurc 

'' the 


*' the peace and the tranquiUity of his life, 
" he ought to be contented with doing that 
*' which he ought to do. 

" The great fources of happinefs are under- 
" ftanding and cheerfulnefs. Nothing in the 
" world can be fet againft them ; and they can 
" ftand in the ftead of every thing." 

He ufed to fay, ^' That in proportion as the 
*' Government was in the hands of more per- 
" fons, it was always more unjuft. Obferve," 
faid he, " in the Roman Provinces governed 
•* by the Senate, to what an excefs tyranny and 
*' rapine were carried by the avarice of the 
" Pro-Confuls, and by the power of impunity 
*•' which they poffeiTed -, being mafters them- 
" felves of the Senate, and friends and relations 
" of the Senators, the only Judges of their ill- 
" behaviour.'* 

" There are three things in the world," faid 
he, " that know no kind of reflraint, and are 
" governed by no laws, but merely by pafTioa 
" and brutality : — civil wars, family quarrels, 
" and religious difputes." 

He agreed v/ith Tacitus, that hereditary 
power depended entirely upon chance and upon 



birth, and that eledlve power was fuppofed to 
depend upon an enlightened and well-confidered 
choice. " But/' added he, " the opinions of 
" mankind are Co httle founded in truth, that 
" the long experience of pail ages has taught 
*• us, that we owe more of our greateft and 
*' mod excellent Princes to birth than to 
** choice." 

A little elegant and entertaining work of Abbe 
Brotier was pubHfhed after his death, intitled, 
" Paroles Memorables^^ izmo. of which much 
ufe has been made in this Collection. 




O F 

N A iM E S. 


ABBOT, I 280. 
Abelard, iii. 313. 
Acqnin, iv. 444. 
Addifon, ii. 273. 281. iii. 

Aaretz, iv. 28. 
Adrian Vf. iii. 103. 
Alais, iv, 2^5. 
Aland, i. ^62. «. 
Alba, iv. 350. 
Alberoni, iii. 0,6}, 
Albert, iii. 5. 70. 
Alberti, iii. 27. 
Albret, iv. iii, 112. 
Alen^on, iv. 44. 73. 
Alexander VI. iii. 28. 
Ali Bey, ii. 450. 
Alphonfo V. iii. 240. 
Ames, ii. 316. 
Amyot, iii. 429, 
Ancre, iv. 168. 
Andilly, iv. ^^1;, 
Andrews, i. 205. 274. 408. 
Angelo, iii. 33. 37, &;c. 59. 


Anne, Q^ ii. 238. 

Anfon, ii. 348. 

Aquinas, iii. 5. 

Arc, iii. 356. 

Aretin, iii. 10. 

Argonne, ii. 346. iii. 123. 

iv- 345- 439- 
Arnauld, iii. 123. iv. 20. 

335-339»34o> 34i- 
Arnanx, iv. 184. 
Arundel, i. 193. 426. 
Afcham, i. 19^. ii. 332. 

iii. 166. 
Atterbury, i, 165. 
Aubigne, iv. 136. 
Auflria, iv. 166. 

Bacon, Anthony, iv. 104. 
Bacon, Lord, i. 184. 233. 
439. ii. 221. 236 n. ':?97. 
Bacon, Nicolas, i. iti. 
Bacon, Roger, i» i. 
Baiilie, i, 337. 
Bainton, i. 10 1. 

I I Balguy, 


Balguy, i. 377. 

Br^lmout, iv. 217. 

Balti i^oiT, ii. 280. 

Balzac, i. 241. lii. 217. 

Bandinelli. iii. 40. 

Bnrbaro, iii. 10. 

Barbff, ii. 338. 

Bariilon, ii. 148. 

I;arii'^«-<1, ii. 386, 

Barrow, ii. 134. 318. 

Bath, ii. 257. 

Baviere, i. 313. iv. 414. 

Bayard, iii. 41 v 

Br^yle, iv. 34S. 

Bay lie, i. 421. 

Beau champ, i. 2 13. 

Beauforc, ii. 2^6. lii. 60. 

Beaujeaii, iii. 380. 

Beaiiinanoir, iv. 149. 

Bedrl!, i._347. 

Bedford, ii. 350.T7. ^i., 3,47^ 

Beilby, ii. 123. ' ," 

Bell, iii. 194. 

Beliievre, iv.) i|. 

Bellori, iv. 392, ,. 

Heiuince, ii;. ipQj.iv.,,^;;^. 
Btmbb, iii^ ^7, \" . . 
Keyedict !!^i. j'ii:"'.8. 
.^entlejvil. ids-'a^^'j^y 
Berkeley', 1.347.. 
Bernier, iv.,'29;?j 

B^tiiini, ii. >ii^" ; ,, 
Beruile, iv. 233^. \'^j • 
Berwick. iil-3.33> '^..406. » 
Beza, m. 120, . 
Biron, iv. i2^,.f 39^, 
Black more, u.'i6i.' 
Blaachet, iii. 3^93- 
Boerhaavej ii.'''3'.. ,. . 
Bpjieau, iv. 249. 304.. 328* 

* 432- 

Boleyn, i. 6.6. 83, &c. loi- 

Boliiigbroke, ij. 260. 338. 

345, 341^. 4S2. n, iv. 


Bore, iii. 79. 
Borgia,. iiL 2^, 29. 
Bofcawen, ii. 343. 347. 
Boflbet, iv. 256. 296. 
Bottetourt, ii. 269. n. 
Bouchardon, iv. 398. 
Boudou, iv. 421. 
Bcuriion, i!i.r409^'4i5'«- 
Bmiflifre*^ i^>. 3^,0. 
Bouteville, iv. 160. 
Boyle, i. 344. 
Brad fl law, i. 454. 
P; '.ftagne, iii. 392. 
Brienne.'iv. 466. 
Broolie, 1. 251. 
Brotier, iii. 23 ;. iv. 477. 
Brunf-vick, iii. 233. 
Brnfquet^ iii. 156. 
Br.iiTeK, i. 290. 
Bubb, ii. 262. 284. 
Bucer, iii. 5. , 
Buchanan^ i. 157. ^7^. ^ 
Buckingham, i. 230. 31,^. 
322. ^53 s." S88. ii. jq^L^ 

i5^>^ ^3^- 3<)^- KA 

B 11 If on, ii. '5^3. «. . ^ 
Bugiardini, iii. 53. - 
Bn lii rode, ii. 103. 
Buonarotri, iii. .56. 
Burke, ii. 47^: ' ^ 
Burkhardt, iii. 8 1,.^8'9_..; 
Burleigh, i. ,i^i.'2i8. 
Burlington, i. 29^,1 •: , 
Burnet, ii. idp. 17b, 

182. 1 36. ";. 
Biinifcv, ii. 3 if;." 463, 

Buiby, i:. 'lo^,. 
Bute, ii. 4.03.^; . • ' 
Butler, Ii. i4'i.'33jS*, 
Buys, iv. 379. 



.... A 





li. 2: 

Cxfar, i. 244. 




Calamy, i. 35^. 
Callot, iv. 214. 
Calvin, iii. 97. 
Camerarius, iii. 1S2. 
Camerinus, iii. -93. 
Cameron^ ii. 333. 
Campanella, iv. 215. 
Campejus,- i. 91.- 
Campiftron, iii. 264. 
Caper, iii. '310.- 
Caracci, iii. 178, lyc). 
Cardan, iv. 70. 
Cardiere, iii. 5^. 
Carfifle, ii. 102, 
Carlos, iii. 258. • \:ir C '_ 
Carnarvon, i. 329I ir: ^liJ-. 
Caroline, Q;. ii.' 3^4. iv. 

415. .:t 
Carpi, iii. 6g* i 
Carr, ii. 1 1 o. 
Carteret, ii. 309. 
Cartwcight, i. 191. ii* ^i2'. 
Cafas, iii. 184. -'^x'^ 

Cafai]b(vi, i. 280. 
CifTandre, iv. '^^6, ' 
Caffini, ii. ^99. 
Caftellan, iii. 40:^.. ■ 
Caftile, i. 34. 
Catherine, i» 56. 60. 
Catherine II. iii. 198, 199. 
Cayet, iv. u;i. 
Cecil, i. 204. 
Cellini, iii. 180.401.410., 
Cer^eaii, iv, 445. -'•''-_ 

Cham Chi, iii. 132. ' "'*'f; 
Charobors, iii. 2. iv. 46 r. • 
Chambrai, iv. 389. 
Chamfort, iv". 475. 
Chamloe, i. 194.. 
Chapeau, ii. 190. 
Chapelain, iv. 276. 
Charles I. i. 292. 417. 424., 
■Charles II. ii. i. 135, 136.' 

187. 319. 

Charles V. ni. -66. 88. 9S. 
103. I }6. J37. 148. 386^ 
398. 4S0. iv. 93 n, of 
France, iii; '.3^37. 

Charles VI: ni. 542. 

Charles VIL Hi: 34.6. 

CharJes VIII. iii. 380. 

Charles IX. iii, 328. iv. 

Charles Xir. iii. 229. 
Charles the Bold", iii. 3^? ' 
Charlert, ii. 247. 
Charlus, iv. i 70. 
Lharpentier, 111. • 100. iv, 

330. - ' 
Charron, iv. 6>^. - 
Chatham. .SVc- Pitt. 
Chaulnes. ii. 4.62.' ' 
Chefteriieid, iL 389. 
Chevne, ii. ^41., 378. 
Child, ii. 234. ■ • '.'"' '_,-' 
Chilllngworth; ii.432'. W* '"' ^ 
Chriftian, ii. 3.61. ' 
Chriftina, i. 288. iii. ^ii: 

(7 /> o - '' 

Chrylbloras, iii., to. 
Cicero, i. 248. 
Cimabue, iii. 6. 8. 
Clarendon, i. 525. 3i9'. 371', 

387. ii. 13. iv.;3ii^ 
Clarke, ii, 320. • ' ' ' 
ClaytoQ, ii. 157; 
Clement VH. iii. '117. '400^ 
Clement XI. iv. 297. '■ ' 
Clifton, ii. yA^^yi'' % 
Coke, i. 252. iii.''^4. 
Colbert, iv. 27^. 
Coligny, iii. 155. iv. 2g. 
Collins, ii. 383. ' 

Colomies, iii. 7^. 
Columbus, iii. 247. 
Combaldj iii. 410. 
Comines, ii.\i8.5.«. "i- S^S* 
Compton, ii. 315. 

I i 2 Conde^ 


I N D E X, 

Hanmer, ii. 55?' 
Han way, iv. 88. 
H.'irdwicke, ii. 3.01. 434. 
Harington, iv. 516. 
Harlay, iv. 76. 
Harley, ii. loS. 
Hanner., ii. 45^. 
Hare, iv. 275. 3S6. 
Harrington,.]. 164. iii. 269. 
J^arvcy, \'u 39.. iii. IC2. 
H-flnl;;, ii. 35. 
Jl.ltings, iv. 320. 
H iydock, i. 277. 
Hayes, ii. 564. 383. 
Heathcote,. -n. 2H9. 
Heathrielcl,.iv. 14S. 
Hccquct, iv.. 468.. 
Helyer,- ii. 177.. . 
Hennuycr, iv. 48. 
Henrietta Maria, i. 516. 
Henry II. iii, 43S, 429. iv. 

Henry in..iv-. 71. 
Henry iV, ot England, i. 

Ht-rrv IV. of France, iv. 

8k' 10. 
Henry V. i, 14. 17. iii. 344. 

Heniy Vr. i. 19. 
Henry VII. i. 33. 
i^enry VIII. i. 39. 78, 8cc. 

104. iii. 79, 91. 148. 163. 

Herbert, i 307. iii. .1S9. 
Hereford, ii. 297. 
Ke\ ^vood, i. 113., ii. 247. 
Hilaire, i^' 362. 
Hiil, ii. 143. 346. 
Hire, iii. 3 ;?. 
Hoadicy, r 335. 
Jioare, iii. 60. 

Hobbes, i. 241. ii. i^i, jy, 

Hoffman, iv. 315. 

Hopital, iv. 2. 55. 
Hopton, i. 399. 
Home, ii. 353. «. 
Hough, ii._ 353- 
HoulTaie, iii. 12^. 410. 
Howard, i. 569. ii. 315. 
Howell, i. 294, Sec. 316, 

326. 4^1, &c. 
Mudfon, ii. 469. 
Hume, i. 161. ii. 336. 484. 

;;. iv. 3T.1. 
Hungerford, i. 427. 
Hunter, ii. 467. % 

Hufs, iii. 135. 

f J- '. 

Jackfon, ii. 365. iii. 81. fi. 

Jacob,. J. 264. 

[aines I. i. 202. 

James II. ii. 143. 23S. 353. 

! i^' 54- 

' James I V.^ i. ;; i n. 

Jeannin, iv. 69. 82. 13s. 

Jefferies, ii. 156. 

Innocent.IV. iii. 5. 

Innocent X. iii. 125. 

Innocent XI. iii. 127. 

John II.' iii. ;j34. 334. 336. 

John ill. iii,. 235. 

John IV. iii. 236. 

Johnfon, ii. 165. 183. f.n. 

223. 2^2. 3c8. 315. 320. 

^-4- 340. 3S7 3,94- 461. 
ill. 229. iv. 81. 183. /7, 

324. w.'443. n. 436. 
Joii, iv._267. 
fonts, iii. 76. 86. 
Jor.ts, i. 291. ii. 459. 476. 
JonioH, i 267 
Jortin, iii. 66- 83. «. 



Jovius, iii. lo. 
Joyce, i. 406. 
Irene, iii. 129. 
ifabella, Qj_ iii. 2.44. 
Jiilius II. iii. 51. 45. 


Kang Hi, iii. 131. 
Keene, ii. 329. iii. 263. 
Keith, i. 165. iii. 233. 
King, ii. 289. 293. 

Knight, i. 391. 
Knox, i. 167, 


Lainez, iii. iij. iv. 326. 
Landfdowne, ii. 294. 
Lane, ii. 11. 
Lanoton, ii. 83. 
Lannoi, iii. 396. 
Lafcaris, iii. 26. 

Laud, i. 3i5:.537- 3/8- 

Lauderdale, ii. 187. 

Laura, iii. 403. 

Lavater, iv. 436. n. 

Law, iv. 419. 

Le Clerc, iii. 66. 

Lemerius, iv. 223. 

Lentale, i. 359. 

Leo X. iii. 1^.61, &c. 117. 

Leyden, iii, 189. 

Lifle, iy. 473. 

Lloyd, ii. 239. 

Lobb, ii. 233. 

Lockhart, i. 356. ii. ic8. 

Lock, iv. 390. 71. 

Locke, ii. 96. 219. iv. 252. 

Longuerue, ii. 309. 
Lonoueville, iv. 383. 
Lorraine, iii. 345. iv. 75. 

Louis I. iii, 309. 
Louis VI. iii. 312, 
Louis VI 11. iii. 327. 

Louis IX. iii. 329. 
LouisXf. iii. 365. 
Louis XII. iii. 386. iv. i6i. 

Louis XITF. 1. 288. iv. 51, 

125 iq8. 187. 
Louis XIV. iii. 126. 313. 

iv. 233. ^ 
Louis XV, iv. 402. 
Louis XVI. \v. 447, 
Louis, Dauphin, iv. 403. 
Lcnvois, ii. 19S. iv. 360. 
Loyola, iii. 109. 
Lucante, iv. 180. 
Lucy, ii. 153. 
Luiii, i^^334. 
Lunebourg, iv. 11. 
Lupa, iii. 7. 
Luther, iii. 36. 61. 6y, 74. 

120. 155. 
Luxembourg, ii. 176. 
Luz, iv. 171. 
Lycurgus, iii. 118. 

Mabillon, iv. 296. 
JMacclesfield, ii. 284. 
iiVIachiavel, iii. 22. iv. 347. 
Mahomet II. iii. 129, 130, 

Maillebois, iii. 270. 
Maintenon, iv. 257. 
MaleQ^crbcs, iv. 449, 
Malherbe, iv. 229. 
Mallef, i. 237. 
Mansfield, ii. 42^. 
Maozoii, iii. 94. 
Mapleloft, ii. 139. 161.2:3. 
Ma:ceilo, iii. 47. 
Marchiali, iv. 261. 
Margaret, Princefs, iii. 379, 
Margaret, Queen, iii. 406. 
Marillac, iv. 1^9. «. 204. 

Marivaux, iv. 446. 



Marlborough, H. 238. 25 5^ 

262. 304. 309. 320. 
MaroUcs, iv. 105. 
IVIarot, iii. 408. 
Marriott, ii. 259. 
Marfy, iv. 440. 
Martin, i. 464. 
Martyr, iii. 168. 248. 
Mary, ,i. ^9. 128. 1^6. 168. 

Maffinii, iv. 391. 
Mafqiie ds Fcr, iv. 2^9. 
Matthews, i. 290. 
Manner, i. 285. 
Maxiniilian, i. 'S. iii. i%o- 
Maynard, ii. 170. 
jMazarin, iv. 167. 270. 310. 

Meaiix, ill. 94. 99. 
Medicis, iii. m. 13. 122. 

123. iv. I. 6. 52. «. 163. 
Melancthon, i. 12. iii. 75. 

90., ii. 3^9. 376, 390. 

403. iv. 458.' 
Mclmotii, ii. 243. 
Menace, iv, 307. 418. .»f. 
Middleton. ii. 344. 
Mills, iii. 319. 
Milton, i. 460. iv. 158. 
Miraiidola^ i. 279. 
Miffbn, ii. 146. 
Mole, iv. 312. 
Mompellbn, ii. 109. 
Monboddo, iv. 436. ». 
Monk, ii. 33. 105. 
Monta^ne, ii. 322. n. iv. c;8. 
Montague, ii.219. 44^* 4^3- 

iii. 60. 
Montal, iv. 77. 
Montaufier, iv. 374. 
Montecucnli, iv. 373. 
Montefqiiieu, ii. 284. iv. 

156. 413. «. 433. 457. 

MontmorencI, i. 300. ^4% 

Montpeniier, iv. 49, 
Moiitpezat, iv. 11. 
More, i. 92. 94. ii. 219. 
Morgan, ii. 463. «. 
Morton, i. 167. 
Morvilliers, iv. 47, 
Moryfon, iii. 130. 
Motte, ii. 176. 
Moulin, i, 448. 
Mountfort, i-i. 1^9. 
Mudge, ii. 393. 
Muiiccr, iii. 106. 
Mnretus, iv. 77. 

Navailles, iv. 343. 

Nedtaire, iv. 76. 

Nclfon, ii. 22&. 

New cad le, i. 304. : 

Newton, ii. 233. 322, >23«' 

iv. 282. n. 
Nicaife, iv. 394. 
Nichols, ii. 303. 
Noel, iv. 345. 
Norfolk, i. 100. 112. n% 

Normandy, iii. 333. 
Norris, ii. 243. 
North, ii. 339. 
Northumberland, i. 74. 113. 
Noliradamus, iv. 51. 
Noy, i. 326. 


CEcoIampadius, iii. 145. 

Oldham, ii. 167. 

Olivarez, i. 296. iii. 259* 

iv. 185. 
Onflow, ii. 96. 
Orford, ii. 272. iii. 200. a. 
Orleans, iv. 252. 254. 406. 
Ormond, i. ^^O. ii. 10. 32. 




Orte, IV. 48. 

Ofoorne, i. 398. 

Ofrna, iii. 1^3. 

OiTat, iv. 135. 

Otho Venius, iv. 361. 

Overbury, i. 267. 

Oxeiiftiern, iii. 2c8. 210. 

Oxford, ii. 144. 238, 239. 



Page, i. 200. 
Palingenius, iii. 94. 
Pallavichini, ii. 2^)9. 7/. 
Panton, i. 441. 
Panvinius, iii. 6r. 
Parker, i. 153. 186. 
Pafcal^- i. 323. ii. 251. n, 

462. iv. 300. 350. n, 
Paflera'-, iv. 79. 
Paffionei, iv. 361. 
Patin, i. 373. iv. 296. 357. 
Pavilion, iv- 358. 
Pawlet, i. 73. 
Pearce, ii. 284. 445. 
PelifTon, iv. 313. 
Pembroke, i. 327. 
Penii,- ii. 144. 
Pelcari, iii. 38. 
Peter the Great, i. 324. n. 

ii. 128. n. 234. iii. 191. 

iv. 2i;9. ^^ 
Peterborough, ii. 269. 
Peters, i. 3 lio. 
Petrarch, iii. 9. 
Peyrefc, iii. 73. iv. 230. 
Philip I[. iii. 256. 
Philip. IV. iii. 259. 
Philip V. iii. 262. 
Pi brae, iv. 305. «. 
Piercy, i. 358. 
Pitt, 'ii. 350. 389. 39:2, 393. 
Planta, ii. 179. iv. 102. 
Pkliis, iv. 102. 

Poggi, iii. 10, II, 

Pote, i. 22, 

Polignac, iii. 273. iv. 57S- 

Politiaii, Tii. 9. 

Polton, i. 18. 

Pomeranus, iii. 76. 

Ponz, iii. 167. 

Pope, ii. 260. 298. 

Porter, i. 208. iv. 136. 

Portland, ii. 302. 

Port Royal, ii« 342. 

Pouliin, iv. 387. 

Pretender, li. 268. 

Priolo, iv. 382. 

Prior, ii. 300. 

Propertaa. Set Rofli. 

Prynne, ii. 37. 

Pudfey, ii. 145. 

Pulteney, ii. 257- 

Pye, i, 396. 

Pym, i. 336. ii. 50?- 

... ^ 

Querno, iii. 62. 

Quin, i. 367. ii. 375. 


Racine, iv. 240. 327. 
Raleigh, i. 185. 266, 
Rameau, iv. 442, 
Ranee, iv. 352. 
Rantzaii, iv. 224. 
Raphael, iii. 44. 58. i v. 3^» 
Rawlinfon, i, 262. n. 
Regnard, iv. 316. \ 
Reinterie, iv. 260. 
Rerelby, ii. 158. 
Retz, iv. •265. 332. 
Reuchlin, iii. 66. 
Reynolds, i. 404. ii. 304. 
465. 469. iii. 51. iv. 396- 
Ribaumont, i. 5. 
Richardfon, i. 281. ii. 223. 




jRfchelleii,.!. 241. 288. iii. 

100. iv. i6d. 177. iSq. 

:2.0}. 214. 
Robeitfo:;, iii. 297, 
Rochf, i. 8. 

Rociieioucii-'ult, iv. 280. 307. 
Rochefter, ii. 12. 4.82. »., iv. 207. 
Rorpp.ey, ii. 4^6. 
Rofcnc, iii. r^. ^7. 
RofTi, iii. 1.^4. 
Roufe, i. 59. 
Rouireau, IV. 463. 
Rouflel, iv. 297. 
Routh, ii. 3:3. «. 
Rubens, i. 313. iv. 395, 
Ru<^eliai. iv. 1^2. 
Rufr, ii. 152. 


Sadolet, 'iii. 72. 

Saib, iv. 450. 

Sale, ii. 460. 

Sales, iv. r 1^^, 

Salifbury, i 302. 

Salmalius, i\ . 284. 

Saimoneto, i 303. 

San::ipy, ii. 256. 

San Marine, iii 274. 

Santeuii, iv. 298. 

Savilie, ii, 120. 216. ; 

Saxp, iv. 42y 

Sc^Ji, iii 27. 

Scalio;er, ii. 321. iii. 97. iv,- 

ScarderDeg, iii. 130. 
Scarron, iv. 333, 
Schomberg, iv. 143, 
Scoit, iv. T07. 
Seckendorf, iii. 83. n. 89. 
Segniis, iv. 331 . 
Segu^er, iv. 178. 
Seiden, i. 324. 387. ?i, ii. 

Sene^ai, iv. 324, 

Sepier, iv. 27. 

Servetiis, iii. i.02- 

Sevigne, iv. 222. 

6t\vard. ii. 113. 

Shafteil3iiry, ii. 94, 

Sharpe, ii. 3^9. 

'..heijieid, ii. 216. 

Sher/ock, n. 166. 

Shii.peii, -iv 339. 

i>igifnnr'"d, iii. 134. 

Siller,-, i". 145. 

Slingfby, -. 376.408. 

Smitti, L. 464. iii. 59. ?r, 
64. //. 

Siriytii, iv. 469.;?, 

aoniers, ,i. 272. 
r S- medet, i. 424. 

odpiiia, ii. 240. 

oorb^erc, iv. 287. 34^. 

vSorej, iii. 354. 

Sora'iiot, ii-. 4, 

South, ii. 165, 166. 

Soiithcote, ii. 299. 
, Spalataiu.s, iii. 83. n. 

Spavin, i. 407. 

Spence, iv, 412.. 'i 

Spinoia, iv. i^^. - <* 

St. Pol, iv. 465. w. 

Stanhope, ii. 278. 326. 

Sianiflaus, iv. 408. 

Stevvavd, i; 281. 

Straffor.J, _i. 295,.. 315. 333. 

- 439- 

Strode, i. ^27. • vl 

Srrozzi. iii. 183, 409. 
Stuart, i. 213. 
Sueur,- i v.. %<jj. 
Suliy, iv. 85. 120. 
Siiia, iii. 2,34. 
Sutciiffe, i. 2 to. n. 
.':>wiit, ii. 165'. 299. 
Sydenham, ii. 160. 233. 
Sydney,, i. 349. iii. 238. 
Symuiachus, iii. 2. 


.t N © & X' 


Tabor, ii. _iA4,;: ^--an^miA 
Talmond, iv. 4J4, 
Talon^ i. 323: iv. 309. 
Taylor, i;*-!.^;. ' - . 7 
Teligny, iv. 4^., . ; 

Tellier, iv. 25^. ; 

Temple, ii. 43^ 
Teniers, iii. i^. 
T etc- noire, i.ii, 3^6.-'" 
Tetzel, iii. 74. 
Theodoric, iii. i. 
Tliomas, ii. 301. 
Thomfon, ii. 375. 
Thornliill, ii. 300. 
Thou, iv. 57.216. 
Throckmorton, i. 139. 
Timoleon, i, 168. 
Titian, iii. 59. 166. 
Toland, ii. 240. 252. 
Tompion, Ii. 300. 
Tompfon, ii. 145. 
Tooke, i. 2:57. 
Torie, iv. 230. 
Townfhend, ii. 277. 288 

354.410.^ ' 

Tremouille, iv. 97. 
Tronchin, iv. 457. 
Tucker, ii. 479. 
Turenne, ii. 271. iv. 361 
Turgot, iv. 469. 
Tyrrell, ii. 510. 

U. V. 

Valiere, iv. 25^, 
Valois, iv. 93. 11^. 
Vanbrugii, ii. 304. 
Vane, i. 370. 464. iii. 207 
Varill?.3, iii. 63. iv. 418. «. 
Vafari, iii. 39. 47. 
Vega, iii. 260. 
Vendome. iii. 263. 
Vere, i. 300. iv. 155. 
Vergennes, iv. 449. n. 
Velklius, iii. 102, 

.yie;He>ilIci iit ^:^# '.'^ 

Vigineres, iii. 41. .- ; 1 
Villemur^ i. 8. ^ "' -)iVV 
.VHiecQi, jyi-^4<l..- .. .;-W 
Villers, ii.'iS;?^, ? .u .uooV/ 
Villiers, 'wz^Qi: '.loii'JTioV.'' 
Vinc;ii'J!J,, 40.1 ♦ 423. nr ito"* 7 
Voitin, iv. 244i: - ;' 
yQi^ure>i,'isr. I'^y.,.. ... ./ 

Voitaire, ii. ^^S. iii; 6^. 2^ u 
274. iv.j^:7;,^5s^\-. •;/ 
Voffius, iii. 73. iv. 282. 
Urbino. See Raphael. 
Ufher, i. 463. 


Wales, Princefs Dowager^ 

ii. 392. 
Waller, Edm. ii. 148. 
Waller, Wm. i. 321. 357. 

398. ^ 
Wallis, ii. 133. 1^3. 161. 
Walpole, ii. 287. 298. 328. 

33y 337-387- 
Walfh, ii. 308. 
•-*»« i*Wa4*wi-; n 364. 

Warburton, i. 237. 3 14. 377, 

iv. 456. 458. 
Ward, ii. 162. 
H' ardour, i. 426. 
Warham, i. no, 
Warner, i. 158. 
Warrington, ii. 184. 
Warton, iii. 81. w. iv. 52", 

Warwick, i. 302. 333. 3^2. 

3S5. ii. 42. 
Weld, iv. 35<;. 
Whanon, ii. 326. 
Whifton, ii. 278. 
Whltgift, i, 190. 
Wickllife, i. 9. 
William III, ii. 169. 184. 

190, Sec. iii. 193. 




Williams, I 43 S. 457. ii. r X. 

135. I Ximcnes, iii. 17s, 

Wilmington, ii. 3^4. 

Wolfey, i. 68. 73. iii. 103, Y. 

Wood, ii. 310. 
Worcefter, i. 413. 
Wotton, i. 349. iii. 80. 
Wren, ii. 310. 
Wyndham, ii. 262. 281. 

359. 376. iii. 270. iv. 458. 
Wynne, i. 441. 

Yarmouth, ii. 266. 
Yorkc, ii. 27^, 
Young, ii. 342. 


Zouvelben, iii. 70. 



JT. — 

DIRECTIONS /& the Binder 
for placing the Engravings. 


Frontifpiece. Vnde Unde Extricat. 

164 Mufic.-— Queen Mary's Prayer. 

388 Hampden's Fac Similes. 2 Plates, 

438 Lady AnindelL 

Frontifpiece. Stratford Houfe. 

83 Lady Fanfhawe. 

397 Lord Chatham's Fac Simile. 

446 Wortley Montague, Efq. 

III. — Frontifpiece. Dies Prateritos, 

8 1 Mulic. — Queen of every moving 


1 50 Chateau de la Rochefoucault. 

269 Cardinal Aiberoni. 

308 San Marino. 

319 The Paraclete. 

405 Certofa of Pavia. 

IV. •*— Frontifpiece. Decmo inter Verha Szlentiv^ 

362 Marfhal Turenne. 


K K 

E R R A T A. 

Vol. Page Line 

I, 119 2 for .one of his niotbers-in-law, read his 

mother Cathej:i!ie Farr. 
204 16 /cr Treafitry, 7*^/3!^/ Trdafurer. 
263 9 froiTi bottoiTj,/o;- himfelf, rd?<3<^hirn. 

II, 236 , 4 of the nore,ycr its.fchoiar, read 3.11 fcholars. 

5 of the note, yi;r FuNia, r^W Sempronla, 
penult. Jor neceiTi, reari nec'eire. 
353 •' ^ '^^"'^ thro'jghoirt titat article, '/or Jofeph 

Hoiiah, r<f^^/.Tohn Rough, 
397 io /^r tnwenhg, r^(2^/ lowering. 
463 1 4 /r-r trafts, »r^^ tra^-els. 

iJT. 58 5 y^;;- Robert, jv^^s-^ Cardinal. 
4V- . 61 , 12 /V Montague, rr/?^ Montagii'" 




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